Security concerns and the desire to reduce fossil fuel emissions have led the United Nations to take up the topic of nuclear power.

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1 Topic 1: Nuclear Power Security concerns and the desire to reduce fossil fuel emissions have led the United Nations to take up the topic of nuclear power. The United Nations is concerned with the spread of nuclear weapons, information, and technology. The right of nations to obtain and use this nuclear information has long been debated. Countries with hostile or unstable governments that have nuclear technology could be a threat to the global community. All five permanent members of the Security Council have confirmed nuclear weapons, as do India and Pakistan. Israel, North Korea, and Iran are suspected of having nuclear weapons as well. Nuclear energy involves the control of nuclear reactions. It can be used to generate electricity. Proponents of nuclear energy cite it as a relatively clean alternative to fossil fuels. The concern with nuclear energy is the risk of disaster (such as the Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine). Nuclear power plants are now under strict safety guidelines but the risk remains. There are several treaties that have been enacted regarding nuclear power and/or weapons, including the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), originally passed in The purpose of the treaty is to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Over 190 parties have been signatories to the treaty, including the 5 nuclear-weapons states. However, some countries have signed the treaty but have taken actions or steps that are not consistent with the treaty s goals. Thus, many states have called for a new treaty that addresses the problems and issues of the modern world. It is the responsibility of the General Assembly to determine whether nuclear power should have international laws or whether international laws are a breach of national freedom. Additionally, it must be concluded whether nuclear power is worth the risk at all.

2 Research Questions: Did your country sign the NPT? Does your country have nuclear weapons? Does your country use nuclear energy? If your country has nuclear weapons, should other countries have nuclear weapons? If your country does not have nuclear weapons but others do, should your country also be able to have nuclear weapons? What was the Chernobyl disaster? How did it affect Ukraine? What laws should be enforced for nuclear power plants? Will they hurt the possible growth of the nuclear energy industry? What effect will that have on pollution? Are the current international treaties on nuclear power, and nuclear weapons, effective or do they need to be amended to address current issues? Resources: 1. "The Future of Nuclear Power." The Future of Nuclear Power. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, n.d. Web. 19 Apr <http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower/>. Description: Comprehensive study by MIT regarding the future of nuclear power including economic, environmental and political challenges in the way of global nuclear expansion. 2. "Global Issues at the United Nations." UN News Center. UN, n.d. Web. 19 Apr <http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/atomicenergy/index.shtml>. Description: Provides a brief overview on the history of nuclear power and discusses key statistics and people that are involved in nuclear power proliferation. 3. "Pros and Cons of Nuclear Weapons List of Facts and Debate Green World Investor." Green World Investor RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 June <http://www.greenworldinvestor.com/2011/07/08/pros-and-cons-of-nuclear-weaponslist-of-facts-and-debate/>. Description: Describes the pros and cons of nuclear weapons 4. "Pros and Cons of Nuclear Power Plants - HRF." HRF. N.p., 27 Apr Web. 29 June <http://healthresearchfunding.org/pros-cons-nuclear-power-plants/>. Description: Describes the pros and cons of nuclear power plants

3 5. "Security Council Committee Determines Entities, Goods, Individuals Subject To Measures Imposed on Democratic People's Republic of Korea by Resolution 1718 (2006) Meetings Coverage and Press Releases." UN News Center. UN, n.d. Web. 19 Apr <http://www.un.org/news/press/docs/2009/sc9708.doc.htm>. Description: Security Council resolution on sanctions for North Korea due to violations of nuclear arms protocols. 6. "Nuclear Weapons Test Map." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 29 June <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bomb/maps/>. Description: Locations of nuclear test sites since "United Nations." - Functional Commissions and Expert Bodies. United Nations, n.d. Web. 19 Apr <http://esa.un.org/subindex/pgviewsites.asp?termcode=qf.15.15>. Description: The UN Index of Nuclear Programs. 8. "World Statistics." Nuclear Energy Institute. Nuclear Energy Institute, n.d. Web. 29 June <http://www.nei.org/knowledge-center/nuclear-statistics/world- Statistics>. Description: General nuclear statistics in the world, including number of plants, total capacity and generation, and country by country fuel shares 9. "Issues & Policy." Nuclear Energy Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr <http://www.nei.org/issues-policy>. Description: Describes nuclear facilities, global nuclear trade, environmental concerns and policy regulations. 10. "Nuclear Energy Pros and Cons - Energy Informative." Energy Informative. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr <http://energyinformative.org/nuclear-energy-pros-andcons/>. Description: Describes the pros and cons of the expansion and use of nuclear power

4 Topic 2: Racial & Religious Discrimination The United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) opposes discrimination on the basis of race, ethnicity, or religion. This office frequently cites Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR): All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. The UN member states oppose racial discrimination. However, many member states have struggled to handle racial discrimination and tensions. The UN s Anti- Discrimination Unit helps on a country-by-country basis by building a nation s ability to combat racism. The 2001 World Conference against Racism was an important event in the effort against racism. At this conference, a majority of member states adopted the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action. It outlines ways to address discrimination in health, policing, and education and calls on states to counter hatred on media and the Internet. The effects of this programme have yet to be determined. Religious discrimination is also a focus of the OHCHR and UN member states. The right to practice one s religion is supported by international laws promoting free thought. The Secretary General has called religious freedom a fundamental right. However, Amnesty International and the UN have reprimanded some member states for allowing discrimination in their countries. It is the responsibility of the General Assembly to determine whether current efforts to combat racial and religious discrimination are effective in all areas of the world. Research Questions: What racial or religious discrimination has your country dealt with? Are those struggles ongoing? How many people have been affected by racial or religious discrimination in your country? How does your country treat those people? What is the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action?

5 Has the United Nation s Anti-Discrimination Unit been effective at combating racism? Why or why not? Are there racial or religious conflicts happening around your country? How can they be resolved? Does your country have the tools to resolve those conflicts? Do those conflicts need to be resolved internally? How can the global community unite to avoid racial or religious conflicts? Resources: 1. Fisher, Max. "A Fascinating Map of the World s Most and Least Racially Tolerant Countries." Washington Post. The Washington Post, 13 May Web. 30 Apr <http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/05/15/a-fascinatingmap-of-the-worlds-most-and-least-racially-tolerant-countries/> Description: An interesting tool that provides a perspective on the world s most tolerant and intolerant countries. 2. UN General Assembly, 92nd meeting. Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities (A/RES/47/135). 18 December Web. 30 Apr <http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/47/a47r135.htm> Description: A frequently cited UN resolution that established minority groups rights to tolerance and the censure of discrimination. 3. "International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination." International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 21 Dec Web. 01 May <http://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cerd.aspx>. Description: A detailed look at nations perspectives on eliminating racial discrimination. 4. "Durban Review Conference, April 2009, Geneva." UN News Center. UN, Web. 01 May <http://www.un.org/en/durbanreview2009/ddpa.shtml>. Description: An explanation of the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action.

6 5. "Discrimination Overview." Amnesty. Amnesty International, n.d. Web. 01 May <https://www.amnesty.org/en/what-we-do/discrimination/>. Description: An independent, non-profit organization s actions to combat discrimination on all fronts. 6. "A Special Focus on Discrimination." Discrimination. United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, n.d. Web. 01 May <http://www.ohchr.org/en/issues/discrimination/pages/discrimination.aspx>. Description: A page containing descriptions of the OHCHR efforts to combat specific kinds of discrimination. 7. Beaumont, Peter. "Religious Intolerance on the Rise Worldwide, Says US Report." The Guardian. The Guardian, 20 Sept Web. 1 May <http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/sep/20/religious-intolerance-on-riseworldwide>. Description: Study detailing rise of religious intolerance and restrictions in recent years. 8. "Press Kit: Issues - Gender and Racial Discrimination - World Conference Against Racism." UN News Center. UN, n.d. Web. 01 May <http://www.un.org/wcar/ekit/gender.htm>. Description: Describes the gray area between racial and gender discrimination and pertinent statistics. 9. History.com Staff. "Ethnic Cleansing." History.com. A&E Television Networks, Web. 01 May <http://www.history.com/topics/ethnic-cleansing>. Description: A historical perspective on the clash of ethnic groups and their eradication in various parts of the world. 10. "Fight against Racism, Discrimination and Xenophobia." Fight against Discrimination. UNESCO, n.d. Web. 01 May <http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-humansciences/themes/fight-against-discrimination/>. Description: Highlights UNESCO s efforts to combat racial discrimination and xenophobia.

7 Topic 3: Internet Access and Stability A good Internet connection is necessary for economic development. The Internet is a gateway for information, communication, and financial transactions. At the World Summit on the Information Society it was declared that well developed information and communications systems can accelerate the social and economic progress of countries, and the well-being of all individuals, communities, and peoples. Progress has been made recent years in expanding Internet access. For example, the average global connection speed increased 21% in the first half of However, these gains are unevenly divided, with some nations gaining over 100% while others gaining only 1.2%. This difference in the level of Internet access between developed nations and developing nations is often called the digital divide. The digital divide can also be seen in the gap in access between advantaged groups and poor minority groups, and between urban areas and rural areas, within nations. Closing the digital divide is essential to improving global economic health. There are many solutions to close the digital divide. Some nations plan to expand their existing wired infrastructure into new areas. Others are looking to make Internet access more affordable. In more rural nations, wireless options (such as satellite Internet and long-range Wi-fi via radio waves) are being explored. The proper solution for any one country will depend on that country s geography, as well as funding and existing level of Internet access. Because countries vary greatly in terms of funding and Internet access, the ability to implement solutions also varies greatly. As cybercrime and cyber warfare become more prevalent, Internet stability must also be addressed. Cyber attacks already pose a threat to well-developed nations and can be devastating to lesser-developed nations. If immediate action is not taken, attacks are expected to increase with the continued growth of the Internet. However the United Nations must be careful to resolve this issue without interfering with a nation s freedom over its own defense.

8 In conclusion, the General Assembly should focus on improving Internet access while also countering hostile cyber operations. By solving these two issues, the continued growth of the Internet as a tool for economic progress can be secured. Research Questions: What is the status of Internet access in your country? How many people have access to the Internet? What speed is the average Internet access? How does the digital divide impact your country? Internationally, is your country better or worse than most in terms of Internet access? Domestically, are there groups of people in your country who have access to the Internet and ones that do not? How can people in your country use the Internet to promote economic development? How can wireless Internet connections help rural areas? What kind of policies/methods can be implemented to address the digital divide and Internet stability in your country? What can the UN do, if anything, to limit and prevent hostile cyber operations (e.g. cyber attacks, cybercrime, cyber warfare)? What can the UN do, if anything, to help fix the digital divide? Resources: 1. "The Economy on the Rise: Progress since the Seoul Declaration." Internet - OECD. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, n.d. Web. 30 Apr <http://www.oecd.org/internet/internet-economy-on-the-rise.htm>. Description: PDFs showing the OECD s targeted goals for improving the global Internet economy. 2. "Getting Past the 'Digital Divide'" Teaching Tolerance. Southern Poverty Law Center, n.d. Web. 30 Apr <http://www.tolerance.org/magazine/number-39-spring- 2011/feature/getting-past-digital-divide>. Description: Details the rural-urban digital divide in the United States 3. "How Broadband Satellite Internet Works." VSAT SYSTEMS: Education. VSAT SYSTEMS, n.d. Web. 30 Apr <http://www.vsat-systems.com/satelliteinternet/how-it-works.html>.

9 Description: Explains how satellite Internet works 4. "Norse IPViking Live." Norse Dark Intelligence. Norse Corporation, n.d. Web. 30 Apr <http://map.ipviking.com/>. Description: Interactive real-time heatmap of hostile cyber operations around the world 5. "State of the Internet." State of the Internet. Akamai, Web. 30 Apr <http://www.stateoftheinternet.com/index.html>. Description: Provides statistics on internet access, cyber crime, cyber attacks 6. "Statistics." International Telecommunication Union. International Telecommunication Union, n.d. Web. 30 Apr <http://www.itu.int/en/itu- D/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspx>. Description: Provides statistics on internet and communications infrastructure access. 7. "The Rising Strategic Risks of Cyberattacks." McKinsey and Company. McKinsey and Company, n.d. Web. 30 Apr <www.mckinsey.com/insights/business_technology/the_rising_strategic_risks_of_cyber attacks>. Description: Details the global economic cost of cyber attacks 8. "What Is a DDoS Attack?" Digital Attack Map. Digital Attack Map, n.d. Web. 30 Apr <http://www.digitalattackmap.com/understanding-ddos/>. Description: Explains DDos attacks, a prominent type of cyber attack 9. "WorldConnX - Wireless FAQ." WorldConnX. WorldConnX, n.d. Web. 30 Apr <http://www.worldconnx.net/wireless_faq.php>. Description: Explains how wireless internet (via radio waves) works 10. "WSIS: Declaration of Principles." WSIS: Declaration of Principles. International Telecommunication Union, n.d. Web. 30 Apr <http://www.itu.int/wsis/docs/geneva/official/dop.html>. Description: The principles set forth by the World Summit on the Information Society on addressing internet access

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