Writenet Paper No. 6/2000

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1 . Writenet Paper No. 6/2000 : Korwa G. Adaar / Rhodes, 2000 Writenet -,. Practical Management (UK) Writenet.. ISSN

2 : : - (IGAD) ( - )

3 ,, 1983, ,. ( , , ) ( , ). -,.., shari a, shari a -.,,. -,,. 3

4 ,., , 28. : ( ), % %, $ $ $ $, $ $ 1996, ,,,,, , -. shari a.,.,. - 1 World Bank, African Development Indicators 2000 (Washington DC 2000,. 176). 4

5 , -..,., %, 25% ( - ) 5% ( ) 52%, 39% Beja 6%. - Baggara ( ), Fur, Masalit, Zaghana, Beja, ( ). -. -, Bashir (Jihad). shari a ,, -, , - shari a (al-urf) (ijma al-ummah) -, (Sudanese Popular Defence Force SPDF), Bashir 1989, (People s Defence Forces PDF) (Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement SPLM) (Sudan Peoples Liberation Army). SPLM/SPLA Garang ( Dinka) Riek Machar ( Nuer) 1991 SPLA ( Nasir Machar) SPLA ( Tarit Garang) Nasir SPLA (Southern Sudan Independence Movement SSIM) - 5

6 (Southern Sudan Independence Army SSIA), (United Salvation Democratic Front USDF). USDF Machar, (South Sudan Defence Forces SSDF) -, SPLA. Bashir (National Islamic Front NIF) Machar - (Coordinating Council for the Southern States CCSS). Kerubino Kuonyin Bol (Dinka), SPLA SPLM, SPLA Bahr al-ghazal, Machar. Bashir Machar CCSS. 1998, Kerubino Bol Garang, o Lawrence Lual Lual Bahr al-ghazal., Machar Lual 1998 USDF SPLA Bahr al- Ghazal Machar SSDF, - Gordon Kong ( ), Gatwick Gatkont (Nasir - ) Gatwick Dhel ( Jonglei) Machar CCSS - USDF NIF Bashir USDF-NIF Al Zubeir Mohammed Salih,, Dr. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon SSIM/SSIA Kerubino Kuonyin Bol SSIM/SSIA - Ahmed I - Eltahir, Dr. Thomas Abwal Chidi, SSIM/SSIA Arok Thon Arok SSIM/SSIA.,,, shari a. Machar (SSIM), - (SSIA) shari a., - (National Democratic Alliance NDA), SPLM/SPLA, Umma, (Democratic Unionist Party DUP), Faithi Ahmed Ali,,, SPLM/SPLA, Equatoria, Anya Nya 2, murahelin ( Baggara Rizeiqat, Rufaa al Huj Misiriya). Anya Nya 2 murahelin SPLM/ - ( Muhammed Harun Kofi) - - 6

7 (NIF).. Numeiri (shari a). Sadiq al Mahdi ( ). -., SPLA., (Lord s Resistance Army LRA J. Kony) (West Nile Bank Front WNBF) - Yoweri Museveni WNBF ( Juma Oria), LRA (NIF) Jebelin Nimule, Kit II Musito Jimmy Carter, Museveni Bashir 1999, (Uganda People s Defence Force UPDF) - Museveni. UPDF LRA WNBF - (Allied Democratic Forces ADF). Salaf Tabliq. Laurent Kabila - Bashir. realpolitik ,, - (Eritrean People s Liberation Front EPLF) (Ethiopian People s Revolutionary Front EPRDF) -. EPRDF (Tigray People s Liberation Front) Oromo (Oromo Liberation Front). 7

8 EPLF EPRDF SPLA., ( ) realpolitik. -, ( 1995, Hosni Mubarak ) SPLA Gambela, (Eritrean Islamic Jihad EIJ)., - EIJ -, , -., ( ) -., SPLA NDA SPLA -. - : Beja Congress, Umma ( Sodiqal Mahdi, NDA), ( - ),. Halaib, -,.., Mubarak ( ), ( ) murahelin - 8

9 - (quwwat as-sadiiqa) (Khawarij). -, (SPLA) -.. ( ) 2 ( ) ( - ) , $ $ $ Adar, Heglig Unity.,, sine qua non : United States, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers, (Washington DC, 1995) World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers, (Washington DC, 2000). 9

10 ( ) (Jihad) -.,, Bashir , ,,,,,,,,,,,, , (F-7M Airguard), 60 -, 12, SCUD $. - Petrolian Nasional Berhad (Petronas). H Petronas China National Petroleum Company Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company Sukhoi, Mi-24, MiG 19 MiG apartheid., -. SPLM/A ,,, 10

11 :, PRB-M , -15, -69, - VS-3.6, -14,. 4, PMD 6 M /79. Bashir SPLA.. - Baggera, Rizeiqat, Rufaa al Huj Misiriya, - Darfur Kordofan. - SPLA.., 1997 Godier, Ajibani, Andiring, Mirianta, Timbili, Sabirna, Kasay, Shashta, Kalkuti Kasia. - Nuer, Anya Nya 2, Murle, Toposa Mandari. 4.1 :, 1983, o SPLM/SPLA -.,, -. : Nuer, Dinka, Lotuha, Shiluk, Nuba, Anuak, Beja, Fertit, Latuka Acholi., 1983, SPLM/SPLA. (Politico-Military High Command PMHC) SPLM/SPLA SPLA SPLM ( ) SPLA ( - )., John Garang. PMHC.. SPLM ,. -. SPLM/SPLA SPLM/SPLA - SPLM. 11

12 1994 Chukudum,. - Chukudum,,. -, (1994),, -. SPLA Nuer,, - (SPLA) Dinka. - SPLA %. SPLA, -., SPLA,, - Beja (Beja Congress Armed Forces BCAF), (Sudan Alliance Forces SAF), Umma, -. John Garang. SPLM/SPLA,. SPLM/SPLA, -,., 1984, Roland,» Rowland, - LONHRO, Daniel arap Moi, SPLA. O Rowland , -,,, UPDF SPLA,, SPLA -. SPLA -, Eldoret, - Rift. Beja - Beja,., Suakin - Beja Beja. - (Sudan Alliance Forces SAF) -. LONHRO Rowland 12

13 SPLA. SPLA - Norwegian People s Aid (NPA),. SPLA $ (US Agency for International Development USAID). - SPLA Church Emergency Aid (Kirkens Noedhjelp ). H Norwegian People s Aid, (Christian Solidarity International CSI). - SPLA NPA SPLA, Monsour Khalid, Brundtland, Gro Harlem Brundtland ( ), SPLA. Airscan, SPLA. Sandline International, Executive Outcomes - Professional Resources Incorporated , ,, - ( ) ,, SPLA , SPLA: -., al- Shifa, Abu Nidal Hamas, Hezbollah, Gamaat Islamiya Islamic Jihad. 13

14 , , al-shifa - - VX. Infinite Reach al-shifa 1998., - SPLA., Clinton USAID, USAID, (Sudan Transition Assistance for Rehabilitation STAR), USAID,. -, 1999 Clinton $ -, $ - - USAID $ STAR $ SPLA - Norwegian People s Aid., Clinton, -, $ $. - -., Madeleine Albright 1998 John Garang NDA,. 5., %, , Talisman Heglig ( 14

15 Darfur Kordofan) Bashir, Al-Jayli (70 ) $., Denim Pipeline Construction ( ), Roll n Oil Field Industries ), Mannesmann ( ), he Europipe Consortium, Weir Pumps ( - ), Techint ( ), Allen Power Engineering ( ). Adar ( ) Unity ( Bentiu Unity). Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company,,, -. Adar, Heglig Unity,. Chevron, , $, SPLA Agip, Texas Easter, Sun Oil Union Texas. Chevron Suakin Basin, 40, - Adnan Khashoggi 50%. Chevron Abi Jarra Concorp Sudan ,06% $, -. 15

16 / OMV-GMBH Heglig ELF-Aquitaine Heglig Totalfina Unity Chevron * Unity Occidental Petroleum Corporation* Unity Texas Eastern* Unity Union Eastern * Unity National Iranian Gas Company Unity AGIP Heglig Heglig Arakis Energy Heglig State Petroleum Corporation Heglig Talisman Heglig Gulf Petroleum Corporation Adar Gulf International Adar Royal Dutch Shell Heglig China National Petroleum Company Heglig Petrochina Heglig Petroliam Nasional Berhad Heglig GAPCO Heglig Amni International Petroleum Suakin YUKOS Adar Zarubezh-Neftegasstroi Adar Arab Group International Heglig Al-Ghanawa Melut CONCORP Adar National Oil Company of Sudan Heglig SUDAPET Heglig International Petroleum Corporation Heglig *. - -., ,, $ $ China National Petroleum Company (CNPC) Greater Nile Petroleum Op

17 erating Company Heglig 40%. CNPC, Petrochina -, BP Amoco $. - Petronas Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company 30%, Talisman Energy, - 25% Sudapet 5%.., Block A International Petroleum Corporation, Lundin Oil AB, -, 40%, Petronas 29%, OMV Gmbh 26% Sudapet 5%. -, -,., -, Branch Heritage of the South African Executive Outcomes (EO). H Executive Outcomes, 70%. - Raymond Moi ( Moi), Talisman., , Trafigura Beheer BV Vitol SA Glencore International AC Arcadia Group PLC. Omar al-bashir - -.., -.,,,

18 . -, Arakis Energy, Lufter Khan -, Qutbi Mahdi. - Khan-Mahdi Arakis Energy. Lufter Khan Petronas -. Talisman Arakis Arab Group International, bin Saud , 1973 (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries). -. Faisal Islamic Bank (FIB), 1974 Faisal Islamic Bank, Muhammed Ibn Faisal Al Saud -. - Faisal Islamic Bank,, Umma , , China National Petroleum Company Petrochina....., $ ,. 18

19 ..,,,, 1996., - Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company Sudapet $ $ $. China National Petroleum Company, Petronas Talisman 95% - Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company Clinton , : Bentiu, Guk, Rik, Gumriak, Pariang, Monkien, Langkien, Neny, Duar, Koch, Toic, Viral, Pagaran, Twic, Ruweng, Makuac Wuncuie. Oil Brigade Bor, Adar, Unity Heglig. Gulf Oil Company, al-ghanawa, Sudapet Bor.,,,. Bor , Beja SPLA Athara Erkowit. 18 murahelin, (1973) Talisman Energy murahelin 19

20 , International Petroleum Corporation Nuer %, ,,, , -. -., ,., , , , , , , , Lifeline Sudan., , $, , Lifeline Sudan, El Obeid Lokichokio ( )

21 (, %, 22% 15% )., , 1.560, , -., 16 19, , Roger Winter,» ,, , -,, $ murahelin. - 50$. SPLA - -. Baggara Bahr El Ghazal Dinka., Leonardo Franco. - UNICEF Save the Children ,.,, -,,. 21

22 7...,,.., -, -., , SPLM/SPLA John Garang Riek Machar SPLA Garang SSIM/SSIA Machar Nuer Dinka, Ayad, Kongor Waat Jonglei, «Jonglei». Nuer Dinka, SPLA Anya Nya 2, ,,, 1990.,, -. Wunlit Dinka Nuer STAR «-». Wunlit Dinkas Nuers SPLA Salva Nior (Dinka Goprial) Caesar Mazzolari Rumbek. Waat Lou Nuer 1999 Nuers Masalit Darfur. - Dinkas Nuers

23 . - Telar Deng 1998 Lokichokio ( ),, -. Nuer-Dinka Loki 1999 Wunlit Telar Deng.. -, Frontline Fellowship Peter Hammond -., - Frontline Fellowship - ( ),. - Frontline Fellowship -. CARE International World Vision $ Caritas International Action by Churches Together, (IGAD Intergovernmental Authority on Development). - John Garang Riek Machar , Jimmy Carter. Abuja Bashir. 7.3 : (IGAD) (IGADD Intergovernmen- 23

24 tal Authority on Drought and Development) (IGAD). IGAD - ( ) -., ,. IGAD IGAD. IGAD «-»,. IGAD IGAD 1992, -, SPLM/SPLA ( Garang) SPLM/SPLA ( - Machar) 1989, 1989, Abuja 1992.,,,,,.. Chukuchum IGAD -. - IGAD.,, CARE International,, (USAID),, IGAD (,,, -, ), o,, -. IGAD, ,. (shari a) 1998 IGAD. CARE International,, Oxfam Save the Children

25 IGAD. 1998, - Harare IGAD, - «-». 1998, - SPLM/SPLA IGAD. 1983, - IGAD Umma - IGAD, , ,. -., realpolitik -,,. IGAD.,., -, - apartheid., -. -,., IGAD,,,,., 25

26 IGAD... 26

27 ( 1956 ) (Shari a) Anya Nya 2, SSLM SUP, SANU, ALF Southern Party Anya Nya 2, SSLM SUP, SANU, ALF Southern Party SPLM/SPLA PRMSS SSPLM, NMS ANYA NYA 2 (Sharia) IGADD (Sharia) IGADD SPLM/SPLA NDA/USDF IGAD WCC, -

28 ADF Allied Democratic Forces BCAF Beja Congress Armed Forces Beja CCSS Coordinating Council for the Southern States CSI Christian Solidarity International DUP Democratic Unionist Party EIJ Eritrean Islamic Jihad EPLF Eritrean People s Liberation Front EPRDF Ethiopian People s Revolutionary Democratic Front LRA Lord s Resistance Army NDA National Democratic Alliance NIF National Islamic Front PDF People s Defence Forces SAF Sudan Alliance Forces SPDF Sudanese Popular Defence Force SPLA Sudan People s Liberation Army SPLM Sudan People s Liberation Movement SSDF South Sudan Defence Force SSIA Southern Sudan Independence Army SSIM Southern Sudan Independence Movement UPDF Uganda People s Defence Force USAID US Agency for International Development USDF United Salvation Democratic Front WNBF West Nile Bank Front 28

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