Annual report on the presence of immigrants 2014

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2 Annual report on the presence of immigrants 2014 The annual Report on the Labour Market of Immigrants" promoted by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policies has been enriched with the yearly Reports on the presence of the leading foreign Communities present in Italy, prepared by Italia Lavoro S.p.A. s Immigration Area. The yearly Reports on the Communities are the products of the International Labour Mobility project funded by the General Directorate of Immigration and Integration Policies.

3 The first flows from Sri Lanka towards our Country date back to the 1970s, when several Sri Lankan arrived to work in the domestic sector at consular and diplomatic offices. However, it was in the 1990s that the Sri Lankan immigration registered a strong increase: in fact, in 1993 the Sri Lankan migrants legally resident in Italy were slightly more than 11,000 thousand, but within twenty years the community reached an increase of presences equal to 766%. Currently, the Sri Lankan community in Italy is showing signs of a progressive consolidation of its presence: in fact, there has been a decrease in the incidence of presences due to job reasons, whereas there has been a sensitive increase in residences for family reasons; indeed, in the past three years, there has been an increase in family joining as entry reason (+27.7%), moreover, in the same period, there has been an almost 8 percentage point increase in the share of long-term residents, passing from 44.6% in 2011 to 52% in The main social-demographic characteristics of the Sri Lankan community are as follows: Legally resident on 1 st January 2014: 104,405 Minors: 23% Men: 55%; Women: 45% Employment rate: 60.7% Main economic activity sector: Services (90%) Main educational qualifications: first grade secondary school (42.1%) The Sri Lankan community ranks 14 th among the non-community citizens legally resident in Italy: on 1 st January 2014, the Sri Lankan migrants legally resident in Italy amounted to 104,405, equal to 2.7% of the total of non-community citizens in Italy. Within the community, the male component prevails (men 55%; women 45%): the gender composition is more polarized compared to the total of non-community citizens for whom the two components are substantially balanced. As regards the age bracket distribution, the Sri Lankan community shows a balanced composition: 25% of the citizens belonging to the considered community are between 30 and 39 years old; 23% are minors; 21% are between years old. The North represents the first destination of the Sri Lankan community in Italy hosting 53% of the presences. This percentage is 11 points lower than what registered as regards the total of noncommunity citizens; the incidence of presences in the South of Italy is equal to 26.5%, thus 14 percentage points higher than the average of non-community citizens. The first three settling regions are Lombardy (30.5%), Campania (13.1%) and Veneto (12.8%). More than half of the Sri Lankan citizens legally resident in Italy hold residence permits for long-term residents: these are 53%, a value slightly lower than the 56% registered as regards the total of noncommunity citizens. On 1 st January 2014, residence permits in expiry held by Sri Lankan citizens were issued mainly for job reasons, reaching a 57% incidence (against 48.2% registered as regards the total of noncommunity citizens); the presences for family reasons concerned 40.8% of the permits in expiry, a value identical to what registered for the total of non-community citizens. As regards minors and second generations: The Sri Lankan minors legally resident on 1 st January 2014 were 24,572, representing 2.7% of the non-community minors. In 2012, 1,747 children with Sri Lankan citizenship were born in Italy. This community, 14 th for number of total presences, ranks 9 th for the number of babies born in the decade , equal to 15,064. 2

4 The Sri Lankan students enrolled in the Italian school system during the school year 2013/2014 were 7,869, representing 1.3% of the non-community school population. The distribution among the various school orders highlights that 61.8% of the Sri Lankan students attend the infant school and the primary school (involving the age bracket comprised between 3 and 10 years old). In particular, almost 36% of the Sri Lankan students are enrolled in the primary school. The first grade secondary school is attended by 19.4% of the Sri Lankan students, the second grade secondary school by 18.7% of the total. In 2013 the Sri Lankan students enrolled at an Italian university were 210, equal to 0.4% of the total of non-community university students. The young people between 15 and 29 years of age belonging to the considered community that do not study or work amount to 6,697, equal to 2.4% of the non-community NEET (Not in Employment, Education and Training) citizens. As regards the employment condition: 60.7% of the Sri Lankan population (15 years old and older) are employed, a value about 5 percentage points higher than what registered for the non-community citizens present in the Country. The unemployment rate of the considered community is equal to 13.9%, against 18% as regards the total of non-community citizens. Employment in the Services sector involves more than 90% of the Sri Lankan workers in our Country; the share of workers employed in the sectors of public services, social services and services to the person is preponderant (55.6%), followed by the Hotel and catering sector (17%) and the Services to enterprises (13.2%). 72% of the Sri Lankan workers earn a monthly income lower than 1,000 Euros, a value 12 percentage points higher than what registered as regards the total of non-community workers (60%). In particular, almost half of the Sri Lankan workers earns an income comprised between 501 and 1,000 Euros a month (47%). Among the Sri Lankan workers, a medium-low educational level prevails: the main educational level is the first grade secondary school, with an incidence equal to 42.1%. The Sri Lankan workers with a secondary degree or university degree amount to 36.5%; this percentage rises to 48% for the total of non-community workers. The Sri Lankan workers employed in the domestic sector in 2013 amounted to 27,426. The Sri Lankan workers with a dependent job relationship in various sectors amounted to 27,169: 80% are holders of an indefinite job contract. The owners of individual enterprises amounted to 1,982: the community ranked 25 th among the non-community citizens as regards the number of autonomous workers. As regards the welfare system: In 2013, 709 Sri Lankan citizens benefitted from wage integration owing to the extraordinary redundancy fund (1.4% of the total of non-community benefitting citizens). In 2013 the invalidity, old-age and survivor pensions paid out by INPS to Sri Lankan citizens amounted to 601, equal to 1.8% of the total pensions paid out to non-community citizens. The welfare benefits paid out at the end of 2013 to Sri Lankan citizens amounted to 614, equal to 1.4% of the benefits paid out to non-community citizens. 3

5 The number of Sri Lankan women that benefitted from the maternity indemnity in 2013 were 639, equal to 2% of the non-community benefitting women. In 2013 the number of Sri Lankan citizens that benefitted from the family unit cheque amounted to 8.988, equal to 2.8% of the total. Accidents on the job suffered from Sri Lankan workers in 2012 amounted to 1,226, equal to 1.6% of the total accidents suffered from non-community workers. As regards social integration paths for accessing public services and citizenship: In 2012 Italian citizenship was granted, for marriage or residence reasons, to 372 Sri Lankan citizens, equal to 0.9% of the total grants; in 54% of the cases, citizenship was granted to men, whereas the women covered the remaining 46%. Mixed marriages registered in Italy in 2012 amounted to 20,764. None of these involved Sri Lankan citizens. The administrative data available at national level concerning the access of non-community citizens to health services refer to hospitalizations: as regards the Sri Lankan citizens, 7,674 hospitalizations were registered, equal to 1.8% of the total hospitalizations involving non-community citizens. The Sri Lankan community ranks 9 th for number of credit requests submitted in The 29,277 requests submitted by Sri Lankan citizens represent 2,6% of the requests submitted by foreign citizens in the same year. The average amount requested was equal to 11,617 Euros, a value slightly higher than what concerned the total of foreign citizens, close to 10,000 Euros. According to the latest mapping of foreign citizen associations present in Italy, the Sri Lankan community ranks 13 th among the foreign associations present in Italy, counting 22 associations, equal to 1% of the total. The main ambits of action of the Sri Lankan associations are: reception, second generations, Italian language courses. The total amount of remittances exiting our Country in 2013 was more than 5 billion Euros. Sri Lanka represented the 8 th destination of remittances exiting Italy in 2013, with 156,4 million Euros, equal to 5.5% of the total exiting remittances. 4

6 Immigrants in the italian labour market In the past five years, migratory flows and demographic increases have been so relevant to cause a strong growth of the population in working age; however, this expansion seems to be quicker than the capacity of the economic-productive system to absorb foreign workers, thus triggering an unbalance in the delicate socialemployment balance, of which the dynamics are clearly identified by the data at disposal. The Employed Generally speaking, between 2012 and 2013, the number of EU and non-eu citizens employed registered a slight increase with little less than 22 thousand units, against a drop in native employment equal to -500 thousand individuals. However, although the employment rate of the former is higher than the latter, in the past years it has been undergoing a worsening trend. In fact, from 2008 it has lost 5 points percentage, currently at 58.1%. From 2007 (the year of the maximum employment growth) to 2013, the employment of foreign citizens increased by 853 thousand units against a decrease of more than 1.6 million of Italians. As a consequence, in this period, the incidence of foreign citizens in the Italian labour market increased, despite the decline. In this regard, the values are relevant both at aggregate level in 2013, reaching 10.5% of the total of the employed and at sectorial level, in particular in Constructions (19.7%), in Services (10.7%), in Agriculture (13%). It is also important to highlight the well-known relevance of the foreign component in Family activities and cohabitations as employers for domestic personnel (more than 76% of the total labour force employed is composed of immigrants), a sector in which there has been an increase of non-eu employment equal to +43.8% on annual basis. The mentioned employment is flattened on low-level qualifications: non-qualified manual labour constitutes the main form of professional classification of the foreign labour force. Moreover, high education level being equal (university degree and post lauream), the share of foreign citizens employed with low level mansions is equal to 22.6% of the total, against 0.4% of Italians. The impact of the economic crisis on the age bracket under 30 has been relevant. In the long run ( ), the employment of Italians under 30 has drastically dropped ( million of employed) against an increase of young immigrants (about +63 thousand). The need for low cost labour, as well as for personnel in the so-called cure mansions in sectors that traditionally have asymmetric trends as regards the economic cycle and that are essential - otherwise the Italian welfare would implode since it is founded on family rather than on public services guarantees, in the whole, more attractiveness toward immigrant labour force, and therefore, in case of job loss, greater quickness in re-accessing the market. The Unemployed Although systems such as the Italian s, in which demand is not much oriented toward innovation and finding high skilled workers as highlighted by the analyses in this report entail the existence of a very flexible reserve of workers whose wages are also very low for contingent reasons, these same workers are more easily expelled from the labour market. Therefore, it is not a coincidence that, always in 2013, the long-lasting crisis led to register about 500 thousand foreign citizens in search of employment, a share that in the past year has increased by 100 thousand units. The related unemployment rate has reached 17.3% exceeding that of the Italians by about 6 points. The Inactive In addition to the unemployment data, there has been an increase in the inactive foreign population that has reached million (+77 thousand units on annual basis) mainly involving the non-eu component (+52 thousand) due to the phenomenon of family joining, to the increase in the amount of second generation foreign citizens and the shares of non-programmed entrances of non-eu foreign citizens such as refugees,

7 asylum applicants or entrances for family reasons. On the basis of the data taken into consideration, inactivity seems to have a different relevance compared to the past, also from a strictly numeric viewpoint. Families and labour market In 2013, the amount of immigrant families amounted to a little more than 1.8 million, of which 585 thousand EU and 1.2 million non-eu, with parental structures, members ages and number of the components different compared to Italian families, and also different among communities. At aggregated level, 59.8% of Italian families counts at least one worker against 82.8% of foreign citizen families. However, the higher the participation in the labour market, the greater the exposure to the risk of unemployment. In 2013, foreign citizen families with at least one member struck by unemployment due to dismissal, termination of the employer s business or due to expiry of a fixed-term contract, counted 24% of the total against 14.6% of corresponding Italian families. The percentage varies upon the varying of the typology of family taken into consideration; the gap between foreign citizen families and Italian families if even wider, for example, in case of couples without children (28% vs. 8.7%), or in case of singles (16.3% of the cases against 4.7%). Labour demand: data from the Mandatory Communications on dependent and subordinate jobs [Comunicazioni Obbligatorie sul lavoro dipendente e parasubordinato] Administrative data confirm the difficulties that foreign citizen workers are facing in the Italian labour market. In 2013, the Sistema Informativo delle Comunicazioni Obbligatorie registered a volume of activated work relationships which involved foreign citizens for an amount equal to 1,861,943 units, of whom 766,150 EU (41.1% of the total) and 1,095,793 non-eu (58.9%). In the past twelve months, the contraction of labour demand has been relevant. With reference to the volume of employments registered in 2012, it is possible to observe a contraction equal to -9% for EU citizens and - 5.4% for non-eu citizens. In the whole, contracts destined to foreign citizens have decreased by almost 7 points, with peaks equal to -7.7% in the Northern labour market and -6.8% in the Central labour market.

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