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1 Monitoring dossier Reception and protection of the rights of children at the Lampedusa Centre Praesidium III Project Save the Children Italia January

2 Index 1. Introduction... Errore. Il segnalibro non è definito. 2. Methodology... Errore. Il segnalibro non è definito. 3. The legal position regarding the Lampedusa Reception Centre... Errore. Il segnalibro non è definito. 4. General statistics on arrivals at Lampedusa... Errore. Il segnalibro non è definito. 5. Principal results and recommendations... Errore. Il segnalibro non è definito. 1. Introduction The Save the Children Italy (SCI) organisation, as part of the Praesidium III project, in conjunction with the Ministry of the Interior and in partnership with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the Italian Red Cross (CRI), has been monitoring since May 2008, within its own project activities, compliance of the conditions and procedures for the reception of children at the Lampedusa Reception Centre (Centro di Soccorso e Prima Accoglienza - CSPA) with the standards laid down by national and international law on the subject. According to the provisions of the Convention with the Ministry of the Interior, Save the Children has the mandate to monitor whether procedures and standards for the reception of unaccompanied minors and families with children at the Lampedusa Centre comply with international standards, to contribute towards developing a procedure for age assessment based upon respect for the rights of the children and monitoring its actual and effective application, as well as verifying that the programme for foreign minors, from their arrival at the frontier to the reception centres in Sicily, is carried out in full compliance with their rights. In particular, the Save the Children workers take part in operations after arrival in Italy, contributing towards ensuring that migrants have immediate information, ascertaining that unaccompanied children are identified as such and that the unity of the family unit is maintained. Inside the centre, SCI provides information to unaccompanied minors about their rights, also through group information sessions, and ensures legal assistance in cases which necessitate specific action (for example, minors wrongly identified upon arrival and minors in particularly vulnerable situations which are to be reported to the competent authorities). Verification of the conditions of reception within the centre is carried out jointly with the partner organisations in the project. This dossier supplements the periodical reports presented to the Ministry of the Interior regarding problems identified during the project activity and seeks to provide a more exhaustive picture as to the conditions found at the Lampedusa Centre with regard to conditions of assistance and the protection of the rights of migrant children. The aim of this survey is also to provide clear 2

3 recommendations to the competent authorities, based on a study of the procedures applied, in order to ensure that the reception guaranteed to migrants arriving by sea, and among them children in particular, complies with the standards provided by national and international law. 2. Methodology In studying the standards of reception and the protection of rights at the Lampedusa Centre, a monitoring chart was used, based on the national and international standards for protection of the rights of children and, in relation to the actual reception conditions, also on the convention for the management of the centre entered into with the managing authority, the Lampedusa Reception Cooperative and the Prefect of Agrigento. The figures and information contained in the report are therefore based upon monitoring carried out by Save the Children workers at Lampedusa, namely, a legal advisor and a cultural mediator, and relate to the period from May (when activities began) to December The information about migrants detained, length of stay at the centre and transfer procedures has been obtained on the basis of information supplied by the Immigration Office of the Agrigento Police Authority and fed into an information database set up by Save the Children. This document is organised according to the procedure which minors follow from disembarkation to transfer from the Lampedusa Centre towards other structures, and is arranged on the basis of the rights and standards applicable in each phase of this procedure, in other words: identification as a minor and identification of family relationships; age assessment; assistance and protection of minors requesting asylum and child victims of trafficking; interviews with minors, information and interpretation; reception standards and access to health services; reception, prohibition on expulsion and transfer procedures. 3. The legal position regarding the Lampedusa Reception Centre The establishment and control of reception centres for migrants and those requesting asylum is regulated by a series of provisions which are often fragmented and disjointed; in various cases the legal organisation of these structures is contained in urgent provisions adopted in order to deal with arrivals by sea. The Lampedusa Centre was set up in July 1998 as a Temporary Holding and Assistance Centre (Centro di Permanenza Temporanea ed Assistenza CPTA), with the ulterior function of preliminary assistance and distribution centre for migrants who landed on the island. The objective of reception at the centre therefore combined policing requirements with those of a more closely humanitarian nature, in the sense of ensuring health assistance while, at the same time, identifying migrants prior to their transfer to other centres in Italy. In this sense it can be said that the original purpose of the Lampedusa Centre stood half way between that of Reception Centres (Centri di Accoglienza CDAs) and Temporary Holding and Assistance Centres (Centri di Permanenza Temporanea ed Assistenza CPTA), without there being however any specific regulation regarding the maximum length of stay or other specific conditions and holding procedures. The Reception Centres were established by a legal decree of The decree became the legislative provision which authorised the establishment, by the Ministry of the Interior, [ ] of 3

4 three separate centres along the coastal frontier in Puglia for the purposes of preliminary assistance 1 for foreigners who had no form of support and were awaiting identification or expulsion. The same decree also provides the possibility of establishing other centres to deal with emergency situations that arise in other areas of the national territory 2. The decree was subsequently converted into Law, the so-called Puglia Law, which today is the sole legal basis for establishing the various reception centres present in Italy 3. Reception Centres are therefore created as structures designed to guarantee preliminary assistance to foreign citizens who arrive in Italy without permission, and their reception at these centres is limited to the period of time necessary for the adoption of a measure which authorises their stay in Italy or orders their departure. In reality, the decree law, in the same way as the conversion law, fixes no time limit in relation to the length of the holding period, nor does it provide for any examination by the judicial authorities in relation to what nevertheless constitutes a restriction upon personal liberty. The Temporary Holding and Assistance Centres 4 are established by article 12 of Law no. 40/98 entitled Immigration control and provisions relating to the situation of the foreigner 5. These centres hold migrants and those requesting asylum who have been refused permission to enter at the frontier or of an expulsion order which has already been adopted and notified but cannot be carried out immediately. The holding can be for a maximum period of 60 days upon endorsement by the judicial authorities. The Reception Centres have been established in premises which vary greatly; in most cases they are pre-existing buildings constructed for other purposes 6, which had been different, however, to that of providing accommodation. In this respect, the identification and establishment of these centres often fails to comply with a series of provisions, including those relating to public works and services contracts. The provision of these centres in what are essentially emergency situations is then established by Presidential Decree no. 394/99, which expressly provides the possibility of ordering the occupation, furnishing, modification and maintenance of buildings and transport areas and the positioning also of mobile structures 7. By Ministerial Decree of 16/12/2006, the Lampedusa Centre was transformed from a Temporary Holding and Assistance Centre (Centro di Permanenza Temporanea ed Assistenza CPTA) into a Reception and Preliminary Holding Centre (Centro di soccorso e prima accoglienza - CSPA). The legal nature of the centre is modified for the purpose of guaranteeing immediate assistance for foreigners arriving by boat before they are transferred to Reception Centres or to Identification 1 Art. 2 (1) Decree law 451/95 2 Art. 2 (2) Decree Law 451/95 3 At present, the Reception Centres in Italy are: Bari Palese, airport area 744 places; Brindisi, Restinco 180 places; Cagliari, Elmas 200 places (Reception and preliminary holding centre); Caltanissetta, Contrada Pian del Lago 360 places; Crotone, Sant Anna district 1202 places; Foggia, Borgo Mezzanone 342 places; Gorizia, Gradisca d Isonzo 112 places; Siracusa, Cassibile 200 places; Trapani, Pantelleria 25 places (Reception and preliminary holding centre) 4 The words Temporary Holding Centre or Temporary Holding and Assistance Centre are substituted, generally, in all legal provisions and regulations, by the following: identification and expulsion centre as the new description of the said centres, art. 9 of the Coordinated Text of Decree Law no.92 of 23 May 2008, with Conversion Law no. 125 of 24 July Law no.40/98 is absorbed within Legislative Decree no. 285 of 25 July 1998, Consolidated legislation regarding immigration control and provisions on the condition of the foreigner (the so-called Turco-Napolitano Law) 6 In particular, the Lampedusa Centre was sited at the airport and had a maximum capacity of 186 places. 7 Art. 22 (2) Presidential Decree 394/99, provisions for implementing the Consolidated legislation on immigration. 4

5 and Expulsion Centres (former Temporary Holding Centres) 8 or to Reception Centres for those seeking asylum (former Identification Centres - CdI) 9. However, in the decree, there are no indications as to the conditions and the specific holding methods. In any event, migrants landing on the island must be held at the centre for a period of time limited to a maximum of 48 hours, in order to allow assistance and preliminary reception procedures to be carried out, which are the only activities for which the Lampedusa Reception Centre is currently responsible 10. Further consideration must also be given to cases where it is necessary to emphasise the particular situation of migrant minors and asylum seekers (whether accompanied or not) for whom any form of arbitrary detention is expressly prohibited by domestic as well as international law General statistics on arrivals at Lampedusa Over the last five years there has been a clear increase in migrant arrivals on the island of Lampedusa: in 2003 they were 8,800; there were 10,477 arrivals in 2004, 15,527 in 2005, 18,047 in 2006 and 11,749 in , reaching 31,250 arrivals up to 31 December The largest numbers of arrivals are generally concentrated in the summer months, when the weather conditions make it relatively safe for boats to carry migrants across the Mediterranean. In 2008, however, arrivals in the month of October (4618) even exceeded those for the months of July (4030) and August (4055). In the months of November and December, the number of landings, respectively, were 2808 and 2722 migrants (higher than the arrivals for the months of May 2265 and June 2659 ). From these figures it would seem that the risks of the journey constitute an increasingly lower deterrent against the departure of migrants who, in many cases, are forced to leave their country or, at least, are motivated by reasons which are much greater than the foreseeable risks. Set out below are the overall figures for arrivals per month, beginning in May, the date when Save the Children s activities on the island began (graph. 1). 8 See note 3 9 Legislative Decree no. 25 of 28/1/ Despite the amendment, which is formal more than anything else, the nature of the Lampedusa centre continues to be controversial and to raise the question about detention upon arrival. In practice, migrants and asylum seekers arriving by sea and on the coast of Lampedusa are held at the centre for a period of time which is certainly more than 48 hours and without any judicial ratification. This type of detention conflicts with the provisions of domestic law on the limitation of personal liberty. Italian Law sets out very clearly, and in great detail, the situations and terms in which it is allowed to compress this constitutional right (art. 13 Constitution). In particular, for specific situations of identification, the police authority can hold a person not accused of any offence for a maximum period of 24 hours (Legislative Decree 144/2005). Within 48 hours it is necessary to apply for ratification by the judicial authority. 11 See chapter 8 of this report in this respect 12 Figures from the Ministry of the Interior, see: 2008_10_13_modello _lampedusa.html 13 Figures from the Immigration Office, Agrigento Police Authority 5

6 Of the total of adult migrants, 86% were men and 14% women; the total of men from May to 31 December was 21,002, whereas the total of women was 3,389; graph no. 2 shows the number of arrivals by gender in the various months. The graph beside it (no. 3) also shows the arrivals per month of family groups, of accompanied minors and of unaccompanied minors which, respectively, total: 1147, 299 and The migration of family groups constitutes almost 4.3% of the total of migrants; these are families or women alone who bring with them children even a few months old. If we look at the trend in arrivals of minors (2201), whether accompanied or not, per month, it can be seen that these increased from 174 in May to 411 in October, and then to 208 in November 6

7 and 190 in December. Furthermore, the number of minors arriving at Lampedusa without the support of parents or relatives represents over 86.4% of the total of minors and 8.27% of the total of migrants arriving. With regard to nationalities, compared with previous years, there has been a notable increase in arrivals of migrants from areas of crisis and from countries in conflict, indicating a fairly radical change in the type of migration and in the migration routes. The nationalities most represented among adults are: Tunisia (24%); Nigeria (21%); Somalia (11%); Eritrea (12%); followed by Ghana (6%) and Morocco (6%). With regard to arrivals per month, it should be pointed out that the entry of Tunisians was very low up to the month of August (310) whereas it exceeded 750 people in October and reached 1517 in the month of December. Arrivals from Somalia and Eritrea, however, were concentrated in the summer months, and then diminished drastically in the autumn. The percentage of Nigerians was fairly high throughout the year, even though there was a relative reduction in the months of November and December. With regard to minors, Egypt (25%), Eritrea (15%), Nigeria (13%), Palestine (11%) and Somalia (9%) remain the nationalities which are most represented; there are also significant percentages in relation to Tunisia (7%) and Ghana (6%), while the numbers for countries such as Morocco (2%) and Togo (2%) are lower. This tends to indicate that migrants travelling from Egypt to Lampedusa are mainly, or almost exclusively, young children and that, in most cases, they are an important resource, in terms of economic support, for their family in the country of origin. With regard to unaccompanied minors arriving from Palestine, in many cases, based upon the previous experience of the cultural mediators, they are children who declare themselves to belong to a nationality which is not their true nationality in the hope that this might help them in the authorisation process in Italy. Even for minors, it is possible to observe that arrivals of Somali and Eritreans are concentrated in the summer months, whereas from October to November there are notable increases in arrivals of Egyptians and Tunisians. 7

8 Unaccompanied minors arriving at Lampedusa are generally aged between 16 and 17 years, but there are younger children (of 13 and 14 years) who arrive without the support of their parents. Furthermore, unaccompanied minors are generally boys around 90% - (in particular, almost all minors from Egypt are male, whereas unaccompanied girls originate mostly from Nigeria, Eritrea and Somalia). 5. Principal results and recommendations The activities carried out by humanitarian organisations inside the Lampedusa Centre and their collaboration with the competent authorities has certainly contributed towards improving the reception conditions in the centre and in modifying certain practices adopted. However, from the study carried out in this report, various problems emerge which it is necessary to deal with in order to fully guarantee the rights of children as sanctioned by national and international law. With regard to the identification procedures on arrival, Save the Children has ascertained that the information activity carried out by the police authorities with the assistance of cultural mediators constitutes good practice; that activity contributes toward ensuring that migrants have basic information about the procedures following arrival and can contribute towards limiting problems during the stage of registering personal details. Furthermore, generally speaking, the Police Immigration Office at the centre has shown itself always willing to discuss matters, and amenable in relation to suggestions made by the humanitarian organisations. However, among the critical aspects which still remain are the following: long waiting periods before commencing the identification procedure; criteria which are not entirely clear for giving priority during this phase to vulnerable categories, including unaccompanied minors; variable procedures, according to the police personnel employed, in relation to the medical examination for the determination of age; increasing use, especially in recent months, of medical examination for age assessment in relation to migrants who declare themselves to be minors, adopted therefore not in extremis, but in an ever greater number of cases; 8

9 failure to carry out an age assessment in relation to migrants who declare themselves to be adults but appear obviously to be minors 14 ; attributing legal value to the pre-identification procedure with a consequent difficulty in modifying, even partially, the information obtained at the time of the photo identification, even in the case of minor material errors; non-systematic distribution of food and refreshments, in particular for young children, during the pre-identification procedures (which often last for several hours). In particular, the graph below (no.6) shows an increase in assessments carried out over the total number of minors, beginning in the month of November, when x-ray examination was used for ascertaining the age of over 66% of unaccompanied minors arriving. With regard to the matters raised above, it is necessary to place greater attention on the entire identification procedure, also in consideration of the important repercussions that this has on the subsequent procedures for the foreigners in Italy. In particular, it is necessary to guarantee that the age assessment procedure is carried out only in the event of reasonable doubt as to age and only where it is not possible otherwise to determine the age of the person (for example, through checking with the relevant consular representative) and that the same attention is given to cases of presumed adults and presumed minors. It is also essential that all possible measures are taken to limit the waiting times (increasing the number of desks available for the police authorities to register information), ensuring particular attention to the needs of vulnerable categories. Finally, with regard to the particular circumstances in which the pre-identification procedure is carried out and considering that it has the purpose above all of registering migrants for purposes of reception into the centre, it is appropriate to allow even the partial modification of information taken at the photographic identification. In the identification phase, the noting of parental relationships is of particular importance. In relation to this procedure, and more generally to safeguarding the family unit, it is possible to raise a number of criticisms: it is rare that the police authorities carry out further checks, even in the case of inconsistencies in the declarations made by a family group; it has been possible to note that, as a matter of practice, minors accompanied by relatives up to the 4 th grade are sent to a C.A.R.A./C.D.A. Reception Centre if the relative or guardian 14 see Note 31 9

10 is not the subject of an order to leave the country. In the latter case however (in particular if the minor is not accompanied by parents and is over 14 years) it can happen that the minor is placed in a community home without the judicial authorities being informed or any consent being obtained from the minor, parent or person responsible for him or her; the telephone cards distributed at the centre, which are useful also for ensuring contact between migrants and relatives in their country of origin, have been insufficient and do not always function; It is essential to implement procedures for checking parental relationships in cases of doubt, also for the purpose of protecting the minor from any situations of abuse or risk of exploitation. Similarly, particular attention must be assured in noting down declarations relating to relatives already living in Italy or whose arrival is expected. With regard to the decision as to separation of members of a family group, it is necessary to obtain the consent of the minor, of the parent or of the person who has responsibility over the minor, as well as involving the Tribunal for Minors With regard to telephone contact, it is necessary to comply with the new provisions for managing the Reception Centre (which provide for the distribution of a 15 Euro telephone card, and no longer one of 5 Euros) as well as ensuring that the type of telephone card is most suitable for international calls. The procedure for age assessment carried out at Lampedusa gives considerable cause for concern in relation to respect for the rights of the minor and the legal procedures provided. In particular: there is no indication as to the margin of error in the age assessment report. This absence of an indication, as well as being in conflict with the prevailing medical literature, which indicates the impossibility of determining with certainty the age of a person, does not enable the principle of the benefit of doubt to be applied in favour of the minor ; if the application for the age assessment is presented by a migrant who is identified as an adult on arrival, the applicant remains in the adult area awaiting the medical examination and is therefore not treated as a minor as soon as the doubt is raised; it is not clear what are the consequences, in procedural terms, of any refusal to give consent, nor is the minor informed in this respect; since November, the minor is notified of the result of the examination by the Police Immigration Office, but is not given a copy of the report, which could be useful in presenting an appeal. The graph below (graph 7) shows the results of x-rays carried out (both by the Immigration Office as well as at the request of SCI) in the months from May to December. From the month of August, the x-ray results have shown that those of minority age significantly exceed those of adult age. However it is necessary to consider that in the last few months there has been an increase in the requests for x-rays made by the police authority. 10

11 Until such time as any modifications are made to the age assessment procedures, in order to guarantee the rights of the minor, including the adoption of methods which are as least invasive as possible, it is necessary to remedy the matters raised above: indication of the margin of error in the report; consideration of the person as a minor until the outcome of the examination; information and procedure to be applied in the case of any refusal of consent, and delivery of a copy of the report. Furthermore, through the activity of monitoring with specific focus upon the condition of minors requesting asylum and victims of trafficking it has been possible to state that: the activity of information as well as access to the procedure for asylum is carried out exclusively by the UNHCR without direct involvement of the competent authorities; minors requesting asylum are referred to the SPRAR network only on the express recommendation of the humanitarian organisations, even in cases where they are found in situations of particular vulnerability; investigations by the police authorities, in particular by the flying squad, are not specifically directed towards suspected crimes connected with trafficking and the identification of victims for the purpose of guaranteeing their protection and remedying rights violated through adequate support. With regard to minors requesting asylum, a greater involvement of the police forces is necessary with regard to information and the presentation of requests for asylum, and also, depending upon the possibility of accommodation within the SPRAR system, consideration must always be given to the possibility of placing the minor requesting asylum in special centres. It also seems appropriate to concentrate police investigations more upon risks relating to the phenomenon of trafficking, giving priority importance to the identification of minors who are victims or at risk, guaranteeing the presence of adequately trained staff and providing effective and appropriate measures, including written procedures which are regularly updated containing indicators capable of guiding the identification process. The increase in arrivals registered during the course of 2008 and, consequently, the difficulties relating to identifying places for accommodation in centres of final destination, have certainly contributed towards a worsening in accommodation standards and living conditions of migrants inside the Lampedusa Reception Centre. 11

12 The graph below (no. 8) gives a picture of the maximum peaks of presence within the reception centre per month and for each category of migrants (men, women, minors). The figures for the individual groups (men/women/minors) have been obtained by breaking down into groups the maximum of total presences in a single day of the month concerned, rather than referring to the peak presences of individual groups (which are often higher) over the period of the same month. Despite the maximum capacity of 804 places, the centre has therefore reached the point of accommodating almost 1800 migrants at one time. With regard to unaccompanied minors in particular, the graph below (no.9) shows peak presences of over 190 unaccompanied minors in the month of October, of 167 in November, and 222 in December, whereas there is a total number of only 60 beds available for women and minors. The number of accompanied minors reached 28, whereas the area set aside for family groups has a total of 26 places. In this case, the peak presences were obtained irrespective of the maximum number of overall presences, making reference only to the presence of foreign minors. The areas of greatest difficulty in relation to the management of the centre are: cleaning of rooms and hygiene conditions; provision of mattresses, blankets and sufficient rooms to deal with the high number of presences; 12

13 distribution of clothing, hygiene kits and basic necessities (according to the provisions of the convention and bearing in mind the prolonged stay at the centre); failure to provide information to migrants as to what is happening and the frequency of distributions; logistical organisation of the centre (long waiting periods for meals, etc.); methods for access to health support and lack of a systematic organisation of health triages, especially within the closed areas of the centre; absence of information activities relating to the matters provided by law on immigration and the situation of the foreigner; the need to strengthen the specific involvement of professional figures present at the centre, especially in relation to assistance provided for vulnerable cases; the need to implement adequately the cultural mediation service and to strengthen the presence of workers capable of speaking a foreign language. Many of the difficulties can certainly be tackled by dealing with specific aspects of the ordinary management of the centre. The conditions of permanent overcrowding, however, must be resolved through a structural approach, programming the facilities and places necessary in centres of final destination according to the expected number of arrivals. With regard to the management of the centre, with particular reference to the distribution of goods and services available, it is hoped that a marked improvement may result from the adoption of the new convention, issued in November by the Ministry of the Interior. Furthermore it is necessary to improve the information activity toward migrants, both with regard to the logistical organisation of the centre as well as in relation to the provisions of the convention concerning legal information, interpreting and cultural mediation services. Specific attention must be directed toward the means of access to health services in order to fully guarantee the right of migrants to health and protection for any transmittable diseases. As already indicated, the problem relating to accommodation conditions has to be tackled also and above all by identifying the measures necessary in order to ensure that the stay at the reception centre is limited to the time strictly necessary for the transfer of the migrants to other centres. In this respect, as can be seen in the graph below, which shows the average period and maximum peak stays for minors at the centre, Save the Children has found there to be a significant increase in the average period of stay. 13

14 During the last months of the year a very large number of minors were held at the reception centre for periods of over 20 days. By December 2008 solutions had still not been found to ensure the transfer of minors from the centre. As already indicated in the report on community homes in Sicily 15, Save the Children submits that the reception system for minors must be reorganised by way of coordination between the various figures involved (Ministries; Police Authorities; Regional and Municipal Authorities) and with central programming which takes account of the number of minors present on the National territory and an estimation of arrivals calculated on the average for the period (month or year), and subsequently providing for their transfer from Lampedusa over the entire national territory. Finally, the report has identified problems relating to the risk of minors being expelled, repatriated or held in centres for immigrants. These risks are essentially due to: difficulties of a procedural nature or connected with the interpretation service during the identification procedure; difficulties already raised in relation to the age assessment procedure; failure to take into consideration any copies of identity documents in the possession of minors and failure, in the case of minors requesting asylum, to commence investigation procedures with the competent consular authorities. In this respect, Save the Children recommends that, following the age assessment examination, a period of time is guaranteed from notification of the outcome of the examination to the transfer of the minor (24/48 hours) for the presentation of any documents that are of use in order to avoid the adoption of measures such as expulsion or transfer to centres. Furthermore, when the minor not requesting asylum is in possession of identity documents which declare that he or she is a minor, the police authorities should immediately proceed to investigate the case, where there are no other risks of damage to the minor and/or to his or her family and other relatives (e.g. minors requesting asylum and victims of trafficking). Where this is not possible, the minor should be held as a minor and sent to a community home with the request to attend police authority offices for investigations with the authorities of the country of origin. In any event, there must always be a reliable identification of the migrant before an order for expulsion or a refusal of permission to stay is adopted. In conclusion, Save the Children submits that it is necessary to develop and capitalise upon the model tested out at Lampedusa in collaboration between the humanitarian organisations and the authorities. In this respect it is necessary to continue to improve the reception capacities of the centre, to improve actions with regard to management of the centre and improve the practices applied, in order to ensure respect, protection and promotion of the rights of migrant minors in compliance with the requirements of current national and international law. Save the Children is the largest independent international organisation for the defence and promotion of the rights of children. It has been in existence since 1919 and operates in over 120 countries throughout the world with a network of 28 national organisations and an international 15 Reception of minors arriving by sea,save the Children, October

15 coordination office: the Save the Children Alliance, a Non Governmental Organisation with consultative status at the United Nations Economic and Social Council. Save the Children Italy, in partnership with the UNHCR, IOM and Red Cross, and in conjunction with the Italian Ministry of the Interior, is involved in the PRAESIDIUM III Project, which seeks to strengthen and improve the system of information and legal advice offered to migrants and people requesting asylum, to develop an effective system for identifying and protecting those who are vulnerable, including foreign minors, and to share with other Mediterranean countries best practices for the reception of migrants arriving by sea. This document has been prepared by Angela Oriti on the basis of documents presented, and monitoring work carried out by the Save the Children team at Lampedusa: Federica Bertolin and Tareke Brhane, as part of the activities of the Praesidium III Project. The following people have also collaborated: Susanna Matonti, Stefania De Nicolais, Federico Ubaldi, Reis Aloo, Carlotta Bellini, Sarah di Giglio, Maria Antonia Di Maio, Viviana Valastro and Arianna Saulini. For further information: Angela Oriti Praesidium Project Coordinator Save the Children Italy Via Volturno 58, Rome Tel. (+39) 06/

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