# Bayesian Belief Network Analysis of Legal Evidence Fred Luminoso

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 S U R J Bayesian Belief Network Analysis of Legal Evidence Fred Luminoso A well-known and powerful tool in probabilistic inference is the Bayesian belief network. Also known as Bayesian networks, Bayes nets, inference diagrams, and a host of other aliases, belief networks have been greeted with widespread application in diverse fields of medicine, engineering, and business. One academic arena, however, is conspicuously absent from this list law. The purpose of this article is first to introduce its reader to Bayesian models and networks; second, to provide a demonstration of their potential in a legal analysis context with the aid of a case study; and finally, to evaluate the real-world applicability of Bayesian networks to criminal law and civil litigation. Essentially, the purpose of the Bayes net is to update the u s e r s uncertainty when given new information. Bayesian networks rely on Bayesianism, a probabilistic methodology which dictates that all uncertainties may be expressed with a probability estimate between zero and one. To provide an example, the probability of landing a six on the roll of a fair die is clearly 1 in 6. If the uncertainty is not measurable for one reason or another, we must rely on our best guesses. For instance, one might want to estimate the probability that he will like a new entrée at his favorite restaurant and guess at seven in ten. What Bayes nets do is compute complex interrelated probabilities with the aid of Bayes rule, which is derived from two probabilistic axioms. In symbols: P(A) = P(B) + P(AB) P(AB) = P(A B)P(B) = P(B A)P(A) The first of these dictates that for any two events A and B, the probability of A is equal to the sum of two individual probabilities: one, the probability that A is true and B is true, and two, the probability that A is true and B is false. The second axiom dictates that the joint probability of the occurrence of both A and B is equal to the probability of A, given that event B has occurred ( the conditional probability of A given B ) times the prior probability of B, or, equivalently, the conditional probability of B given A times the prior probability of A. Solving for P(A B), we have P(B A)P(A) P(A B) = = P(B) P(B A)P(A) P(B A)P(A) + P(B A)P(A) Bayes rule: Quite frequently, events A and B are such that we have knowledge of B, but in fact care about A. (In a criminal trial, for example, we have knowledge of the evidence in the case but wish to evaluate the defendant s guilt. So event B would be the occurrence of the evidence and A would be the defendant s guilt.) In order to calculate the desired probability, a Bayes net couples Bayes rule the underlying computational algorithm with a graphical representation of the 46 SURJ May 2002

3 S U R J Figure 2: Bayes net of firearms evidence against Nicola Sacco. effectively brings the total to 395 items of evidence. For the sake of brevity, Kadane and Schum do not include all of this evidence in their Bayes net analyses, but only a small subset: consciousness of guilt, firearms, and identification evidence against Sacco. I include reproductions of two of these Bayes nets in Figures 1 and 2. 2 Note that the darker nodes represent observed phenomena, and that the Bayes nets effectively revise our belief in guilt based on these observations. After the trial s conclusion, Judge Webster Thayer commented that some of the most incriminating evidence against the defendants was their alleged consciousness of guilt; that is, their behavior at the time of their arrest, which suggested they knew they had done something wrong. As the Bayes net shows graphically, some eight degrees of freedom separate the proposition of guilt from that of the evidence. In fact, even assuming perfectly credible arresting officers (whose testimony would imply that Sacco definitely made suspicious hand movements), under certain other assumptions the probability of Sacco s guilt is a meager twelve percent. Similarly, probabilistic analysis of the firearms evidence against Sacco reveals that, given the highly suspect testimony of prosecution witness Pelser (whose statements appear to have been the result of coaching on the part of theprosecution), the odds of Sacco s guilt hover around 200:1 in favor of innocence. It may be likely that Sacco had the revolver Exhibit 28 on him when he was arrested, that shell W came from Exhibit 28, and that Exhibit 18 was fired through Exhibit 28. Given the suspect testimony and the distinct possibility that Exhibit 18 was not the bullet extracted from one of the guards bodies, however, it is almost impossible that Sacco was guilty. Real-World Application This concludes my thought experiment. The question now becomes whether, and if so how, this research can be extended from thought experiment to real-world application. Clearly using them as a tool to aid in the evaluation of guilt is fraught with potential for abuse. Where Bayesian networks could make themselves useful is as a supplement to decision analysis (DA), already a popular mechanism in litigation. In a method very similar to that of a Bayes net, DA combines numerical methods with a graphical model (called a decision tree) of a sequence of events, with the purpose of optimizing decisionmaking under uncertainty. The tree represents each event with a node and assigns to it a probability distribution conditional upon the preceding events. The decision analyst attaches a specific monetary outcome to each elemental possibility (the most specific outcomes depicted on the furthest right of the tree), and then multiplies the product of the conditional probabilities together with the monetary outcomes to arrive at the expected value of each elemental possibility. To make the best decision in theory, the analyst only has to choose the option with the highest expected value. On the following page is a a lawsuit and its sample decision tree (Fig. 3). 48 SURJ May 2002

6 Suggested Reading Bergman P, Moore A. Mistrial by likelihood ratio: Bayesian analysis meets the F-word. Cardozo Law Rev 1991; 13: Cohen LJ. The Probable and the Provable. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Edwards, W. Influence diagrams, Bayesian imperialism, and the Collins case: An appeal to reason. Cardozo Law Rev 1991; 13: Finkelstein M, Fairley W. A Bayesian approach to identification evidence. Harvard Law Rev 1970; 83: Jensen, FV. An Introduction to Bayesian Networks. London: UCL Press, Kadane J, Schum D. Probabilistic Analyses: Judgments and Stories. In: A Probabilistic Analysis of the Sacco and Vanzetti Evidence. New York: John Wiley, Kaplan, J. Decision theory and the fact-finding process. Stanford Law Rev 1968; 20: McDiarmid, M. Lawyer decision making: The problem of prediction. Wisconsin Law Rev 1992; 6: Simon R. Beyond reasonable doubt: An experimental approach at quantification. J Applied Behavioral Science 1970; 6: Simon R, Mahan L. Quantifying burdens of proof: A view from the bench, the jury, and the classroom. Law and Society Rev 1971; 5: Tribe L. Trial by mathematics: precision and ritual in the legal process. Harvard Law Rev 1971; 84: May 2002 SURJ 51

### THE COURT: You have been selected and sworn to determine the facts and

1 THE COURT: You have been selected and sworn to determine the facts and render a verdict in the case of the Commonwealth / 1 of Pennsylvania versus Robert Greene, who is charged with one count of robbery,

### Introduction to. Hypothesis Testing CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES. 1 Identify the four steps of hypothesis testing.

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing CHAPTER 8 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 1 Identify the four steps of hypothesis testing. 2 Define null hypothesis, alternative

### Glossary of Terms Acquittal Affidavit Allegation Appeal Arraignment Arrest Warrant Assistant District Attorney General Attachment Bail Bailiff Bench

Glossary of Terms The Glossary of Terms defines some of the most common legal terms in easy-tounderstand language. Terms are listed in alphabetical order. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W

### Courts & Our Legal System

Courts & Our Legal System 2012 (Version 1.0) This booklet has been prepared, published and distributed by the Public Legal Education Association of Saskatchewan (PLEA). The purpose of PLEA and this booklet

### The Police Have Left Word That They Want to Speak With You

The Police Have Left Word That They Want to Speak With You What Does it Mean and What Should You Do? Don A. Murray, Esq. Shalley & Murray 125-10 Queens Blvd., Suite 10 Kew Gardens, NY 11415 273 Sea Cliff

### VETTING THE EXPERT---YOURS AND THEIRS

VETTING THE EXPERT---YOURS AND THEIRS Too often an attorney will retain an expert on the advice of another attorney or based on a limited amount of time spent searching for the expert. The most important

### GLOSSARY OF SELECTED LEGAL TERMS

GLOSSARY OF SELECTED LEGAL TERMS Sources: US Courts : http://www.uscourts.gov/library/glossary.html New York State Unified Court System: http://www.nycourts.gov/lawlibraries/glossary.shtml Acquittal A

### Decades of Successful Sex Crimes Defense Contact the Innocence Legal Team Now

Criminal Court Felonies The U.S. has the highest rate of felony conviction and imprisonment of any industrialized nation. A felony crime is more serious than a misdemeanor, but the same offense can be

### What Is Small Claims Court? What Types Of Cases Can Be Filed In Small Claims Court? Should I Sue? Do I Have the Defendant s Address?

SMALL CLAIMS COURT What Is Small Claims Court? Nebraska law requires that every county court in the state have a division known as Small Claims Court (Nebraska Revised Statute 25-2801). Small Claims Court

### Opening Statements Handout 1

Opening Statements Handout 1 Once the jury has been chosen, the attorneys for both sides deliver an opening statement about the case to the jury. Opening statements outline the facts that the attorneys

### STEPS IN A TRIAL. Note to Students: For a civil case, substitute the word plaintiff for the word prosecution.

STEPS IN A TRIAL Note to Students: For a civil case, substitute the word plaintiff for the word prosecution. A number of events occur during a trial, and most must happen according to a particular sequence.

### Legal view of digital evidence

Chapter 2 Legal view of digital evidence Before developing a model or a theory, it is important to understand the requirements of the domain in which the model or the theory is going to be used. The ultimate

### The Legal System in the United States

The Legal System in the United States At the conclusion of this chapter, students will be able to: 1. Understand how the legal system works; 2. Explain why laws are necessary; 3. Discuss how cases proceed

### A Mediation Primer for the Plaintiff s Attorney

By: Bruce Brusavich A Mediation Primer for the Plaintiff s Attorney Making your case stand out to the other side, and what to do when they ask you to dance. Make the Defense Ask to Mediate Obtaining a

### THE EFFECT OF SETTLEMENT IN KAPLOW S MULTISTAGE ADJUDICATION

THE EFFECT OF SETTLEMENT IN KAPLOW S MULTISTAGE ADJUDICATION Abraham L. Wickelgren Professor Louis Kaplow s article, Multistage Adjudication, presents an extremely useful framework for thinking about how

### HOW A TYPICAL CRIMINAL CASE IS PROSECUTED IN ALASKA

HOW A TYPICAL CRIMINAL CASE IS PROSECUTED IN ALASKA The Office of Victims Rights receives many inquiries from victims about how a criminal case in Alaska is investigated by police and then prosecuted by

### A Few Basics of Probability

A Few Basics of Probability Philosophy 57 Spring, 2004 1 Introduction This handout distinguishes between inductive and deductive logic, and then introduces probability, a concept essential to the study

### Stages in a Capital Case from http://deathpenaltyinfo.msu.edu/

Stages in a Capital Case from http://deathpenaltyinfo.msu.edu/ Note that not every case goes through all of the steps outlined here. Some states have different procedures. I. Pre-Trial Crimes that would

### Chapter 4 Introduction to Probability

Chapter 4 Introduction to Probability Experiments, Counting Rules, and Assigning Probabilities Events and Their Probability Some Basic Relationships of Probability Conditional Probability Probability as

### Sexual Assault of a Child VOIR DIRE QUESTIONS

ATTORNEYS Sexual Assault of a Child VOIR DIRE QUESTIONS 1. What are your feelings or opinions about criminal defense attorneys? 2. Have you ever had a bad experience with a criminal defense attorney? If

### NOT ACTUAL PROTECTION: ACTUAL INNOCENCE STANDARD FOR CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEYS IN CALIFORNIA DOES NOT ELIMINATE ACTUAL LAWSUITS AND ACTUAL PAYMENTS

NOT ACTUAL PROTECTION: ACTUAL INNOCENCE STANDARD FOR CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEYS IN CALIFORNIA DOES NOT ELIMINATE ACTUAL LAWSUITS AND ACTUAL PAYMENTS By Celeste King, JD and Barrett Breitung, JD* In 1998

### Escape Conviction when Prosecuted for a Federal Tax Crime. Court, DOJ, IRS no jurisdiction without specific Section of Title 26 quoted

Escape Conviction when Prosecuted for a Federal Tax Crime Court, DOJ, IRS no jurisdiction without specific Section of Title 26 quoted Why, in a "Federal District Court" when charged with a "tax crime"

### IN THE MISSOURI COURT OF APPEALS WESTERN DISTRICT

IN THE MISSOURI COURT OF APPEALS WESTERN DISTRICT STATE OF MISSOURI, v. ROBERT E. WHEELER, Respondent, Appellant. WD76448 OPINION FILED: August 19, 2014 Appeal from the Circuit Court of Caldwell County,

### LEGAL MALPRACTICE AND THE CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEY By Peter L. Ostermiller

LEGAL MALPRACTICE AND THE CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEY By Peter L. Ostermiller Occasionally, a defendant, while incarcerated and apparently having nothing better to do, will file a Motion under RCr. 11.42,

### In Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, pages 842-846, Warsaw, Poland, December 2-4, 1999

In Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, pages 842-846, Warsaw, Poland, December 2-4, 1999 A Bayesian Network Model for Diagnosis of Liver Disorders Agnieszka

### Conn Valuation Services Ltd.

CAPITALIZED EARNINGS VS. DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW: Which is the more accurate business valuation tool? By Richard R. Conn CMA, MBA, CPA, ABV, ERP Is the capitalized earnings 1 method or discounted cash flow

### TOP TEN TIPS FOR WINNING YOUR CASE IN JURY SELECTION

TOP TEN TIPS FOR WINNING YOUR CASE IN JURY SELECTION PRESENTED BY JEFF KEARNEY KEARNEY & WESTFALL 2501 PARKVIEW STREET, SUITE 300 FORT WORTH, TEXAS 76102 (817) 336-5600 LUBBOCK CRIMINAL DEFENSE LAWYERS

### A Citizen s Guide to the Criminal Justice System: From Arraignment to Appeal

A Citizen s Guide to the Criminal Justice System: From Arraignment to Appeal Presented by the Office of the Richmond County District Attorney Acting District Attorney Daniel L. Master, Jr. 130 Stuyvesant

### How to Prepare for your Deposition in a Personal Injury Case

How to Prepare for your Deposition in a Personal Injury Case A whitepaper by Travis Mayor, Attorney If you have filed a civil lawsuit in your personal injury case against the at fault driver, person, corporation,

### SUPERIOR COURT OF ARIZONA MARICOPA COUNTY LC2014-000424-001 DT 01/22/2015 THE HON. CRANE MCCLENNEN HIGHER COURT RULING / REMAND

Michael K. Jeanes, Clerk of Court *** Filed *** 01/26/2015 8:00 AM THE HON. CRANE MCCLENNEN STATE OF ARIZONA CLERK OF THE COURT J. Eaton Deputy GARY L SHUPE v. MONICA RENEE JONES (001) JEAN JACQUES CABOU

### Civil Or Criminal Securities Fraud A Blurry Line

Portfolio Media, Inc. 648 Broadway, Suite 200 New York, NY 10012 www.law360.com Phone: +1 212 537 6331 Fax: +1 212 537 6371 customerservice@portfoliomedia.com Civil Or Criminal Securities Fraud A Blurry

### Review. Bayesianism and Reliability. Today s Class

Review Bayesianism and Reliability Models and Simulations in Philosophy April 14th, 2014 Last Class: Difference between individual and social epistemology Why simulations are particularly useful for social

### Chapter 4 DECISION ANALYSIS

ASW/QMB-Ch.04 3/8/01 10:35 AM Page 96 Chapter 4 DECISION ANALYSIS CONTENTS 4.1 PROBLEM FORMULATION Influence Diagrams Payoff Tables Decision Trees 4.2 DECISION MAKING WITHOUT PROBABILITIES Optimistic Approach

### Role Preparation. Preparing for a Mock Trial

Civil Law Mock Trial: Role Preparation This package contains: PAGE Preparing for a Mock Trial 1-5 Time Chart 6 Etiquette 7-8 Role Preparation for: Plaintiff and Defendant Lawyers 9-12 Judge 13 Jury 13

### PROSECUTORS, KNOW YOUR CRIMINAL DEFENSE LAWYER *

PROSECUTORS, KNOW YOUR CRIMINAL DEFENSE LAWYER * George E. Tragos ** Prosecutors for the most part are dedicated and honest public servants. They certainly don't do what they do for the money. They do

### INTRODUCTION DO YOU NEED A LAWYER?

INTRODUCTION The purpose of this handbook is to provide answers to some very basic questions that inmates or inmates families might have regarding the processes of the criminal justice system. In no way

### Small Claims Court Information provided by Oregon State Bar http://www.osbar.org/public/legalinfo/1061_smallclaims.htm

Community Alliance of Tenants Tenant Education Information is for general information purposes only, and is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney Small Claims Court Information provided by Oregon

### TIPS FOR HANDLING FEDERAL CRIMINAL APPEALS. Like any field of law, criminal appellate practice is an inexact science. No

TIPS FOR HANDLING FEDERAL CRIMINAL APPEALS By Henry J. Bemporad Deputy Federal Public Defender Western District of Texas Like any field of law, criminal appellate practice is an inexact science. No one

### ARREST! What Happens Now?

Personal Injury Wrongful Death Slip & Fall Automobile Accidents Trucking Accidents Motorcycle Accidents Medical Malpractice Criminal Defense You re Under ARREST! What Happens Now? Do NOT Speak to Police

### UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS HOUSTON DIVISION

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS HOUSTON DIVISION UNITED STATES OF AMERICA v. CRIMINAL ACTION H-00-0000 DEFENDANT(S) JURY INSTRUCTIONS I. General A. Introduction Members of the Jury:

### Chapter 14 Managing Operational Risks with Bayesian Networks

Chapter 14 Managing Operational Risks with Bayesian Networks Carol Alexander This chapter introduces Bayesian belief and decision networks as quantitative management tools for operational risks. Bayesian

### STATE OF ARIZONA, Appellee, ROY MATTHEW SOVINE, Appellant. No. 1 CA-CR 14-0094

NOTICE: NOT FOR PUBLICATION. UNDER ARIZONA RULE OF THE SUPREME COURT 111(c), THIS DECISION DOES NOT CREATE LEGAL PRECEDENT AND MAY NOT BE CITED EXCEPT AS AUTHORIZED. IN THE ARIZONA COURT OF APPEALS DIVISION

### United States Court of Appeals

In the United States Court of Appeals For the Seventh Circuit No. 15 1848 IN RE: CITY OF MILWAUKEE, et al., Petition for Writ of Mandamus to the Eastern District of Wisconsin. Nos. 13 cv 920 JPS, 14 cv

### DWI / DUI Defense Lawyer / Attorney for Tyler and East Texas

DWI / DUI Defense Lawyer / Attorney for Tyler and East Texas The law is actually in your favor, especially for a DWI or DUI case. An arrest does not make you guilty of a DWI or DUI, but the prosecution

### Students have to guess whether the next card will have a higher or a lower number than the one just turned.

Card Game This problem gives you the chance to: figure out and explain probabilities Mrs Jakeman is teaching her class about probability. She has ten cards, numbered 1 to 10. She mixes them up and stands

### How Do People Settle Disputes? How a Civil Trial Works in California

Article brought to you by the Administrative Office of the California Courts and California Council for the Social Studies in partnership for Civic Education How Do People Settle Disputes? How a Civil

### Walking Through a Trial

Lesson Overview Overview: This lesson will teach students how the legal system works and how a case progresses through the state courts. Objectives: Students will be able to Define key terms related to

### Boulder Municipal Court Boulder County Justice Center P.O. Box 8015 1777 6 th Street Boulder, CO 80306-8015 www.bouldercolorado.

Boulder Municipal Court Boulder County Justice Center P.O. Box 8015 1777 6 th Street Boulder, CO 80306-8015 www.bouldercolorado.gov/court JURY READINESS CONFERENCE INSTRUCTIONS You have set your case for

### TABLE OF CONTENTS. Homicide Case Flowchart...3. Overview of Homicide Trial...4. Location of Local Court Houses...5. General Courtroom Diagram...

A Guide to the Homicide Criminal Justice Process P a g e 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Homicide Case Flowchart...3 Overview of Homicide Trial...4 Location of Local Court Houses...5 General Courtroom Diagram...6

### There is an inherent flaw in the United States criminal justice system. The

The Problem of Truth: Discussion of a Lawyer s Duty There is an inherent flaw in the United States criminal justice system. The adversarial nature of formal dispute resolution upon which our common law

### CREATING & DEVELOPING WINNING THEMES & ARGUMENTS By: Ervin A. Gonzalez

CREATING & DEVELOPING WINNING THEMES & ARGUMENTS By: Ervin A. Gonzalez I. INTRODUCTION A winning trial attorney recognizes that to reach the goal of a successful verdict, you must first develop a plan

### JUROR S MANUAL (Prepared by the State Bar of Michigan)

JUROR S MANUAL (Prepared by the State Bar of Michigan) Your Role as a Juror You ve heard the term jury of one s peers. In our country the job of determining the facts and reaching a just decision rests,

### ACH 1.1 : A Tool for Analyzing Competing Hypotheses Technical Description for Version 1.1

ACH 1.1 : A Tool for Analyzing Competing Hypotheses Technical Description for Version 1.1 By PARC AI 3 Team with Richards Heuer Lance Good, Jeff Shrager, Mark Stefik, Peter Pirolli, & Stuart Card ACH 1.1

### JEANETTE A. FENTI CASE NO. 92-22400 DEBORAH C. MESSMER, AP NO. 92-22400. Plaintiff, Defendant. DECISION AND ORDER

UNITED STATES BANKRUPTCY COURT WESTERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK IN RE: JEANETTE A. FENTI CASE NO. 92-22400 Debtor. DEBORAH C. MESSMER, AP NO. 92-22400 -v- Plaintiff, JEANETTE A. FENTI, Defendant. DECISION

### AN INTRODUCTION COURT. Victim Services Department of Justice

AN INTRODUCTION TO COURT Victim Services Department of Justice TABE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION......1 2. FIING A POICE REPORT...1 3. COURT PROCESS......2 4. TESTIFYING IN COURT...5 5. COMMONY ASKED QUESTIONS...6

### FURR & HENSHAW. 1900 Oak Street, P.O. Box 2909 Myrtle Beach, SC 29578 Phone: (843) 626-7621. and

FURR & HENSHAW 1900 Oak Street, P.O. Box 2909 Myrtle Beach, SC 29578 Phone: (843) 626-7621 and 1534 Blanding Street Columbia, SC 29201 Phone: (803) 252-4050 YOUR AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENT CASE The purpose of

### Chapter 4 Legal Ethics

Chapter 4 Legal Ethics Yes. You read that right legal ethics. Har de har. Go ahead. Get it out of your system. How about this one? Why do scientists prefer using lawyers over lab rats? There are some things

### COURT OF APPEALS OF VIRGINIA

COURT OF APPEALS OF VIRGINIA Present: Judges Elder, Frank and Millette Argued at Alexandria, Virginia CHRISTOPHER J. MARTIN MEMORANDUM OPINION BY v. Record No. 0035-07-4 JUDGE LeROY F. MILLETTE, JR. APRIL

### CROSS EXAMINATION OF AN EXPERT WITNESS IN A CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE CASE. Mark Montgomery

CROSS EXAMINATION OF AN EXPERT WITNESS IN A CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE CASE Mark Montgomery Post Office Box 161 Durham, NC 27702 (919) 680-6249 mark.montgomery@mindspring.com Opinion Testimony by a Pediatrician/Nurse/Counselor/Social

### Making Sure The Left Hand Knows What The Right Hand Is Doing Representing Health Care Providers In Medical Negligence Cases by: Troy J. Crotts, Esq.

Making Sure The Left Hand Knows What The Right Hand Is Doing Representing Health Care Providers In Medical Negligence Cases by: Troy J. Crotts, Esq. Florida Continues as National Leader in Disciplinary

### In Criminal Case No. 405 of 2004, at the Resident Magistrate s. Court of Dar es Salaam at Kisutu, the appellant and three others

IN THE COURT OF APPEAL OF TANZANIA AT DAR ES SALAAM 1 (CORAM: MUNUO, J.A., MBAROUK, J.A., And ORIYO, J.A.) CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. 259 OF 2008 KARIM RAMADHANI. APPELLANT VERSUS THE REPUBLIC... RESPONDENT (Appeal

### REPLY TO OPPOSITION TO PETITION FOR A WRIT OF CERTIORARI

No. 14-182 In the Supreme Court of the United States DANIEL T. IRISH, vs. Petitioner, BURL CAIN, Warden, Louisiana State Penitentiary, ON PETITION FOR A WRIT OF CERTIORARI TO THE LOUISIANA SUPREME COURT

### Please scroll down and continue reading for my response to the government s motion that I be examined by a government expert

My detractors on the internet, of which I have many, largely made up of tax lawyers who try to discredit me because I represent a threat their livelihood, and certain people whose ideas on the income tax

SUPERIOR COURT OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON, COUNTY OF KING If You Are a Washington Health Care Provider or a Washington PIP Insured of a USAA Company, and Your Health Care Bills Were Reduced Based on an

### AGENDA FOR RULES COMMITTEE MEETING. October 9, 2015 (Friday)

The agenda for a meeting of the Rules Committee generally will be posted 7-10 days before the date of the meeting. At the discretion of the Chair, items may be deleted from or added to the agenda. AGENDA

### A Bayesian Network Model for Diagnosis of Liver Disorders Agnieszka Onisko, M.S., 1,2 Marek J. Druzdzel, Ph.D., 1 and Hanna Wasyluk, M.D.,Ph.D.

Research Report CBMI-99-27, Center for Biomedical Informatics, University of Pittsburgh, September 1999 A Bayesian Network Model for Diagnosis of Liver Disorders Agnieszka Onisko, M.S., 1,2 Marek J. Druzdzel,

### Glossary of Court-related Terms

Glossary of Court-related Terms Acquittal Adjudication Appeal Arraignment Arrest Bail Bailiff Beyond a reasonable doubt Burden of proof Capital offense Certification Charge Circumstantial evidence Citation

### Faculty of Law Fall Semester 2015

University of Zurich Faculty of Law Fall Semester 2015 Law & Economics Economic Analysis of Law Procedural Law Prof. Dr. Rolf H. Weber / Dr. Mark Steiner lst.weber@rwi.uzh.ch Stages in a Legal Dispute

### Unit 19: Probability Models

Unit 19: Probability Models Summary of Video Probability is the language of uncertainty. Using statistics, we can better predict the outcomes of random phenomena over the long term from the very complex,

### Evidence Blocking* Jonathan Rapping** ** Jonathan Rapping is the Executive Director of the Southern Public

Evidence Blocking* Jonathan Rapping** * The term evidence blocking and the ideas set forth in this paper come from my colleague and mentor at the D.C. Public Defender Service, Jonathan Stern. Mr. Stern

### Published in Journal of Legal Economics, Volume 5, Number 2, Fall 1995 pp.57-65.

Published in Journal of Legal Economics, Volume 5, Number 2, Fall 1995 pp.57-65. The Defense Economist s Role in Litigation Settlement Negotiations Lawrence M. Spizman Professor of Economics State University

### IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI NO. 2003-KA-01700-COA STATE OF MISSISSIPPI

IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI NO. 2003-KA-01700-COA TOMMY BANKS A/K/A TOMMY EARL BANKS (HARRY) APPELLANT v. STATE OF MISSISSIPPI APPELLEE DATE OF TRIAL COURT JUDGMENT: 5/27/2003 TRIAL

### FLORIDA CRIMINAL OFFENSES AMANDA POWERS SELLERS AND JENNA C. FINKELSTEIN

If You Have Been Charged with a Crime in Florida, Familiarizing Yourself with Your Charges and the Potential Penalties If You are Convicted is the First Step to Making Yourself More Informed, Empowered

### A Lawyer s Qualifications A Lawyer s Duties Services Lawyers Render

MEET YOUR LAWYER A Lawyer s Qualifications No one but duly admitted members of the bar may practice law. A lawyer is trained to prepare legal documents for clients, to advise on personal and business matters

### Chapter 4 Crimes (Review)

Chapter 4 Crimes (Review) On a separate sheet of paper, write down the answer to the following Q s; if you do not know the answer, write down the Q. 1. What is a crime? 2. There are elements of a crime.

### Criminal Law. Month Content Skills August. Define the term jurisprudence. Introduction to law. What is law? Explain several reasons for having laws.

Criminal Law Month Content Skills August Introduction to law Define the term jurisprudence. What is law? Explain several reasons for having laws. Discuss the relationship between laws and values. Give

### Compulsory Arbitration

Local Rule 1301 Scope. Compulsory Arbitration Local Rule 1301 Scope. (1) The following civil actions shall first be submitted to and heard by a Board of Arbitrators: (a) (b) (c) (d) Civil actions, proceedings

### A Victim s Guide to Understanding the Criminal Justice System

A Victim s Guide to Understanding the Criminal Justice System The Bartholomew County Prosecutor s Office Victim Assistance Program Prosecutor: William Nash 234 Washington Street Columbus, IN 47201 Telephone:

### Main Page Search August 25, 2010

1 of 6 8/25/2010 5:22 PM Main Page Search August 25, 2010 Association News Features/Substantive Law Spotlight/Profiles Departments Classifieds The Hennepin Lawyer Kenneth Ross August 24, 2010 Headlines

### CHAPTER. What is Criminal Justice? Criminal Justice: Criminal Justice: Criminal Justice: What is the Definition of Crime?

CHAPTER What is Criminal Justice? What is the Definition of Crime? Crime: What is Justice? Justice: Social Justice: Civil Justice: The Theme of this Book Individual Rights vs. Public Order The Theme of

### PA Common Core Standards Standards for Mathematical Practice Grade Level Emphasis*

Habits of Mind of a Productive Thinker Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Attend to precision. PA Common Core Standards The Pennsylvania Common Core Standards cannot be viewed and addressed

### CRIMINAL DEFENSE FAQ. QUESTION: Am I required to allow law enforcement be allowed to search my house or my car?

THE LAW OFFICES OF SCOTT L. KRAMER CRIMINAL DEFENSE FAQ ANSWERS FROM AN DELAWARE COUNTY ATTORNEY: QUESTION: Am I required to allow law enforcement be allowed to search my house or my car? No. You are never

### DIRECT AND CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE. There are two types of evidence which you may use to determine the

Page 1 Instruction 2.240 There are two types of evidence which you may use to determine the facts of a case: direct evidence and circumstantial evidence. You have direct evidence where a witness testifies

### Guidelines for the Physician Assistant Serving as an Expert Witness (Adopted 1977, Amended 1987, 1991, 2001)

Guidelines for the Physician Assistant Serving as an Expert Witness (Adopted 1977, Amended 1987, 1991, 2001) (1) A physician assistant may serve as a witness in a legal proceeding in one of several capacities.[1]

### Decision Analysis. Here is the statement of the problem:

Decision Analysis Formal decision analysis is often used when a decision must be made under conditions of significant uncertainty. SmartDrill can assist management with any of a variety of decision analysis

### What the Jury Hears in Products Liability Litigation. The View From Both Sides and the Middle

What the Jury Hears in Products Liability Litigation The View From Both Sides and the Middle Theresa Zagnoli, Communications Expert and Jury Consultant Susan T. Dwyer, Defense Lawyer Jeffrey A. Lichtman,

### UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE THIRD CIRCUIT. No. 10-1984 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. KAREN BATTLE, Appellant

UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE THIRD CIRCUIT No. 10-1984 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA v. NOT PRECEDENTIAL KAREN BATTLE, Appellant Appeal from the United States District Court for the Eastern District

### OPENING STATEMENT FROM THE DEFENSE PERSPECTIVE JAMES C. MORROW MORROW, WILLNAUER & KLOSTERMAN, L.L.C. 53--1

OPENING STATEMENT FROM THE DEFENSE PERSPECTIVE BY JAMES C. MORROW MORROW, WILLNAUER & KLOSTERMAN, L.L.C. 53--1 Where Voir Dire is an opportunity to give the jurors an outline of your themes, opening statement

### MINNESOTA JUDICIAL TRAINING UPDATE

MINNESOTA JUDICIAL TRAINING UPDATE CRIMINAL VOIR DIRE QUESTIONS ASKED BY THE COURT THE MN SUPREME COURT TASK FORCE ON JURY SELECTION HAS RECOMMENDED THAT JUDGES BE MORE PROACTIVE IN ASKING INITIAL QUESTIONS

### Criminal Law Review Conference - 3 December 2015. Lord Justice Treacy. Keynote address

Criminal Law Review Conference - 3 December 2015 Lord Justice Treacy Keynote address I am pleased to be here today as I think this a good opportunity for me as Chairman, to outline four broad themes which

### Scaled Questions During Jury Selection

Scaled Questions During Jury Selection By: Ben Rubinowitz and Evan Torgan One of the most crucial tasks a trial attorney must undertake is selecting a pool of jurors that will view her client's case in

### DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA COURT OF APPEALS. No. 13-CT-226. Appeal from the Superior Court of the District of Columbia (CTF-18039-12)

Notice: This opinion is subject to formal revision before publication in the Atlantic and Maryland Reporters. Users are requested to notify the Clerk of the Court of any formal errors so that corrections

### Book Note: In Doubt: The Psychology Of The Criminal Justice Process, by Dan Simon

Osgoode Hall Law Journal Volume 51, Issue 2 (Winter 2014) Article 13 Book Note: In Doubt: The Psychology Of The Criminal Justice Process, by Dan Simon Jennifer McKee Follow this and additional works at:

### M2L1. Random Events and Probability Concept

M2L1 Random Events and Probability Concept 1. Introduction In this lecture, discussion on various basic properties of random variables and definitions of different terms used in probability theory and

### The HIDDEN COST Of Proving Your Innocence

The HIDDEN COST Of Proving Your Innocence Law-abiding citizens use guns to defend themselves against criminals as many as 2.5 million times every year, or about 6,850 times per day. This means that each

### UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF NEW JERSEY NOTICE OF PROPOSED SETTLEMENT AND FAIRNESS HEARING

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF NEW JERSEY NOTICE OF PROPOSED SETTLEMENT AND FAIRNESS HEARING This notice relates to the proposed settlement of a class and collective action lawsuit against First

### Bayesian Tutorial (Sheet Updated 20 March)

Bayesian Tutorial (Sheet Updated 20 March) Practice Questions (for discussing in Class) Week starting 21 March 2016 1. What is the probability that the total of two dice will be greater than 8, given that