1 Ischemic and ozone oxidative preconditioning in the protection against hepatic ischemic-reperfusion injury Hussam Hassan Ajamieh 1, Silvia Menéndez 2, Nelson Merino 1, Susana Sam 1, Olga Sonia León 1 * 1 Center of Research and Biological Evaluations. Food Pharmacy Institute. Havana University. 2 Ozone Research Center. POBox Havana City. Cuba. *Corresponding author: Abstract It has been demonstrated that ozone, probably by means of an oxidative preconditioning (OP) mechanism, protected the liver against the damage mediated by reactive oxygen species. Taking into account that ischemic preconditioning (IschP) is also a protective mechanism, a comparative study between both preconditioning effects, with the aim to study the effectiveness of both protective procedures, was performed. Rats were divided at random in: 1- control, sham operated (anesthesia and laparotomy plus surgical manipulation); 2- I/R (ischemia for 90 min followed by 90 min reperfusion); 3- IschP + I/R, as group 2 but submitted to a previous ischemic preconditioning (ischemia 10 min and reperfusion 10 min); 4- OzoneOP + I/R, as group 2 but submitted to a previous oxidative preconditioning with 15 sessions, daily, of ozone by rectal administration (dose = 1 mg/kg). The comparison between both preconditionings showed no biochemical differences for the parameters evaluated. Nevertheless, the histological study demonstrated that the protective effect produced by the OzoneOP is superior to that achieved with the IschP. Introduction Microscopic studies of tissues exposed to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) have revealed an acute inflammatory response. Although the inflammatory response elicited by I/R has been extensively characterized, the mechanism underlaying this phenomenom remain poorly understood. Several factors, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) (1-5), leukotrienes (6), platelet-activation-factor (7) and nitric oxide (8) have been implicated. Many studies (9-10) indicate that oxygen free-radical formation after reoxygenation of liver may initiate the cascade of hepatocellular injury. Acute ischemia apparently produces minor tissue damage, the major damage is apparently secondary to reperfusion (11). The major source of free radicals in post-ischemic tissue appears to be initiated by the formation of superoxide anion, formed by the action of xanthine oxidase. It catalyzes the conversion of
2 xanthine and hypoxanthine to uric acid and superoxide anion (12). It is frecuently implicated as a significant source of ROS (13-14). Two molecules of superoxide anion react simultaneously to form hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). In the presence of various transition metals, especially iron and copper, H 2 O 2 is rapidly converted to the extremely reactive hydroxyl radical (15). Low levels of ozone may protect the cells against subsequent ozone exposure. This protection may contribute to the adaptation after multiple ozone exposures (16). Moreover, not only ozone could induce tolerance to itself it could prepare the host to face physiopathological conditions mediated by ROS. It has been demonstrated (17-18) that ozone, probably by means of an oxidative preconditioning mechanism, protected the liver against the damage produced by a chemical challenge mediated by ROS. Also, ozone therapy applied in an experimental model of liver ischemia-reperfusion, protected the organ against the injury caused by this surgical procedure, decreasing transaminases and lactate figures, preserving the hepatocellular integrity and reducing the ROS by the stimulation and/or preservation of the endogenous antioxidant systems (19). In addition, ozone was able to induce an adaptation to oxidative stress with a preservation of the antioxidant endogenous systems in an animal model of renal ischemia-reperfusion (20). The protection associated with preconditioning is one of the most powerful mechanisms of protection known. Ischemic preconditioning, short periods of ischemia with intermittent reperfusion, has been shown to protect the myocardium from a subsequent longer ischemic insult (21-23). Also, preconditioning has been demonstrated in intestine (24), brain (25) and liver (26). Although the mechanism of preconditioning is not yet known, it has been suggested that liver ischemic preconditioning is mediated by the inhibitory action of nitric oxide on endothelin and through the balance of adenosine and xanthine levels (24,27). Taking into account both protective effects, ischemic and ozone oxidative preconditioning, against liver injury by I/R, the aim of this study is to stablish a comparison between them, in a liver I/R model. Materials and Methods Animals Adult male Wistar rats weighing g, were used in this study (n = 32). Rats were housed in plexiglass cages, maintained in an air-filtered and temperature-conditioned (20-22 o C) room with a relative humidity of % and under an artificial light/dark cycle of 12 h. Animals were fed with standard laboratory chow and water ad libitum. All procedures were performed as approved by the International Animal Care Committees and in accordance with the European Union Guidelines for animal experimentation.
3 Treatment schedule Ozone (O3) was generated by an OZOMED equipment manufactured by the Ozone Research Center (Cuba). Ozone obtained from medical grade oxygen was used inmediately and it represented only about 3% of the gas (O2 + O3) mixture. The ozone concentration was measured by using an UV spectrophotometer at 254 nm. The ozone dose is the product of the ozone concentration, expressed as mg/l, by the gas (O2 + O3) volume (L). By knowing the body weight of the rat, the ozone dose is calculated as 1 mg/kg, as in our previous papers (17-20, 28). The protocol consisted of four experimental groups, with 8 animals each: 1- Control (sham operated), animals submitted to anesthesia and laparatomy plus surgical manipulation (including the isolation of the right hepatic artery and vein vs the left hepatic artery and vein without the induction of hepatic ischemia); 2- I/R, animals submitted to 90 min of right lobe hepatic ischemia, followed by 90 min reperfusion; 3- Ischemic Preconditioning (IschP), previous to the I/R period (as in group 2), animals were subjected to 10 min of ischemia and 10 min reperfusion and 4- Ozone Oxidative Preconditioning (OzoneOP), previous to the I/R period (as in group 2), animals received by rectal insufflation, 15 ozone treatments, one per day ( ml of O3 at a concentration of 50 mg/l). Surgical procedure All animals (including controls) were anesthetized with urethane (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and placed in a supine position, on a heating pad, in order to maintain body temperature between o C. To induce hepatic ischemia, laparatomy was performed and the blood supply to the right lobe of the liver was interrupted by placement of a buldog clamp at the level of the hepatic artery and portal vein. Reflow was initiated by removing the clamp (24). Sample preparation Blood samples were obtained from the abdominal aorta for biochemical determinations. Afterwards, some representative samples of different liver portions were taken for histopathological studies and tissue homogenates. Liver homogenates were obtained using a tissue homogenator Edmund Bulher LBMA at 4 o C. The homogenates were prepared by using a 50 mm KCl/histidine buffer ph 7.4, 1:10 (w/v) and were spun down with a Sigma Centrifuge 2K15, at 4 o C and 8500 x g for 20 min. The supernatans were taken for biochemical determinations. Preparation of enzyme fraction for evaluation of total enzyme (xanthine dehydrogenase: XDH + xanthine oxidase: XO) and XO activities was performed (29). Livers were removed quickly in freeze-clamped way, washed and homogenized in 50 mm phosphate buffer, ph 7.4 containing 1 mm EDTA (1:5 w/v). The conversion of XDH to XO during handling was minimized by adding 10 mm 2-mercaptoethanol, trypsin inhibitor (5 mg ml-1; type II-S Sigma Chemical Co., Poole, U.K.) and leupeptin (0.5 mg l-1) to the buffer before use. Instead of dithiothreitol (DTT), 2-mercaptoethanol was added to the buffer as a thiol group protector as it prevents XDH to XO transformation without promoting the
4 conversion of XO to XDH. The homogenates was centrifuged at 1500 g for 10 min and then at g for 60 min at 4 o C. The supernatant was dialysed for at least 4 hours against the same homogenization buffer at 4 o C. Biochemical determinations Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) were measured using commercial kit from Boehringer Mannheim (Munich, Germany). The measurements of XDH and XO activities were carried out within the first hour after supernantant isolation. For the evaluation of total enzyme activity defined as XDH + XO, aliquots (0.2 ml) of dialyzed enzyme fraction were preincubated for 30 min at 37 o C in the presence of 10 mm dithiotreitol (DTT). Diluted aliquots (50 g protein) were then incubated after the addition of 60 M xanthine and 0.67 mm NAD+ for 10 min at 25 o C (total volume 0.1 ml). DTT preincubation was carried out to transform the XOrev into XDH. For the evaluation of total XO activity DTT activation was avoided. Incubation was stopped by the addition of ethanol (1 ml), the samples centrifuged at 1000 g for 5 min and the supernatants dried under nitrogen flow. The residues were resuspended in 0.1 mm NH4H2PO4, ph 7 (0.3 ml). Activities were determined by spectrophotometric method using an Ultrospec Plus Spectrophotometer from Pharmacia LKB on the basis of uric acid formation at 292 nm. Each activity was expressed as mol/min/mg protein (29). Lipid peroxidation, in supernatant of liver homogenates, was assessed by measuring the concentration of malonaldehyde using the Bioxytech LPO-586 kit. The assay was conducted according to the manufacturer s instructions. Uric acid concentration was measured according to a commercial kit obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA). Inorganic phosphorus, as a measured of ATP depletion, was measured according to a commercial kit obtained from Boehringer Mannheim GmbH (Munich, Germany). Total protein concentration in supernatant of liver homogenates was determined using a commercial kit from Bio-Rad (Munich, Germany) Histopathological study For the histological analysis, 6 animals of each group were studied and at least two samples of liver were taken. Samples were fixed in 10 % neutral buffered formalin, processed and embedded in paraffin and stained with haematoxilin-eosin. The histological evaluation considered the grades of liver congestion, presence of leucocytes, activated Kupffer cells and liver necrosis.
5 Statistical analysis Results are presented as means ± standar error of mean (SEM). The statistical analysis was started by using the OUTLIERS preliminary tests for detection of error values. Afterward, data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by homogeneity variance test (Bartlett-Box). In addition, a multiple comparison test was used (Duncan test). Different letters indicate a statistical significance of at least P < RESULTS ASAT and ALAT (Table I) activities in serum samples, obtained after 90 minutes of ischemia and 90 minutes of reperfusion, increased in the group subjected to I/R. These increases were significantly lower when ischemia was preceded by both preconditionings. Nevetheless, IschP attenuated transaminase activities while OzoneOP was able to maintain ASAT and ALAT at control level. Table I. Transaminase (ASAT and ALAT) levels in the groups included in this study. Parameter Control I/R OzoneOP IschP ASAT(U/L) ± a ± b ± a,c ± c ALAT(U/L) 9.48 ± 3.25ª ± b ± 10.05ª,c ± 5.74 c Each value is the mean value ± SEM from eight rats. Statistical significance among different letters of at least p<0.05. The histological study of the liver was in accordance with the biochemical findings. In Table II are shown the histopathological results.the morphology of the hepatic lobuli was normal in OzoneOP group, a protection against liver I/R injury was observed. Only 1 animal presented minimal lesions, consisted of incipient necrosis of scattered hepatocytes through the hepatic parenchyma. Neutrophils and activated Kuppfer cells were not presented. In I/R group, multiple and extensive areas of hepatocyte necrosis, with dilated and hyperemic sinusoids where hyperplastic Kupffer cells and migrated leucocyte were evident. The lesions were randomly distributed through the hepatic parenchyma. Ischemic Preconditioning showed focal necrosis, presence of neutrophils and minimum and moderate congestion.. Histological studies demonstrated differences between both protective mechanisms, being more effective the oxidative preconditioning.
6 Table II. Histological results of the liver in the groups included in this study. Animals Control I/R OzoneOP IschP 1 0 A2, B2, C, D 0 A1, C 2 A1 A3, B2, C A1, B A1, C 4 0 A1 0 A2, B2, C A A1 A: Congestion: 0 none B: Necrosis: 0 none C: Presence of Neutrophils A1 minimum B1 single cells D: Activated Kuppfer cells A2 moderate B2 focal necrosis A3 severe The generation of inorganic phosphorus (Pi), as a measure of ATP degradation during the ischemia, showed that both preconditionings produced a similar protection. OzoneOP and IschP were capable to avoid the lost of high energy phosphate, diminishing significantly (p<0.01) inorganic phosphorus concentrations with respect to I/R group, even lower with regards to the negative control group (Table III). Table III. Inorganic phosphorus figures, in supernatant of liver homogenates, for the different groups studied Experimental groups Control I/R OzoneOP IschP Pi (nmol/l) 3.59 ±0.22 a 4.71 ± 0.33 b 2.92 ± 0.51 c 2.96 ± 0.40 c Each value is the mean value ± SEM from eight rats. Different letters indicate statistical significance of at least p<0.05. Results of XDH + XO and XO are shown in Table IV. There was no change in XDH + XO activity in liver. Ischemic-reperfusion increased total XO activity. In animals, control XO represented 10 % of total enzymatic activity (XDH + XO). After I/R this proportion increased to 53 %. IschP and OzoneOP attenuated this conversion of XDH to XO, since the XO represented 37 and 38 % of total enzymatic activity, respectively, with regard to I/R group. Both preconditionings caused a reduction in total XO; however enzyme concentrations were still higher in comparison with the control group.
7 Table IV. XDH + XO and XO activities in liver ischemia/reperfusion study. Experimental groups XDH-XO (U/mg prot) 2 Total XO (U/mg prot) 2 Control 6.01 ± 0.15 a 0.60 ± 0.12 a I/R 7.36 ± 0.51 a 3.92 ± 0.43 b OzoneOP 6.02 ± 0.28 a 2.81 ± 0.36 c IschP 6.02 ± 0.60 a 2.74 ± 0.23 c Each value is the mean value ± SEM from eight rats. Different letters indicate a statistical significance of at least p<0.05.(2) The values of U/mg/protein correspond to µmol/min/mg protein. Acid uric concentrations, as a measure of the transformation of hypoxanthine and xanthine to superoxide anions, are represented in Figure 1. Both preconditionings attenuated the uric acid formation, with a significant decrease (p<0.01) with respect to I/R group, but still remained higher figures in comparison with the control group. OzoneOP decrease uric acid production in 37 % and IschP in 25.8 % with regard to I/R group. Figure 1. Acid uric concentration in the different experimental groups: Control, sham operated: animals subjected to anesthesia and laparotomy plus surgical manipulation; I/R: 90 minutes of ischemia followed by 90 minutes of reperfusion; IschP+I/R: Ischemic preconditioning + I/R; OzoneOP+I/R: Ozone oxidative preconditioning + I/R. Each value is the means ± SEM from eight rats. Different letters indicate a statistical significance of at least p< The results of MDA, as an index of lipid peroxidation are shown in Figure 2. Ischemic and ozone oxidative preconditionings maintained the concentrations of MDA at control level, avoiding lipid damage. In contrast, an increase of lipid peroxidation in I/R group was obtained.
8 Figure 2. Malondialdehyde concentration in the different experimental groups: Control, sham operated: animals subjected to anesthesia and laparotomy plus surgical manipulation; I/R: 90 minutes of ischemia followed by 90 minutes of reperfusion; IschP+I/R: Ischemic preconditioning + I/R; OzoneOP+I/R: Ozone oxidative preconditioning + I/R. Each value is the means ± SEM from eight rats. Different letters indicate a statistical significance of at least p< Discussion Oxidative preconditioning is analogous to other phenomena such as ischemic preconditioning (21), thermal preconditioning (30) and chemical preconditioning (31). All these processes have in common that a repeated and controled stress is able to protect against a prolonged and severe stress. Ozone could confer protection against the hepatic I/R injury by the adenosine accumulation and by blocking the xanthine/xanthine oxidase pathway, decreasing ROS generation after reperfusion (28). Potencials mediators of the protective effects of ischemia preconditioning include adenosine, prostanoids such as prostacyclin, nitric oxide and bradykinin (32), but its mechanism remains unknown and under intense investigation. The biochemical parameters (Tables I, III, IV and Figures 1 and 2) and the microscopic study of liver ischemic-reperfusion injury indicated the protective effects of OzoneOP and IschP on preventing hepatic ischemia/reperfusion damage. ALAT and ASAT decrease significantly for both preconditionings with respect to I/R group. Nevertheless, OzoneOP decrease ALAT and ASAT in 62.6 and 55.4 %, in comparison with 36 and 35.2 % for IschP, respectively. OzoneOP was able to maintain ASAT and ALAT at control level, while IschP attenuated transaminase activities. The anaerobic glycolisis, during the ischemia, have two important facts to be considered: ATP catabolism and lactate production. Lactate is the main source in the increase of hydrogen ions, found in the ischemia. It have been demonstrated a decrease in lactate figures during ischemia using ozone as an oxidative preconditioning (18,19). ATP catabolism is associated with ROS production. Both preconditionings prevented the release of inorganic phosphorus, of its original sources (ATP and adenosine), decreasing its figure with regards to I/R and control groups. Decrease levels of ATP, present in the cells of the hepatic parenchyma can produce a
9 lost in the electrolyte balance of the plasmatic membrane, obtaining a prolonging of the cell area and cytoskeletal alterations (38). In addition, the final product of ATP degradation is hypoxanthine, that constitutes the substrate of xanthine oxidase, important enzyme in the production of superoxide radicals, during the reperfusion. Many studies have suggested that ROS, generated at the time of reperfusion, can cause a loss of organ function (34). In addition, after ischemia-reperfusion the liver release XDH + XO into the vasculature, damaging the vascular endothelium and activating oxidant-producing inflammatory cells (i.e., neutrophils), extending the oxidant-induced injury to tissues remote from the site of origin (35). Previous findings (19,20) have demonstrated that ozone treatment promotes an increase in antioxidant endogenous systems reducing oxidative stress mediated by ischemia/reperfusion processes. Also, ozone treatment attenuated the conversion of XDH to XO during hepatic ischemia (28). In this study in both preconditioning groups, total XO figures were lower with respect to I/R group. Xanthine oxidase, in the presence of molecular oxygen, converts xanthine to uric acid and superoxide radical. Therefore, a measure of XO activation can be the production of uric acid. In both preconditioning groups, the level of uric acid were significantly lower with respect to I/R group, but with figures higher with regards to control group (Figure 1). A controlled ischemia-reperfusion induced xanthine oxidase activation is achieved. OzoneOP, similarly to IschP, maintained MDA concentrations at sham operated group levels (Figure 2), in contrast, in I/R group was increased.. Similar results were reported when it was studied MDA levels in rats treated previously with ozone and after that, subjected to liver ischemia/reperfusion (28). Repeated administration of ozone, via rectal administration, have induced a sort of cross-tolerance to free radicals released after the ischemia-reperfusion procedure, demonstrating that hepatocytes have become resistant to this damage. It have been demonstrated that low doses of ozone increased antioxidant endogenous systems as glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase (17-20, 36). Therefore, antioxidant-prooxidant balance is favored to preservation of cell redox state and toxic aldehydes are not formed. This have also been proved in the treatment of different diseases and beneficial effects have been observed with the use of ozone therapy (36-38). Taking into account the results of previous studies (17,19,20,28) and those obtained in this paper, an integrated picture of the different events regulated by ozone in liver ischemiareperfusion is showed in Figure 3. All those ozone biological effects produced a liver protection, as has been proved histologically.
10 Anaerobic Glucolysis Lactate ATP ADP+Pi I S C H E M I A Antioxidant Enzymes A 3 Receptor AMP ADO+Pi Inosine Hypoxanthine XD XO Calpain-Ca +2 SH-Oxidation Uric Acid R E P E R F U S I O N LPO O 2 OH. HCLO Fe +2 MPO + CL GSH-Px + 2 O 2.- SOD 2 H 2 O 2 CAT 2 H 2O 2+O 2 5`-NT Damage by Liver I/R ASAT y ALAT Figure 3. O 3 / O 2 preconditioning effects in liver ischemia reperfusion
11 Conclusions The comparison between the ischemic and ozone oxidative preconditioning showed no biochemical differences for the parameters evaluated. A protection against liver ischemicreperfusion injury was achieved. Nevertheless, the histological study demonstrated that the protective effect produced by the ozone oxidative preconditioning is superior to that achieved with the ischemic preconditioning. Therefore, ozonetherapy may become an important prophylactic treatment able to improve the success of organ transplantation and similar surgical procedures. Keywords Ozone; liver ischemia/reperfusion; oxidative stress; preconditioning; antioxidant defense system. References 1. Smith, J.K., Grisham, M.B., Granger, D.N., Korthuis, R.J. Free radical defense mechanisms and neutrophil infiltration in postischemic skeletal muscle, Am. J. Physiol., 256:H789-H793 (1989). 2. Adkins, W.K., Taylor, A.E. Role of xanthine oxidase and neutrophils in ischemiareperfusion injury in rabbit lung, J. Appl. Physiol., 69: (1990). 3. Granger, D.N., Rutili, G., McCord, J.M. Superoxide radicals in feline intestinal ischemia, Gastroenteroly, 81::22-29 (1981). 4. Granger, D.N. Role of xanthine oxidase and granulocytes in ischemia-reperfusion injury, Am. J. Physiol., 255:H1269-H1275 (1988). 5. Parks, D.A., Bulkley, G.B., Granger, D.N., Hamilton, S., McCord, J.M. Ischemia injury in the cat small intestine: role of superoxide radicals, Gastroenterology, 82:9-15 (1982). 6. Lehr, H.A., Guhlmann, A., Nolte, D., Keppler, D., Messmer, K. Leukotrienes as mediators in ischemia-reperfusion injury in a microcirculation model in the hamster, J. Clin. Inves., 87: (1991). 7. Kubes. P. Ibbotson, G., Russell, J.B., Wallace, J.L., Granger, D.N. Role of plateletactivating factor in reperfusion-induced leukocyte adherence, Am. J. Physiol., 258:G300- G305 (1990). 8. Ma, X-L., Weyrich, A.S., Lefer, D.J., Lefer, A.M. Diminished basal nitric oxide release after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion promotes neutrophil adherence to coronary endothelium, Circ. Res., 72: (1993).
12 9. Atalla, S.L., Toledo-Pereyra, L.H., Mackenzie, G.H., Cederna, J.P. Influence of oxygenderived free radical scavengers on ischemia livers, Transplantation, 40: (1985). 10. Mathews, W.R., Guido, D.M., Fisher, M.A., Jaeschke, H. Lipid peroxidation as molecular mechanism of liver cell injury during reperfusion after ischemia, Free Rad. Biol. Med. 16: (1994). 11. Cross, C.E. Oxygen radicals and human disease, Ann. Int. Med., 107: (1987). 12. Knight, J.A. Diseases related to oxygen-derived free radicals, Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci., 25(2): (1995). 13. Tan, S., Yokoyama, Y., Dickens, E., Clash, T.G., Freeman, B.A., Parks, D.A. Xanthine oxidase activity in the circulation of rats following hemorrhagic shock., Free Rad. Biol. Med., 15: (1993). 14. Yokoyama, Y., Beckman, J.S., Beckman, T.K., Wheat, J.K., Cash, T.G., Freeman, B.A., Parks, D.A. Circulating xanthine oxidase: potential mediator of ischemic injury, Am. J. Physiol., 258(Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 21): G564-G570 (1990). 15. Knight, J.A. The process and theories of aging, Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci., 25:1-12 (1995). 16. Plopper, C.G., Duan, X., Buckpitt, A.R., Pinkerton, K.E. Dose-dependent tolerance to ozone. IV. Site specific elevation in antioxidant enzymes in the lungs of rats exposed for 90 days or 20 months, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 127: (1994). 17. León, O.S., Menéndez, S., Merino, N., Castillo, R., Sam, S., Pérez, L., Cruz, E., Bocci, V. Ozone oxidative preconditioning: a protection against cellular damage by free radicals, Mediators of Inflammation, 7: (1998). 18. Candelario-Jalil, E., Mohammed-Al-Dalain, S., León, O.S., Menéndez, S., Pérez- Davidson, G., Merino, N., Sam. S., Ajamieh, H.H. Oxidative preconditioning affords protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced glycogen depletion and oxidative stress in rats, J. Appl. Toxicol., 21 (2001) (in press). 19. Peralta, C., León, O.S., Xaus, C., Prats, N., Jalil, E.C., Planell, E.S., Puig-Parellada, P., Gelpí, E., Roselló-Catafau, J. Protective effect of ozone treatment on the injury associated with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion: antioxidant-prooxidant balance, Free Rad. Res., 31: (1999). 20. Barber, E., Menéndez, S., León, O.S., Barber, M.O., Merino, N., Calunga, J.L.,Cruz, E., Bocci, V. Prevention of renal injury after induction of ozone tolerance in rats submitted to warm ischemia, Mediators of Inflammation, 8:37-41 (1999). 21. Murry, C.E., Richard, V.J., Reimer, K.A., Jennings, R.B. Ischemic preconditioning slows energy metabolism and delays ultrastructural damage during a sustained ischemic episode, Circ. Res., 66: (1990). 22. Walker, D.M., Yellon, D.M. Ischemic preconditioning: from mechanisms to exploitation, Cardiovasc. Res., 92: (1992).
13 23. Liu, G.S., Thornton, J., Van Winkle, D.M., Stanley, A.W.H., Olsson, R.A., Downey, J.M. Protection against infarction afforded by preconditioning is mediated by A1 adenosine receptors in rabbit heart, Circulation, 84: (1991). 24. Peralta, C., Closa, D., Hotter, G., Gelpí, E., Prats, N., Roselló-Catafau, J. Liver ischemic preconditioning is mediated by the inhibitory action of nitric oxide on endothelin, Biochemical and Biophysical Res. Communications, 229: (1996). 25. Swenney, M.I. Neuroprotective effects of adenosine in cerebral ischemia: window of opportunity, Neurosci. Biobehav Rev., 21: (1997). 26. Peralta, C., Hotter, G., Closa, D., Gelpí, E., Bulbuena, O., Roselló-Catafau, J. Protective effect of preconditioning on the injury associated to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion in the rat: role of nitric oxide and adenosine, Hepatology, 25: (1997). 27. Peralta, C., Closa, D., Xaus, C., Gelpí, E., Roselló-Catafau, J., Hotter, G. Hepatic preconditioning in rats is defined by a balance of adenosine and xanthine, Hepatology, 28: (1998). 28. Peralta,C., Xaus, C., Bartrons, R., León, O.S., Gelpí, E., Roselló-Catafau, J. Effect of ozone treatment on reactive oxygen species and adenosine production during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion, Free Rad. Res., 33: (2000). 29. Cighetti, G., Debiasi, S., Paroni, R. No documentable role for xanthine oxidase in the pathogenesis of hepatic in vivo ischaemia/reperfusion injury, Pharmacological Res., 30(3): (1994). 30. Neschis, D.G., Safford, S.D., Raghunath, P.N., Langer, D.J., David, M.L., Hanna, A.K., Tomaszewski, J.E., Kariko, K., Barnathan, E.S., Golden, M.A. Thermal preconditioning before rat arterial balloon injury: limitation of injury and sustained reduction of intimal thickening, Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 18: (1998). 31. Riepe, M.W., Ludolph, A.C. Chemical preconditioning: a cytoprotective strategy, Mol. Cell. Biochem., 174: (1997). 32. Van Winkle, D.M., Downey, J.M., Davis, R.F. Ischemic preconditioning on myocardium: effect of adenosine, in: Recent Advances in Coronary Circulation, Maruyama et al. eds. (Tokyo, Japon: Springer-Verlag, 1993), p Jennings, R.B., Reimer, K.A. Discovery and early history of preconditioning, in Sterning, Hibernation and Preconditioning: Clinical Pathophysiology of myocardial Ischemia, G.R. Heyndrickx, S.F. Vatner and W. Wijns eds. (Philadelphia, USA: Lippincolt-Raven Publishers, 1997), p Caldwell-Kenkel, J.C., Currin, R.T., Tanaka, Y., Thurman, R.G., Lemasters, J.J. Kupffer cell activation and endothelial cell damage after storage of rat livers: effect of reperfusion, Hepatology, 13:83-95 (1991). 35. Weinbroum, A., Nielsen, V.G., Tan S., Gelman, S., Matalon, S., Skinner, K.A., Bradley, E. Jr., Parks, D.A. Liver ischemia-reperfusion increases pulmjonary permeability in rat:
14 role of circulating xanthine oxidase, Am. J. Physiol., 268(Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 31): G988-G996 (1995). 36. Hernández, F., Menéndez, S., Wong, R. Decrease of blood cholesterol and stimulation of antioxidative response in cardiopathy patients treated with endovenous ozone therapy, Free Rad. Biol. Med., 19: (1995). 37. Romero, A., Menéndez, S., Gómez, M., Ley, J. Ozone therapy in the advanced stages of arteriosclerosis obliterans, Angiología, 45: (1993). 38. Menéndez, S., Iglesias, O., Bidot, C., Puga, R., Carballo, A. Application of ozone in children with humoral immunity deficiency, in Proceedings of the 12th Ozone World Congress, Ozone in Medicine, May 15-18, 1995, Lille; France eds.(lille, France: International Ozone Association, 1995), p
The Physiology of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species I. Introduction Definition, Source, function and Purpose A. Definition of free radicals and reactive oxygen species
International Journal of PharmTech Research CODEN( USA): IJPRIF ISSN : 0974-4304 Vol.1, No.3, pp 870-874, July-Sept 2009 CLINICAL STUDY OF MARKETED AYURVEDIC PREPARATION IN THYROID INDUCED STRESS A. A.
EFFECT OF WATER-EXTRACTED PROPOLIS ON THE ACCUMULATION OF CHOLESTEROL INDUCED BY HIGH-CHOLESTEROL DIET IN THE RAT M.S. KWON*, Z.Z. HAN*, S.Y. PARK*, Y.S. CHOI*, H. LIM*, S.D. KIM 2, H.C. KIM 1 1 Neurotoxicology
Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.035: Principle and Practice of Human Pathology Dr. Badizadegan Cell Injury, Adaptation and Death HST.035 Spring 2003 Overview of Cell Injury Cells
Creatine Kinase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit ABE5487 100 assays; Store at -20 C I. Introduction: Creatine Kinase (CK) also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and ATP: creatine N- phosphotransferase
Creatine Kinase Assay Kit Catalog Number KA1665 100 assays Version: 03 Intended for research use only www.abnova.com Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Intended Use... 3 Background... 3 Principle of the
Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.035: Principle and Practice of Human Pathology Dr. Badizadegan Ischemia and Infarction HST.035 Spring 2003 In the US: ~50% of deaths are due to
Your Life Your Health Cariodmetabolic Risk Syndrome Part VII Inflammation chronic, low-grade By James L. Holly, MD The Examiner January 25, 2007 The cardiometabolic risk syndrome is increasingly recognized
Antioxidant Products A comprehensive range of ALB BIL FERR GR Ransel Ransod antioxidant TAS testing TIBC kits TF BIL FERR GR Ransel Ransod TAS TIBC TF UA A FERR GR Ransel Ransod TAS TIBC TF UA ALB GR Ransel
The Need for a PARP in vivo Pharmacodynamic Assay Jay George, Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer, Trevigen, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD For further infomation, please contact: William Booth, Ph.D. Tel: +44 (0)1235
Product Manual Phosphate Assay Kit (Colorimetric) Catalog Number STA-685 1000 assays FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY Not for use in diagnostic procedures Introduction Phosphorus exists as a soluble free phosphate
Ann.wellhouse@TouchStoneScience.net 1 Enzyme Function National Science Standards Science as Inquiry: Content Standard A: As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop: Abilities
Biology, 10e Sylvia S. Mader Lectures by Tariq Alalwan, Ph.D. Learning Objectives Define energy, emphasizing how it is related to work and to heat State and apply two energy laws to energy transformations.
Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequencies 1 Biochemistry Journal August 1, 2007 405, pp. 559 568 Joseph Friedman, Sarah Kraus, Yirmi Hauptman, Yoni Schiff
Product Manual Uric Acid/Uricase Assay Kit Catalog Number STA-375 400 assays FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY Not for use in diagnostic procedures Introduction For humans and higher primates, uric acid is the final
Oxidative stress markers Oxidative stress represents an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular mechanisms for detoxifying the reactive intermediates or for repairing the resulting
Hypoxia occurs in a variety of critical illnesses and results in inadequate delivery of oxygen to the tissues. Hypoxia occurs secondary to low oxygen levels in the plasma (hypoxemic hypoxia), low hematocrit
ab155901 Creatine Kinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric) Instructions for Use For the sensitive and accurate measurement of Creatine Kinase activity in various samples. This product is for research use
1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set
Bottlenecks in Clinical Source Material Acquisition Aby J. Mathew, PhD May 5, 2009 ISCT Annual Meeting San Diego, CA email@example.com Biopreservation What s the issue? Biopreservation considerations
8 Measuring the Activity of the Enzyme Catalase Enzymes perform work! Objectives: A) To determine the activity of the enzyme catalase in a solution and B) to observe the effects of heat and cyanide inhibitor
Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Un-lecture! Numbers correspond to the slides, which are in your lecture notes and also posted on-line on the announcements page. 1. Characteristics of enzymes.we went over
AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline I. How cells get energy. A. Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration includes the various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other
Chem 306 Chapter 21 Bioenergetics Lecture Outline III I. HOW IS ATP GENERATED IN THE FINAL STAGE CATABOLISM? A. OVERVIEW 1. At the end of the citric acid cycle, all six carbons of glucose have been oxidized
EUROPEAN COMMISSION HEALTH & CONSUMER PROTECTION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL Directorate C - Scientific Opinions C2 - Management of scientific committees II; scientific co-operation and networks Revision of the
Gen. Physiol. Biophys. (1987). 6, 197 201 197 Short communication n-heptane and /i-hexane Enhance in a Dose-Dependent Manner Insulin Binding to Erythrocytes and Its Degradation Š. ZÓRAD, I. K.L1MEŠ, E.
PROTANDIM SEVEN PEER-REVIEWED SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL ABSTRACTS SINCE 2006 A Fundamentally New Approach to Antioxidant Therapy Free Radical Biology & Medicine 40 (2006) 341 347 Original Contribution The induction
What Do We Learn about Hepatotoxicity Using Coumarin-Treated Rat Model? authors M. David Ho 1, Bob Xiong 1, S. Stellar 2, J. Proctor 2, J. Silva 2, H.K. Lim 2, Patrick Bennett 1, and Lily Li 1 Tandem Labs,
P i Per Pyrophosphate Assay Kit Table 1. Contents and storage information. Material Amount Concentration Storage Stability Amplex Red reagent (Component A, MW = 257) 5 vials, 0.26 mg each DMSO, anhydrous
Biology 12 Metabolism Practice Test KEY Name: Section 1: What is an enzyme? 1. Which of the following statements is true about enzymes? a) 3D shape can vary and still be active b) they may catalyze only
Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids Features Have oily, greasy or waxy consistency Relatively insoluble in water Protein and carbohydrates may be converted into lipids by enzymes an
Perioperative Management of Diabetes Patients Learning Objectives To evaluate relevant risk factors associated with surgery in patientswith diabetes mellitus (DM) To identify strategies to achieve appropriate
Is Exercise the Best Antioxidant Supplement? Len Kravitz, Ph.D. As an unexpected consequence of the metabolic steps that convert food into energy, the body produces molecules commonly called free radicals.
handbook 3D cell culture mimsys G hydrogel supporting real discovery handbook Index 01 Cell encapsulation in hydrogels 02 Cell viability by MTS assay 03 Live/Dead assay to assess cell viability 04 Fluorescent
Catalase Assay Kit Catalog Number CAT100 Storage Temperature 2 8 C TECHNICAL BULLETIN Product Description Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme ubiquitously present in mammalian and non-mammalian aerobic cells
Properties of Enzymes TECHNICAL OBJECTIVES 1. Use a pipette bulb to measure and transfer solutions. 2. Use a Spectrophotometer to study enzyme action. 3. Develop a hypothesis and an experimental protocol
Hydrogen Peroxide Cell-Based Assay Kit Item No. 600050 www.caymanchem.com Customer Service 800.364.9897 Technical Support 888.526.5351 1180 E. Ellsworth Rd Ann Arbor, MI USA TABLE OF CONTENTS GENERAL INFORMATION
Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control
RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION: AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC OXIDATION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES Bio 171 Week 6 Procedure Label test tubes well, including group name 1) Add solutions listed to small test tubes 2) For
Reactive oxygen species in leaves and how to catch these Éva Hideg Molecular Stress- & Photobiology Group, BRC Szeged EPPN Summer School 2013 Outline How to prove that ROS are involved? The central role
Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2dm) is the most prevalent form of diabetes worldwide. It is characterised by high fasting and high postprandial blood glucose concentrations (hyperglycemia). Chronic
AAGPs TM Anti-Aging Glyco Peptides Enhancing Cell, Tissue and Organ Integrity Molecular and biological attributes of lead AAGP molecule 1 Acknowledgements This presentation was prepared by Dr. Samer Hussein
Perioperative management of Dual Antiplatelet therapy post drug eluting stent-changing time Robert Chilton DO, FACOI, FACC, FAHA Professor of Medicine University of Texas Health Science Center Director
Enzymes: Amylase Activity in Starch-degrading Soil Isolates Introduction This week you will continue our theme of industrial microbiologist by characterizing the enzyme activity we selected for (starch
= Fields of Application / Industry: Chemistry / Polymer Industry Clinical Chemistry / Medicine / Hygiene / Health Care Cosmetics Electronics Energy Environment / Water / Waste Food / Agriculture Geology
Human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles stabilized with intermolecular disulfide bonds Wentan Wang, Yanbin Huang*, Shufang Zhao, Ting Shao and Yi Cheng* Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University,
Cellular respiration So why do we breathe? The big picture Heterotrophs cannot make their own food to supply their energy needs Instead they break down food to use the chemical energy stored in organic
Principle of oxygen therapy in the newborn Thrathip Kolatat M.D. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Department of Pediatrics Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital Oxygen The most common drugs used in NICU Goal
Unit 2 Metabolism and Survival Summary 1 Metabolism pathways and their control (a) Introduction to metabolic pathways This involves integrated and controlled pathways of enzymecatalysed reactions within
Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Human Energy Transfer Slide Show developed by: Richard C. Krejci, Ph.D. Professor of Public Health Columbia College 6.18.11 Objectives 1. Describe the first law of thermodynamics
Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition Chapter Objectives INTRODUCTION 1. Generalize the way in which nutrients are processed through the three major metabolic fates in order to perform various energetic
How to Interpret and Use Them René Romero, M.D. Clinical Director, Pediatric Hepatology CPG Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Emory University School of Medicine Objectives Understand the anatomy
Overview of Stage II of Catabolism Lecture 11 Chapter 24: Metabolism and Energy Krebs Cycle, Cellular Respiration and Muscle Power! In Stage II- specific metabolic pathways, for amino acids, simple sugars,
6 Characterization of Casein and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Objectives: A) To separate a mixture of casein and bovine serum albumin B) to characterize these proteins based on their solubilities as a function
Version 1 2015 Module guide International Master Program Cardiovascular Science University of Göttingen Part 1 Theoretical modules Synopsis The Master program Cardiovascular Science contains four theoretical
LCL-GRAFT TM - Innovative Large and Small Caliber Vascular Grafts for Coronary Bypass and Peripheral Vascular Surgery. A. Perets 1, M. Li 1, P. Uttayarat 1, P. Pimton 1, A. Wu 2, R. J. Levy 3, R. J. Composto
Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism 1. Enzymes 2. ATP Production 3. Autotrophic Processes 1. Enzymes Biochemical Reactions All living cells depend on biochemical reactions to maintain homeostasis. All of the
Anaerobic and Aerobic Training Adaptations Chapters 5 & 6 Adaptations to Training Chronic exercise provides stimulus for the systems of the body to change Systems will adapt according to level, intensity,
Altitude Thermoregulation & Extreme Environments Reduced PO 2 The Stress of Altitude O 2 Transport Cascade Progressive change in environments oxygen pressure & various body areas Oxygen loading at altitude:
Benchtop Mitochondria Isolation Protocol Note: Specific protocols are available for the following products: MS850 Mitochondria Isolation Kit for Rodent Tissue MS851 Mitochondria Isolation Kit for Rodent
Guidance for Industry Safety Testing of Drug Metabolites U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) February 2008 Pharmacology
Aspartate aminotransferase (serum, plasma) 1 Name and description of analyte 1.1 Name of analyte Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 1.2 Alternative names Systematic name L aspartate:2 oxoglutarate aminotransferase
Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is not true of the reaction catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? A) Biotin participates in the decarboxylation.
Laboratory 5: Properties of Enzymes Technical Objectives 1. Accurately measure and transfer solutions with pipettes 2. Use a Spectrophotometer to study enzyme action. 3. Properly graph a set of data. Knowledge
Metabolic profile of veins and their implications in primary varicose veins Disease. Anwar MA 1, Beckonert OP 2, Shalhoub J 1, Vorkas P 2, Lim CS 1, Want EJ 2, Nicholson JK 2, Holmes E 2, Davies AH 1 1
Inhibition of dopamine conversion to norepinephrine by Clostridia metabolites appears to be a (the) major cause of autism, schizophrenia, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. All these factors can now
Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Poisoning Evidence Based Review Context Deliberate self harm is a common reason for presentation to the ED, with paracetamol poisoning being one of the most common methods used
INTRODUCTION Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity The chemical reactions occurring in living things are controlled by enzymes. An enzyme is a protein in the cell which lowers the activation energy of a catalyzed
The Urea Cycle As has been mentioned, ammonium is toxic, and even small amounts will damage the nervous system. Genetic disorders in ammonium metabolism result in avoidance of high-protein foods and in
Inflammation and Healing BIO 375 Pathophysiology Review of Normal Defenses Review of Normal Capillary Exchange 1 Inflammation Inflammation is a biochemical and cellular process that occurs in vascularized
DNA STAINING REAGENTS KIT STOCK NO. PI-STAIN Table of Contents: Intended Use... 2 Background and Principle... 2 Reagents and Materials Provided... 2 Reagents and Materials that may be Required, but are
1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source
THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE OF THE DIABETIC RAT* BY JAMES M. ORTEN AND HENRY B. DEVLINt (From the Deparkment of Physiological Chemistry, Wayne University College of Medicine,
Teacher Key Objectives You will use the model pieces in the kit to: Simulate enzymatic actions. Explain enzymatic specificity. Investigate two types of enzyme inhibitors used in regulating enzymatic activity.
Biology 20 Laboratory ENZYMES & CELLULAR RESPIRATION OBJECTIVE To be able to list the general characteristics of enzymes. To study the effects of enzymes on the rate of chemical reactions. To demonstrate
Product Manual Lipid Extraction Kit (Chloroform Free), Trial Size Catalog Number STA-612-T 10 preps FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY Not for use in diagnostic procedures Introduction Lipids are a diverse group of
Alanine aminotransferase (serum, plasma) 1 Name and description of analyte 1.1 Name of analyte Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 1.2 Alternative names Systematic name L alanine:2 oxoglutarate aminotransferase
Unit I: Introduction To Scientific Processes This unit is an introduction to the scientific process. This unit consists of a laboratory exercise where students go through the QPOE2 process step by step
HiPer Ion Exchange Chromatography Teaching Kit Product Code: HTC001 Number of experiments that can be performed: 5 Duration of Experiment: Protocol: 5-6 hours Storage Instructions: The kit is stable for