1 Web-based Interventions for the Prevention and Treatment of Substance Use Disorders Lisa A. Marsch, Ph.D. Director, Center for Technology and Health (CTH), National Development & Research Institutes (NDRI) and HealthSim, LLC New York, NY, USA CTH Website:
2 Acknowledgement Research funded by U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH)
3 Need for Widespread Dissemination of Evidence-based Behavior Change Interventions Although effective programs focused on substance abuse prevention and treatment exist, their delivery is often challenging. Many interventions (e.g., psychosocial interventions) that have been shown to effectively produce behavior change in research settings are not routinely available in real-world settings. Evidence-based interventions can be expensive to implement, often requiring financial and staffing resources not typically available in many community-based systems (e.g., treatment programs).
4 Need for Widespread Dissemination of Evidence-based Behavior Change Interventions (continued) Even if evidence-based programs are initiated in community-based programs, it is often difficult to ensure the fidelity of intervention delivery (e.g., given staff turnover, patient caseloads, limited time). Further, the availability of services may not fully meet demand in some areas (e.g., rural settings). Innovative approaches to bridging the gap between clinical research and practice are needed, thus allowing findings from clinical research to have a markedly increased public health impact.
5 Proposed Response for Promoting Widespread Reach of Evidence-based Behavior Change Interventions Technology-based therapeutic tools offer great promise for enabling the widespread dissemination of evidence-based prevention and treatment interventions targeting substance use disorders and other behavioral health issues. Technology-based (e.g., computer-delivered, mobiletechnology delivered) interventions allow complex interventions to be delivered with fidelity at a low cost, without increasing demands on staff time or training needs, thus having high potential for widespread dissemination.
6 Potential Benefits of Technology-Delivered Interventions Low Cost Accessible in a wide array of settings Easily exportable Fidelity/Replicability is assured May be less threatening when addressing sensitive topics Requires active responding Can be readily modified Permits temporal flexibility Permits more rapid diffusion May increase adoption of science-based interventions Tailoring/Customization Readily Accomplished Permits expansion of prevention & treatment
7 Our Research Focused on Promoting Widespread Reach of Evidence-based Interventions We have developed and evaluated (in clinical trials research funded by the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse) technologybased interventions targeting substance abuse prevention among children and adolescents, HIV prevention among youth and adults, and substance abuse treatment among adults and adolescents. These therapeutic tools employ science-based content as well as informational technologies and multimedia approaches of demonstrated efficacy.
8 Our Research Focused on Promoting Widespread Reach of Evidence-based Interventions (continued) Our results from this line of research have demonstrated that technology-based interventions can be as efficacious as science-based interventions delivered by highly trained therapists/educators, cost-effective, and highly acceptable to a wide variety of target populations (e.g., in reducing HIV risk behavior in adults & youth and promoting skills training and drug abstinence in individuals with substance-use disorders).
9 Overview of our Web-based Substance Abuse Treatment Programs Therapeutic Education System (TES), an interactive, psychosocial intervention for substance use disorders, grounded in the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) + Contingency Management Behavior Therapy (Bickel, Marsch et al., 2008) TES has been evaluated with opioid-dependent individuals and is being evaluated with poly-substance users in communitybased substance abuse treatment (NIDA s multi-site, Clinical Trials Network (CTN) platform TES for cannabis use disorders (currently developing/evaluating with Alan Budney, Ph.D.), integration of motivational enhancement therapy, CBT and contingency management Web-Based CRA for Adolescents (primarily those with cannabis use disorders)
10 Overview of our Technology-based Substance Abuse Prevention Programs HeadOn: Substance Abuse Prevention (for Grades 6-8), an interactive, substance abuse prevention multimedia program for middle school-aged youth (Marsch et al., 2007a; 2007b) HeadOn: Making Good Choices (for Grades 3-5), an interactive, multimedia program to build up protective against drug use and other risk behavior among elementary school children (Marsch et al., 2008) Prescription Opioid Abuse Prevention Program, an interactive, program focused on prevention of non-medical use of prescription opioids among youth (ongoing) A customizable, interactive program focused on prevention of HIV, Hepatitis & Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) among individuals in substance abuse treatment (Marsch et al., 2004; 2007a; Bickel & Marsch, 2007, Marsch et al., In press)
11 Computer-Based Informational Technologies employed in Interventions Fluency-Based Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) A learning technology that involves testing, providing immediate feedback, & requiring participants to demonstrate mastery of the information & skills being learned Selectively presents information Requires active, overt responding by the user to multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank questions Evaluates and provides immediate feedback on user s responses Read & Response timing parameters are manipulated in promoting fluency Interactive Video-based Computer Simulation Simulates real-world experiences and enables what if scenarios & behavioral modeling Enables exploration of various behavioral choices in experiential learning paradigm
12 Research Developing and Evaluating Web-based Substance Abuse Treatment Programs
13 Therapeutic Education System (TES) for Substance Abuse Treatment Composed of 65 interactive modules grounded in the efficacious Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) psychosocial intervention Program is self-directed & includes a Training Module Therapists/Patients can use customization plan to establish individualized treatment plan for patients based on treatment needs Patients complete evidence-based program modules on skills training, interactive exercises and homework in accordance with their plan All module content includes accompanying audio Electronic reports of patients activity available to therapists Can track earnings of incentives dependent on urine results or other target behavior New content can be readily added to the content delivery system
14 List of Module Topics in Therapeutic Education System (TES) 1 Training Module 2 What is a Functional Analysis? 3 Conducting a Functional Analysis 4 Self -Management Planning 5 Drug Refusal Skills Training 6 Awareness of Negative Thinking 7 Managing Negative Thinking 8 Managing Thoughts About Using 9 Managing Negative Moods and Depression 10 Introduction to Problem Solving 11 Effective Problem Solving 12 Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training 13 Receiving Criticism 14 Seemingly Irrelevant Decisions 15 Other Drug Use 16 Coping with Thoughts About Using 17 Introduction to Assertiveness 18 How to Express Oneself in an Assertive Manner 19 Introduction to Anger Management 20 How to Become More Aware of the Feeling of Anger 21 Coping with Anger 22 Introduction to Relaxation Training 23 Progressive Muscle Relaxation Generalization 24 Introduction to Giving Criticism 25 Steps for Giving Constructive Criticism 26 Receiving Criticism 27 Giving and Receiving Compliments 28 Sharing Feelings 29 Vocational Counseling 30 Naltrexone 31 Limited Alcohol Use 32 Financial Management 33 Insomnia 34 Time Management 35 Relationship Counseling - Part 1 36 Relationship Counseling - Part 2 37 Relationship Counseling - Part 3 38 Alcohol and Disulfiram 39 Communication Skills 40 Nonverbal Communication 41 Social Recreational Counseling 42 Attentive Listening 43 HIV and AIDS 44 Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) 45 Hepatitis 46 Sexual transmission of HIV and STIs 47 The Female Condom 48 Birth control use and HIV and STIs 49 Drug Use, HIV and Hepatitis 50 Alcohol use and risk for HIV, STIs and hepatitis 51 Getting Tested for HIV, STIs and Hepatitis 52 Finding More HIV, STI and Hepatitis Information 53 Negotiating Safer Sex 54 Decision-Making - Skills 55 Identifying/managing triggers for risky sex Identifying and Managing Triggers for Risky Drug Use Increasing -Self-Confidence in Decision Making 58 Taking Responsibility for Choices 59 Living with Hep C: Managing Treatment, Promoting Health 60 Living with Hep C: Coping Skills 61 Living with HIV: Coping skills and managing stigma 62 Living with HIV: Comm. skills for disclosing HIV status 63 Living with HIV: Managing treatment and medications 64 Living with HIV: Drug use and Immune System 65 Living with HIV: Daily routines to promote health
15 TES features a comprehensive contingency management system, with the following features: Flexible schedules of reinforcement Flexible number and type of target behaviors and/or assessments Flexible reward system including cash vouchers or fishbowl draws Features an animated, virtual fishbowl for cashing in fishbowl draws Participants can be assigned to multiple concurrent voucher programs with different schedules and/or reward systems Accounting system for tracking debits/credits in a participant s account Automatic "No Shows" can be entered on a predetermined schedule Real-time graphing of assessments and target behavior results Vouchers can be printed from the website Allows for yoked study designs
16 Therapeutic Education System (TES) Flow of User Activity User Log-In If First Use: Training Module Customization Program After First Use: Drug use since last session Assessed/CM delivered If YES, If NO, Functional Analysis & Self-Management Planning Proceed to Next Module In Customized Plan Composed of learning tools including: Fluency-Based CAI Interactive Videos Graphics Interactive Exercises User activity stored in Database & Electronic Summary Reports Sent to/viewable By Therapists
19 Virtual Fishbowl Example
20 Example of Prize Incentive in Virtual Fishbowl
28 Randomized Controlled Trial Participants were opioid-dependent individuals in buprenorphine maintenance treatment for 23 weeks Participants randomly assigned to one of three groups: Therapist Delivered CRA: 30 mins. 3x/wk. w/therapist + vouchers Computer Assisted CRA: 30 mins.3x/wk. computer; 1 biweekly w/therapist + vouchers Standard Counseling: 30 mins. 1/wk. w/therapist - focus on rehabilitation & compliance with treatment program Vouchers for both cocaine and opioid-free urine samples
29 Participant Demographics by Group Characteristic Standard Therapist Computer % White % Male % High school education % Employed full-time Age (in years) 30.1 ± ± ± 8.9 Mean Monthly income % Prior treatment Years of regular use 5.6 ± ± ± 6.3 % Injection Drug Users % Cocaine Dependent
30 Percent Retained in Study Treatment Retention by Treatment Week 100 Computer Therapist Standard Study Week
31 Treatment Weeks Continuous Abstinence from Opiates and Cocaine 12 Standard 10 a a Therapist Computer 8 6 b Continuous Abstinence from Opiates and Cocaine
32 Mean Weeks of Continuous Opioid and Cocaine Abstinence Abstinence Plotted by Therapist Contact Time Computer-assisted Standard Therapist-delivered Average Contact Time with Therapists (in minutes)
33 Summary of Clinical Trial Results The therapist-delivered and computer-assisted CRA plus vouchers interventions produced comparable weeks of continuous opioid & cocaine abstinence and significantly greater weeks of abstinence than the standard intervention, yet participants in the computerassisted CRA condition had over 80% of their intervention delivered by an interactive computer program. The comparable efficacy obtained with computer-assisted and counselor-delivered therapy may enable more widespread dissemination of the evidence-based CRA plus vouchers intervention in a manner that is cost-effective and ensures treatment fidelity. Clinicians can use this tool to ensure that their patients have access to evidence-based skills training relevant to their treatment (and can optionally guide the focus of the intervention).
34 Ongoing Clinical Trial with TES in Community-Based Treatment Settings In Methadone Treatment: We are now evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adding TES as an adjunct to community-based, methadone maintenance treatment. (n=180, assigned to (1) Treatment as Usual (TAU) or (2) reduced TAU plus TES for 12 months) In Drug-Free Treatment: We are now evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adding TES as an adjunct to community-based, outpatient substance abuse treatment (n=500; To be conducted on NIDA s Clinical Trials Network (CTN) platform (approx. 10 sites) with random assignment to 12 weeks (with follow-up) of: (1) TAU or (2) reduced TAU plus TES with incentives for abstinence and completion of TES modules)
35 Ongoing Clinical Trial with TES Targeting Adult Cannabis Use For Cannabis Use Disorders: In collaboration with Dr. Alan Budney, we have developed a version of TES to specifically target cannabis use disorders in adults This version reflects an integration of motivational enhancement therapy (MET), CBT & contingency management (CM). This version of TES will be evaluated in a 3 arm trial (n=135): (1) Computer-delivered MET/CBT/CM, (2) therapist-delivered (2) MET/CBT/CM and (3) therapist-delivered MET
40 Ongoing Research with TES Targeting Adolescent Cannabis & Other Substance Use For Adolescent Substance Use Disorders: Grounded in Adolescent-Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) Modules for youth and parents - to be developed via input from target audience and expert scientists To be evaluated in a 2-arm trial comparing (1) TAU vs. (2) reduced TAU + Computerized intervention
41 Research Developing and Evaluating Web-based Substance Abuse Prevention Programs
42 HeadOn: Substance Abuse Prevention (for Grades 6-8) An interactive, substance abuse prevention multimedia program for middle school-aged youth (Marsch et al., 2007a; 2007b) Topics in HeadOn 6-8 Program: Experimenting With Drugs: The Risk of Losing Control of Drug Use Experimenting with Drugs: The Risk of Losing Control of One s Life Drug Use: NOT Everyone is Doing It What Should I Do When Offered a Drug? Drugs: How do they Work? Drug Refusal Skills Training Resisting Drug-related advertisements Enhancing Social Skills Self-Management Skills Prescription Drug Abuse Prevention
46 Evaluation We conducted a multi-site, school based evaluation of the HeadOn computer-based prevention program relative to the demonstrably efficacious Life Skills Training, educator-delivered program (n=272). Both interventions were delivered across approx. 15 sessions (30-45 minutes per session) during the course of the school year. Assessments were conducted with both groups before and after their respective interventions.
47 Mean Percent Accuracy Knowledge Gains Pre-test * Post-test HeadOn Group Life Skills Group
48 Other Results Participants in the HeadOn and Life Skills groups generally achieved comparable, positive outcomes after completing their substance abuse prevention intervention on: - actual self-reported rates of substance use - intentions to use substances - attitudes toward substances - beliefs about prevalence of substance use among both their peers and adults - likelihood of refusing a drug offer
49 HeadOn: Making Good Choices (for Grades 3-5) An interactive, multimedia program to build up protective factors against drug use and other risk behavior among elementary school children (Marsch et al., 2008) Topics in HeadOn 3-5 Program: How to Establish & Maintain Healthy Relationships How to be Assertive Dealing with Stress Making Good Friends General Decision-Making Skills Setting & Reaching Goals Communicating Effectively Understanding Advertisements Consequences of Substance Use Effects of Cigarettes Consequences of Drug Use Refusing Drugs
57 HeadOn 3-5 Evaluation We conducted a multi-site, school based evaluation with 3 rd, 4 th & 5 th graders (n=457), comparing: Group A: HeadOn: Making Good Choices Group B: Life Skills Training (a demonstrably efficacious educator-delivered intervention) Group C: No-intervention Control group
58 Results The web-based program produced significantly better outcomes relative to both other groups on: Drug abuse prevention knowledge Communication skills Stress management Self-esteem Impulsivity The web-based program comparable outcomes to Life Skills and significantly better outcomes to the control group on: Negative attitudes toward substances Decision-making skills Critical Thinking about Advertisements The web-based program was rated as significantly more useful than Life Skills.
59 Concluding Comments A technology-based approach to intervention delivery creates new opportunities and outlets for intervention efforts and may greatly increase the availability of science-based interventions. Well-designed, technology-based tools can produce comparable outcomes to highly trained interventionists at a markedly lower cost. Technology-based interventions can transcend geographic boundaries and may be used in a wide variety of settings, including home, community organizations, schools, emergency rooms, health care providers offices, mobile devices, and online social networks.
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