1 Slide 1 HIV Rapid Testing and Counseling in Drug Abuse Treatment Programs in the U.S. CTN 0032 Lisa Metsch, Ph.D. Grant Colfax, M.D. Florida Node Alliance and Western States Node National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network
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3 Special Thanks Slide 3 National Institute on Drug Abuse s Clinical Trials Network Protocol Development Team Dan Feaster, Louise Haynes, Susan Tross, Tiffany Kyle, James Sorensen, and José Szapocznik Raul Mandler Jacques Normand, Lynda Erinoff, NIDA HIV/AIDS Andrzej Kosinski, Dianne Gallup, Peggy Arias and DCRI Robert Lindlbad, Eve Jelstrom, Jack Chally and EMMES Bruce Schackman and Rochelle Walensky Bernard Branson, CDC CTN 0032 DSMB Nora Volkow, NIDA Director and Betty Tai, CCTN Director
4 Slide 4 Special Acknowledgement Lauren Gooden, PhD National Project Director Tim Matheson, PhD Intervention Director
5 Slide 5 Special Thanks CPCDS Antoine Douiahy, Dorothy Sandstrom, Carrie Baron-Myak La Frontera Pat Penn, Roger Owen, and Sue McDavitt Daymark Robert Werstlein, Jessica Sides Chesterfield Dace Svikas, Ned Snead, Laurie Safford Glenwood Robert Schwartz, Lil Donnard, Lynn Calvin MCAA - Steve Martino, David Avila, Stacy Botex Wheeler Steve Martino, Ray Muszynksi, Brandi Welles CODA Todd Korthuis, Katharina Weist, Diane Lape Lifelink Sarah Erickson, Michael DeBernardi, Meredith Davis LRADAC Louise Haynes, Beverly Holmes Morris Village Louise Haynes, Kim Pressley Gibson Angela Casey-Willingham, Kevin Stewart, Andrew Johnson
6 HIV in the United States Slide 6 HIV infected 1,106,400 Unaware of their HIV infection 232,700 (21%) Annual incidence 50,000 Prejean et al., 2011 Campsmith M et al, JAIDS April 2010
7 Drug Use Continues to Contribute to New Slide 7 HIV Infections May 1, (1) The Relationship between Methamphetamine and Popper use and Risk of HIV Seroconversion in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study MW Plankey, DG Ostrow et al. July1, (3) Specific Sex Drug Combinations Contribute to the Majority of Recent HIV Seroconversions among MSM in the MACS DG Ostrow, MW Plankey et al.
8 Slide 8 Benefits of HIV Testing Decreases HIV transmission HIV diagnosis is associated with reduction in high risk sexual and injection behaviors Improves survival Linkage to care and treatment Lower viral load associated with decreased infectivity HIV Treatment as Prevention Advances in HIV Rapid Testing Technologies Marks 2005; Quinn 2000; Cohen 2011
9 Slide 9 What about HIV Testing in Drug Abuse Treatment Centers? Fewer than one-third of U.S drug treatment programs offer HIV testing and counseling. * Fewer than half of CTN community treatment programs made HIV testing available either in the CTP, or through referral.** Abraham et al., 2012; SAMSHA, 2004, Pollack and D Aunno, 2010 * Abraham et al., 2011; Brown et al. JSAT, 2006, AJPH, 2007 **
12 Pollack & D Aunno Analysis Slide 12 Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 2010 Analyzed data from three waves of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Survey (NDATSS) Examined the percent of treatment clients who actually receive HIV testing (on-site or off-site) at outpatient treatment facilities Examined the proportion of out-patient treatment units which reported at least 1% of clients were tested.
13 Pollack & D Aunno Analysis Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 2010 Slide 13 Percentage of clients who receive onsite HIV tests Percentage of units, weighted by caseload, which provide at least some on-site HIV testing (N=568) 2005 (N=500) 26.8% 28.8% 36.2% 35.3%
14 Slide 14 Drug Alcohol Depend May 1;115(1-2):16-22.
15 Slide 15 What about Pre-test Counseling? The efficacy of pre-test counseling in the rapid testing era is unknown. RESPECT trial: Brief client-centered counseling reduced STD incidence among STD clinic patients. CDC Testing Guidelines: 2006 Recommended routine HIV testing in medical settings without requiring counseling.
16 Slide 16 Primary Questions In substance use treatment centers, what is most effective HIV testing strategy: (1) To increase receipt of HIV test results? (2) To decrease HIV sexual risk behaviors?
17 Slide 17 Study Intervention Groups Group 1 (Rapid HIV Testing with RESPECT Counseling) Group 2 (Rapid HIV Testing and Information Only) Group 3 (Referral Only)
18 Slide 18 Overview of Study Design Recruitment and Enrollment Brief Baseline Assessment Random Assignment Offer Rapid Testing with brief participanttailored prevention Counseling Offer Rapid Testing with Information Only Post-intervention data collection Offer Standard Referral for Testing in Community
19 Slide 19 Participating Sites CODA MCCA Wheeler Life Link La Frontera Gibson Recovery CPCDS Daymark Glenwood Chesterfield LRADAC Morris Village
20 Slide 20 Study Population 1281 drug treatment clients enrolled at 12 CTPs in the U.S. in less than 5 months 12 sites randomized an average of 106 participants (ranging from 59 to 126 per site) Randomized participants were demographically similar (age, gender, race/ethnicity) to CTP demographics
21 Slide 21 Notable Inclusion Criteria Participant must: Be seeking or currently receiving drug (inclusive of alcohol) abuse treatment services at the CTP Report being HIV-negative or HIV status unknown Report no receipt of results from an HIV test performed in the prior 12 months
22 Slide 22 Efficacy Assessments Primary Outcomes: Self-reported receipt of HIV test results at one month follow-up Self-reported sexual risk behavior at 6 month followup Data collected on web-based ACASI and Electronic Data Collection Form (ecrf) Emphasis on intervention fidelity and quality assurance
26 Slide 26 Demographics (n=1281) Gender 60.7% Male 39.3% Female Age Range 24.1% % % % 50 Race 2.6% American Indian 20.5% Black/African American 64.5% White 7.7% Multiracial 4.7% Other* Ethnicity 11.5% Hispanic *Includes Asian, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and other
27 Slide 27 Baseline Drug Use Baseline % Injected Drugs in Lifetime 48.6 Injected Drugs in Last 6 Mo 20.6 Used Opiates in Last 6 Mo 37.0 Used Stimulants in Last 6 Mo 43.6 High Drug Use Severity 53.6 Binge Drinking 71.8
28 Baseline Sex Risk and HIV Testing History Slide 28 Risky Sexual Behavior 61.7% Median Number of Risky Sexual Acts 5 Ever Tested for HIV 69.3% Median Times HIV Tested 2
29 Primary Hypothesis Test: Slide 29 HIV Testing Self-report receipt of HIV results at 1 month post-randomization Treatment n % Off-site Referral 78/ On-site HIV test: RESPECT On-site HIV test: Info Only 338/ / Comparison of groups Overall: p =.0032* Off-site vs. On-site: p =.0007* RESPECT vs. Info Only: p =.0425 * A priori alpha level significance at p <.025
30 Primary Hypothesis Test: Slide 30 Risky Sexual Behavior Number of risky sexual behaviors at 6 month post-randomization Treatment n Mean (SD) Comparison Groups Off-site Referral (49.8) On-site HIV test: RESPECT-2 On-site HIV test: Info Only (47.6) (44.8) Overall: p = Off-site vs. On-site: p = RESPECT-2 vs. Info Only: p =. 8697
31 No Differences Found in Slide 31 Adjusted Efficacy Analyses Controlling for: Age Race/Ethnicity Gender Drug Use Severity Injection Substances HIV testing history Treatment Risky Sexual Behaviors
32 Subset of Participants with Slide 32 Reported Sex Risk at Baseline No significant difference between treatments
33 Slide 33 HIV Diagnoses 3 (0.4%) participants had reactive tests confirmed HIV positive by Western Blot 2 in counseling 1 in information only
34 Slide 34 Change in Needle Sharing from Baseline to Six Months Discontinued No Change Initiated Counseling Information Only Referral Full Sample: Fisher s Exact p <.046
35 Slide 35 Summary of Findings CTN 0032 HIV testing in substance use treatment centers increased testing and receipt of test results. Risk-reduction counseling did not reduce participants sexual risk behaviors or increase their acceptance of HIV testing. Secondary analysis found counseling reduced needle/syringe sharing risk.
36 Slide 36
37 From Research to Policy: Slide and the National HIV/AIDS Strategy National Strategy target: Increase from 79% to 90% of people living with HIV who know their status by 2015 CDC will update and issue guidelines on the provision of HIV counseling and testing in nonclinical settings. SAMHSA and other relevant HHS agencies will consider guidance requiring Federally funded substance abuse and mental health treatment clinics to offer voluntary routine HIV testing to their clients.
38 Video interviews with researchers, treatment providers, executive directors, and clients about the value of Onsite Rapid HIV Testing A Fact Sheet that provides details about the urgent need to provide routine onsite HIV testing and substantive information about the NIDA Study A Web Guide that provides links to valuable testing and other implementation resources
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