GALAPAGOS REPORT

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4 Prepared by Funded by General Coordination Linda J. Cayot, Galapagos Conservancy Galapagos Coordinator Desirée Cruz Editing Linda J. Cayot Desirée Cruz Richard Knab, Galapagos Conservancy Translation Spanish to English: Linda J. Cayot English to Spanish: Desirée Cruz Figures and Graphic Design Maria Fabiola Alvarez Photographs Front cover: Michael Perlmutter Back cover: Patricia Jaramillo Impresión Imprenta Monsalve Moreno ISBN: How to cite this document GNPS, GCREG, CDF, and GC Galapagos Report Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador. How to cite an article Author(s) Article title. Pp. xx-xx. In: Galapagos Report GNPS, GCREG, CDF and GC. Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador. Sources must be cited in all cases. Sections of the publication may be translated and reproduced without permission as long as the source is cited. The authors of each article are responsible for the contents and opinions expressed. The Galapagos National Park Service has its headquarters in Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos and is the Ecuadorian governmental institution responsible for the administration and management of the protected areas of Galapagos. The Governing Council of Galapagos has its headquarters in Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, San Cristóbal Island, and is the Ecuadorian governmental institution responsible for planning and the administration of the province. The Charles Darwin Foundation, an international non-profit organization registered in Belgium, operates the Charles Darwin Research Station in Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Galapagos Conservancy, based in Fairfax, Virginia USA, is the only US non-profit organization focused exclusively on the long-term protection of the Galapagos Archipelago. 4

5 FOREWORD The Governing Council of Galapagos, the Galapagos National Park Directorate and the Charles Darwin Foundation are pleased to present the Galapagos Report - a compendium of scientific and social analyses and observations designed to stimulate cogent, thoughtful discussion and public policy that will help to protect Galapagos ecosystems and its biodiversity and promote human well-being ( Buen Vivir ) in the archipelago. The articles presented in this edition of the Galapagos Report reflect a range of disciplines and opinions within the general areas of human systems, tourism, marine management, and biodiversity and ecosystem restoration. In addition, two articles present the framework for establishing a knowledge management initiative and a citizen science program for Galapagos. We are pleased to include articles by authors based in Galapagos as well as colleagues from around the globe, all of whom have shared valuable ideas and information on critical and timely issues. It is the intent of the Galapagos Report to inform and stimulate discussion, as well as catalyze critical research, and effective public action and management policy. We are grateful to the wide range of collaborators who have shared their vision for Galapagos and whose work is so critical to the health and future of the archipelago. Our three institutions remain committed to working in coordination with all Galapagos stakeholders to ensure the long-term sustainability of this natural treasure, symbol of Ecuador s natural patrimony. Edwin Naula Director of the Galapagos National Park Jorge Torres President Governing Council of Galapagos Swen Lorenz Executive Director of the Charles Darwin Foundation 5

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7 INTRODUCTION THE GREAT CHALLENGE OF GALAPAGOS TODAY AND IN THE FUTURE: HUMAN WELFARE DEPENDENT ON THE CONSERVATION OF ITS ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY Washington Tapia and Juan Carlos Guzmán 11 NEW APPROACHES A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE GALAPAGOS: AN IMMINENT NEED Juan Carlos Guzmán, Linda J. Cayot, Johannah Barry and James P. Gibbs 17 CITIZEN SCIENCE: A NEW CONSERVATION TOOL FOR THE GALAPAGOS Washington Tapia, Alycia Crall, Linda J. Cayot, Eleanor Sterling and James P. Gibbs 23 HUMAN SYSTEMS ISLAND CULTURES Christophe Grenier 31 CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN GALAPAGOS Carlos Zapata Erazo 37 POPULATION AND MIGRATION IN GALAPAGOS Marianita Granda León and Geovanny Chóez Salazar 44 MOBILITY PATTERNS AND USE OF SPACE IN GALAPAGOS Josselin Guyot-Téphany, Christophe Grenier, Emmanuel Cléder and Daniel Orellana 52 BUILDING RESPONSIBLE TERRESTRIAL MOBILITY IN SANTA CRUZ Rosa Elvira Bravo Segovia, Marianita Granda León and Edison Mendieta 59 USES, PERCEPTIONS AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER IN GALAPAGOS Josselin Guyot-Téphany, Christophe Grenier and Daniel Orellana 67 WATER CONTAMINATION IN PUERTO AYORA: APPLIED INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH USING ESCHERICHIA COLI AS AN INDICATOR BACTERIA Jessie Liu and Noémi d Ozouville 76 MEASURING POVERTY IN GALAPAGOS Marianita Granda León, Sandra González Camba and Vilma Calvopiña Carvajal 84 TOURISM THE NEW MODEL OF TOURISM: DEFINITION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF ECOTOURISM IN GALAPAGOS Juan Carlos García, Daniel Orellana and Eddy Araujo 95 THE TOURISM OBSERVATORY OF GALAPAGOS: A MONITORING SYSTEM FOR THE NEW MODEL OF ECOTOURISM Juan Carlos García, Ernesto Rangel and María Auxiliadora Farías 100 SIMAVIS: RESULTS OF MONITORING VARIOUS INDICATORS AT VISITOR SITES IN THE GALAPAGOS NATIONAL PARK Eddy Araujo, Ingrid Jaramillo, Jorge Flores, Joan Sotomayor, Marisela Gallardo and Silvia Ariscado 104 7

8 TOURISM AS AN ECONOMIC ALTERNATIVE FOR GALAPAGOS FISHERS: OPPORTUNITIES AND LESSONS LEARNED Pablo Palacios H. and Anna Schuhbauer 109 PERCEPTIONS OF THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF SHARKS FOR SINGLE-DAY DIVE TOURISM AND COMMERCE IN SANTA CRUZ ISLAND César Peñaherrera, Yasmania Llerena and Inti Keith 114 MARINE MANAGEMENT EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MANAGEMENT OF THE GALAPAGOS MARINE RESERVE: KEY FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Mario Villalta Gómez 123 SPECIES, COMMUNITIES AND ECOSYSTEMS: THE ROLE OF SCIENCE IN THE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE GALAPAGOS MARINE RESERVE Soledad Luna, Stuart Banks, Volker Koch, Diego Ruiz, Natalia Tirado, Mariana Vera, Anna Schuhbauer, Inti Keith, David Acuña, Jennifer Suárez, Macarena Parra, Gustavo Jiménez, Carolina García, Jorge Baque and Julio Delgado 131 THE REFORM OF THE PARMA LICENSING SYSTEM: THE FIRST STEP IN ELIMINATING THE RACE FOR FISH IN THE GALAPAGOS MARINE RESERVE Mauricio Castrejón 136 EVALUATION OF THE SEA CUCUMBER FISHERY IN THE GALAPAGOS MARINE RESERVE Harry Reyes, Jorge Ramírez and Anna Schuhbauer 143 EVALUATION OF THE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY IN THE GALAPAGOS MARINE RESERVE Jorge Ramírez, Harry Reyes and Anna Schuhbauer 149 HOW TO IMPROVE THE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND Mauricio Castrejón, Martín Velasco, Fred Sondheimer, Jimmy Anastacio, Leonardo Soriano and Jorge Ramírez 156 BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION MANAGEMENT OF THE AVIAN PARASITE PHILORNIS DOWNSI IN THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS: A COLLABORATIVE AND STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN Charlotte Causton, Francesca Cunninghame and Washington Tapia 167 A TRIAL TRANSLOCATION OF THE CRITICALLY ENDANGERED MANGROVE FINCH: CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT TO PREVENT THE EXTINCTION OF DARWIN`S RAREST FINCH Francesca Cunninghame, H. Glyn Young, Christian Sevilla, Victor Carrión and Birgit Fessl 174 GONE, GONE GOING: THE FATE OF THE VERMILION FLYCATCHER ON DARWIN S ISLANDS Godfrey Merlen 180 RECOVERY OF NATIVE AND ENDEMIC PLANT SPECIES IN GALAPAGOS: THE NURSERY AS AN IMPORTANT TOOL IN ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION Xavier Arturo-López and Danny Rueda 189 INCREASING THE SCALE OF SUCCESSFUL INVASIVE RODENT ERADICATIONS IN THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS Karl J. Campbell, Victor Carrión and Christian Sevilla 194 8

9 INTRODUCTION

10 Photo title page Introduction: Josselin Guyot-Téphany Photo page 10: Juan Carlos Garcia / WWF Galapagos Program

11 The great challenge of Galapagos today and in the future: Human welfare dependent on the conservation of its ecosystems and biodiversity Washington Tapia 1 and Juan Carlos Guzmán 2 1 Galapagos National Park Service, 2 Governing Council of Galapagos The difficulty of understanding that maintaining ecosystems and their biodiversity over time is the foundation of our survival as a species has been at the core of an ongoing conflict that pits conservation against development. This struggle has come to dominate economic, political and environmental discourse. However, in Ecuador and in Galapagos in particular, the Constitution establishes the legal and conceptual framework to contextualize this paradigm. Given the changing environmental conditions resulting from global climate change and the relentless pressure on natural ecosystems, there is an urgent need for humans to coexist in balance with nature. This philosophy, referred to as buen vivir or living well is expressed in Article 258 of the Ecuadorian Constitution, which states that there will be a special legal framework in Galapagos and that planning and development will adhere strictly to the principles of conservation of Ecuador s natural patrimony and buen vivir. This clearly demonstrates recognition and understanding that Galapagos ecosystems, which encompass all human activities in the islands, determine the limits that must be respected and the opportunities that can be taken advantage of. The vision of buen vivir provided by the Ecuadorian Constitution must be supported by management tools that help translate the Special Law into planning and public policy that will build a sustainable, just and equitable society one where the population lives in harmony with nature and becomes a model for the world. The road to sustainability in Galapagos must be built collectively, reflecting both the individual perspective and the common good, both today and in the future. The first step is to recognize and accept that Galapagos is not only unique, but also a place where everything is interconnected. While it is divided into different administrative units, the interconnections among them 11

12 are undeniable. These interconnections include both the natural world (flow of matter and energy) but also human society (flow of people, materials, information, etc.). Moreover, the biophysical, economic and sociocultural flows operate at different scales of space and time, requiring an understanding of the connections and relationships between each island and the archipelago, each canton and the province, Galapagos and the Republic of Ecuador, and Ecuador and the planet. Therefore, when making decisions we must not only optimize the use of economic and financial resources but also, and more importantly, ensure that our actions are based on two fundamental and absolutely complementary criteria: 1) the carrying capacity of ecosystems, which establishes the foundation for the development of the local society, and 2) the creation of the conditions needed to achieve human wellbeing today and in the future. Galapagos is currently experiencing an accelerated loss of its isolation, or what some authors call an increase in its geographical opening. This makes the province and its ecosystems very vulnerable to any natural or anthropogenic disruptions. In this sense, it is clear that the province urgently needs a unique and integrated land use plan that ensures the longterm sustainability of its socioecological system. Land use planning is an important issue in the archipelago, and it is central to the process of change currently occurring in Ecuador. Planning and methodology documents are no longer merely interesting creations to be archived in institutional libraries; rather they are becoming effective tools that guide institutional planning and management based on clearly established national goals and objectives. To ensure a better present and future for Galapagos, land use planning must help us to implement the special regimen for Galapagos established in the Constitution, through integrated and preventive management that anticipates external factors to which we are and will be exposed, and that also promotes buen vivir in perhaps one of the last natural paradises on earth. It is important to link socioeconomic activities to the conservation of ecosystems and their ability to generate environmental services. Land use planning in Galapagos should: 1) respect the ecological integrity and resilience of insular and marine ecosystems, understanding that they are the natural foundation of the archipelago, and 2) understand the potential of the archipelago from the perspective of the needs and activities of humans within a sustainable system. Efforts must be made to establish a well-organized and structured land use model for the region, and to develop public policy guidelines to ensure that programs and projects are developed consensually and are aligned with common territorial objectives. These efforts should result in zoning and land use that move beyond the mindset of protected areas versus populated areas. A single zoning system is needed that rationally assigns uses and activities, delimits the protected areas, and establishes criteria for the location and establishment of infrastructure, in such a way that will: Promote the rational use of ecosystem services, respecting their integrity and ecological resilience; Contribute to social welfare and economic development in a balanced and sustainable way throughout the province, and Define the areas designated for protection and for human settlements in a coherent and integrated manner. In order to align the mandate of the Constitution with the local population s need to live in a healthy environment with equal opportunity (the essence of sustainability), it is important to establish cooperative relationships among stakeholders of the urban and agricultural areas, and between those areas and the natural system of Galapagos. The conservation of Galapagos is the fundamental prerequisite to achieve sustainability of the province. Human wellbeing must be seen as the ultimate goal with the economy the means to achieving that goal, not the goal itself. This edition of the Galapagos Report, like previous editions, is intended to be more than just a publication. It is meant to be a useful tool for citizens and decision-makers alike. It includes a range of articles that address many of the changes that are needed to ensure the conservation of the natural resource base of Galapagos and the welfare of the local population. The report is organized into five sections: 1. New approaches. Effective knowledge management, including access to and use of information, is vital for informed and responsible decision-making. The first section of the report 12

13 Photograph: 2008 Edinson Cárdenas S. deals with the development of new approaches for the generation and management of knowledge. 2. Human systems. The second section focuses on human systems, providing information about critical issues such as population and migration, and the establishment of systems and regulations for water use and human mobility. Tackling these issues is essential if we want Galapagos to move towards sustainability. 3. Tourism. As tourism is the main indirect driver of change in the socioecological system of Galapagos, the third section speaks to the urgent need to transition to a true ecotourism model in the archipelago. 5. Biodiversity and ecosystem restoration. The final section of the report includes topics related more directly to the natural world, such as the control and eradication of invasive species, as well as the restoration of threatened ecosystems and species. We hope that a more informed society will come to understand and accept that nature does not need humans, but that we humans depend on the capacity of ecosystems to generate environmental services (benefits). In the case of Galapagos, we still have time to shape the path of development within the limits of the archipelago s natural ecosystems. If we do not succeed, future generations will inherit the need to find another place to live. 4. Marine management. In addition to tourism, marine fisheries represent an important economic activity for Galapagos. But these activities pose potential threats to coastal marine ecosystems. Applied science focused on generating information for the effective management of these areas must be considered a top priority. 13

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15 NEW APPROACHES

16 Photo title page New Approaches: Richard Renn

17 A knowledge management plan for the Galapagos: An imminent need Juan Carlos Guzmán 1, Linda J. Cayot 2, Johannah Barry 2 and James P. Gibbs 3 1 Governing Council of Galapagos, 2 Galapagos Conservancy, 3 SUNY-ESF Photograph: Theresa Baldwin There is a very real need for improved development of, access to, and use of knowledge about the Galapagos Islands. Although Galapagos is one of the most studied places in the world, timely access to even basic information about the archipelago is often difficult. Effective knowledge management underpins effective natural resource management, decision-making, and policy development in support of biodiversity conservation and a sustainable society. Current challenges include lack of standardized archiving and cataloging of existing information, inadequate technology infrastructure, poor data integration (especially between natural and social sciences), lack of access to data/ information, and a general disconnect between data/information generators and data/information users. The primary goal of the Knowledge Management Initiative for Galapagos is to foster a culture that incorporates both knowledge and wisdom as a critical component of decision-making and policy development at all levels of governance and ensures broad engagement and participation of all stakeholders. Developing and facilitating knowledge management for Galapagos will be a collaborative process to ensure engagement of all stakeholders. The Initiative will benefit many constituencies: the Ecuadorian government, managers and political appointees, researchers, Galapagos residents, tourists who visit the Islands, and people around the globe interested in Galapagos even if unable to visit. Engagement and participation by all sectors of the community should produce better informed choices, social capital, and a shared vision for the future of Galapagos. The workshop The strategies and general outline for the Knowledge Management Plan were developed at an international workshop, Strategic Administration and Management of Knowledge for Galapagos, held in Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, 30 September to 3 October The workshop was convened by the Governing Council of Galapagos (CGREG), and included key governmental and non-governmental stakeholders as well as experts in knowledge management systems. Prior to the workshop, a series of interviews were completed with various stakeholders, both in Galapagos and continental Ecuador as well as internationally, to gain a broad sense of the concerns and needs that users and producers of information felt most important when considering knowledge management for Galapagos. 17

18 Knowledge management for Galapagos Many organizations working in Galapagos are undertaking projects at the data/information level of knowledge management, digitizing historical information, facilitating access to data, and integrating information related to Galapagos human population. The potential benefits of integrating and sharing knowledge among Galapagos institutions and researchers are becoming increasingly apparent. Additionally, rapidly evolving data capture and dissemination technologies make establishing a highly functional knowledge management system far more feasible than even a few years ago. The challenge is to facilitate movement upward on the so-called Knowledge Management Pyramid from the level of raw data to intellectual capital and wisdom in a manner that incorporates everyone in Galapagos, from observers to users of knowledge (Figure 1). As more of the decision-making and policy development in Galapagos is based on the upper levels of the pyramid, the natural ecosystems of Galapagos will also benefit from this Knowledge Management Initiative. None of the levels are exclusive and both knowledge generators and knowledge seekers can be found at any level. W WISDOM General public, residents, visitors, educators, scientists, students, guides, tour operators, donors, media, decision-makers I.C. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL Sectors within the community & employees within Galapagos institutions and organizations KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE Managers, planners, policy makers, researchers & students INFORMATION INFORMATION Program managers, researchers & students DATA DATA Observers & researchers Figure 1. The Knowledge Management Pyramid (at left in blue) shows the foundation of wisdom and the movement from raw data through knowledge to wisdom. Data = raw data, field notes, observations, baseline geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing data, etc.; Information = processed data, protocols and methods, trip reports, routine reports, summary statistics and analyses, etc.; Knowledge = that used to solve problems includes plans, technical reports, narrative analyses, and publications, etc.; Intellectual Capital = intangible combination of knowledge within an institution or group; and Wisdom = ability to identify which knowledge has the potential to become intellectual capital and provide for future growth and capacity. The inverted pyramid (at right in orange) shows the variety of potential beneficiaries at each level. Three general themes were identified during the workshop as core areas to be covered in the development of knowledge management for Galapagos: biophysical knowledge, socioeconomic knowledge, and legacy knowledge. The Charles Darwin Foundation (CDF) and the Galapagos National Park Service (GNPS) have already begun key initiatives to establish accessible databases in the biophysical area (Figure 2). However, this type of data/ information is also spread across the globe, housed in a wide variety of institutions and in the files of individual scientists and others, where much of it is relatively inaccessible. Although numerous governmental organizations as well as non-profits and educational institutions have been involved in collecting socioeconomic data (Figure 3), these data are often less organized and accessible, and sometimes of lower quality, especially when collected for administrative purposes rather than research and/or adaptive management. Perhaps the most difficult knowledge to obtain and organize is so-called legacy data (Figure 4). These previously collected data, spread all over the world, are currently often found on decaying paper and in scattered, and outdated computer files. The poor condition of much of this data may require immediate action to save it. Vision for knowledge management for Galapagos Sustainable development and the quality of life of the human society in Galapagos depends upon the health of the archipelago s natural heritage; maintaining that heritage relies on a capacity for all to quickly access what we collectively know about Galapagos. 18

19 Citizen science Monitoring data Current research Herbarium/ museum/ laboratory specimens Geographical / maps and place names Biophysical Knowledge Current and ongoing management actions/results Figure 2. Some of the components within the biophysical area that should be included in knowledge management for Galapagos. Utilities: electricity, water, waste management Commerce: agriculture, fisheries, construction Tourism Health, education and labor Monitoring and periodic data Censuses and surveys Socio-economic Knowledge Transportation Figure 3. Some of the components within the socioeconomic area that should be included in knowledge management for Galapagos. Historical photos / videos People history - resident & scientists Historical management actions/ results Deteriorating documents Literature / bibliography Citizen science (anecdotal, logbooks, journals, guide reports) Legacy Knowledge Unpublished scientific data Figure 4. Some of the components within legacy knowledge that should be included in knowledge management for Galapagos. 19

20 Galapagos will have effective knowledge management that involves all sectors of Galapagos society and stakeholders, and links both tacit ( know-how ) and explicit (formal) knowledge to decision-making. In this way, it will enhance the capacity for long-term conservation of the biodiversity and unique ecosystems of Galapagos, and sustainable development of its society. Knowledge management for Galapagos will provide a platform for open participation of all sectors of Galapagos society as both contributors and users of knowledge, nurturing the development of an informed society that values and cares for its natural and cultural environments, works to prevent and mitigate environmental degradation, and supports and pursues socioeconomic policies that are consistent with the broad goal of conserving the biodiversity and unique ecosystems of Galapagos. Goals and objectives of knowledge management for Galapagos 1. Foster a culture that incorporates knowledge/wisdom as a critical component of decision-making and policy development at all levels, and that ensures broad engagement and participation of all stakeholders. 2. Create, share, and use tacit ( know-how ) and explicit (formal) knowledge about Galapagos, enabling adequate response to the needs of the communities for the conservation of ecosystems and sustainable development. 3. Catalyze research in and about Galapagos to attain and strengthen conservation and sustainable development within the archipelago over the medium- and long-term. 4. Provide better and more complete access to knowledge for decision-makers to enable more informed decision-making, policy development, and management, thus improving the outcomes of the political and governance processes. In addition to the goals, a series of 19 specific objectives were developed; key among them were: 1. Facilitate the use and distribution of knowledge about Galapagos through the establishment of a Knowledge Management System for Galapagos under the leadership of the Governing Council of Galapagos (CGREG for its initials in Spanish) and through the fostering of a knowledge culture in Galapagos. 2. Improve the technological infrastructure in the Galapagos to support the Knowledge Management System and its use by all. 3. Establish and maintain a system of coordination and cooperation among institutions and communities that generate and use knowledge about Galapagos. 4. Standardize data collection and storage and the production of information, thus establishing a culture of common practices to facilitate reproducible research and effective monitoring practices. 5. Define short-term pilot projects to demonstrate the usefulness and applicability of Knowledge Management for Galapagos [e.g., initial citizen science initiatives, Integrated Indicator System for Galapagos (SIIG for its initials in Spanish), etc.]. The Plan The Plan for the Development and Facilitation of Knowledge Management for Galapagos establishes a framework for the development of a unified, accessible knowledge management infrastructure for Galapagos that will integrate diverse information resources, such as demographic, economic, and social data about the Galapagos human community, observations on the distribution and abundance of native and migratory species, records of marked plants and animals, records from museum collections (both in the Galapagos and around the world), and other data and information. The plan outlines the establishment of tools, protocols, and networks of institutions and individuals to facilitate the production, sharing, and use of knowledge. As this project proceeds, it will benefit from the experience of organizations that have successfully implemented relevant knowledge management initiatives in other parts of the world and will make use of existing technology and protocols whenever possible. The development of knowledge management for Galapagos will be carried out over three phases. Due to financial realities, this project must proceed according to the defined phases and be developed in a modular fashion so that while all parts will become integrated, the success of any single component does not depend upon the success of all other components. Phase I will involve simultaneous execution of critical start-up tasks including the necessary audits (technology and knowledge) and needs assessment in Galapagos and beyond (especially in relation to legacy data), the establishment of a project management team, oversight body, and an advisory team network, development of a financial/fundraising plan, and initiation of pilot citizen science projects and an Integrated System of Indicators for Galapagos. Phase II will include the development of an infrastructure plan for the Knowledge Management System, a prioritybased modular expansion plan for the construction of the system, the establishment of standards and protocols, an incentive system to create collaboration and cooperation 20

21 among institutions, capacity building within institutions, development of the initial database component of the Knowledge Management System, and expansion of the citizen science program. Phase III will be the long-term implementation of the Knowledge Management Initiative and incorporation of knowledge management within the Galapagos culture, with adequate evaluations and feedback for continual improvements. Outreach to the community will be important throughout all phases and the project management team should work continuously to ensure the public s support of knowledge management. Project supervision and management The Plan for the Development and Facilitation of Knowledge Management for Galapagos will be carried out by a project management team under the leadership of the Governing Council of Galapagos. The team should include, at a minimum, a project leader, who will be responsible for all non-technical managerial responsibilities, communication, and outreach, and sufficient personnel to cover the following: management of the technical aspects of the Knowledge Management System, GIS/ database expertise, web programming, data specialist(s) (data entry, retrieval, and analysis), and technical writing. In addition to the project leader, an ideal team might consist of the following positions: System technical director GIS/database expert Web programmer Data specialist (data entry, retrieval, and analysis) Technical writer (this could be covered by the data specialist or someone else) ideally with fundraising experience Any missing skills could be compensated for by using paid consultants for particular tasks. The project management team should: Be primarily comprised of permanent staff to ensure project continuity Have redundancy to accommodate contingencies (e.g., key personnel are sick or traveling, staff attrition and recruitment, etc.) Maintain excellent records to permit institutional learning, integrated data management, and continuity of knowledge Understand the highly dynamic nature of the workload from start to finish involves continuous long-term commitment by project managers As the Knowledge Management System is built, emphasis will be placed on continuous and long-term enhancement of the technical capacity and management skills in the CGREG, GNPS, NGOs, and other institutions in Galapagos. Project evaluation Continual project evaluation is critical and will be built into the Knowledge Management Initiative to ensure effective evaluation and feedback from the start of Phase I through development and implementation. Measures of success and methodology for project evaluation will be developed during Phase I and updated when appropriate. Results from regular evaluations should lead to specific actions that improve program operations. Community education, capacity building, and public relations Good communications and public involvement are not only critical to the successful completion of this project, they are important components for the long-term value of the project and to ensure that knowledge created in and about Galapagos will serve as the foundation for decision-making and policy development over the long term. During Phase I, a detailed plan will be developed for institutional and community involvement. Financial plan A financial plan with a well-developed fundraising strategy and any necessary project proposal(s) will be developed during Phase I. The plan will include start-up funding to cover the initial audits (consultants) and the establishment of the project management team and oversight body. Funding for the Knowledge Management Initiative for Galapagos will require large commitments of financial and in-kind support from the Ecuadorian Government and from private, corporate, and foundation sources worldwide. A long-term financing system should also include some level of funding by institutional users and other beneficiaries of the Knowledge Management System. Conclusion Central to the success of the Knowledge Management Initiative is local ownership and a willingness to think broadly about information. The combined thinking of external experts and local stakeholders has evolved since the initial framework was conceived and drafted. Collectively, the language moved from simple data management (systems) to a broader philosophical approach to problem solving that relies on a strong culture of sharing wisdom and experience. This will create 21

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