1 Lynn Zubernis, Matthew Snyder, Vickie Ann McCoy, Eric Owens & Jacqueline Hodes Department of Counselor Education West Chester University of PA ACCA October 4, 2012 Orlando, Florida
2 Dr. Lynn Zubernis Department of Counselor Education West Chester University of PA
3 Dr. Jacqueline Hodes Department of Counselor Education West Chester University of PA
5 "Could I be gay?" Is "homosexuality" personally relevant? Experience denial and confusion. CRITICAL TASK Who am I?
6 "Maybe this does apply to me." Will accept the possibility that he or she is gay/lesbian. Self- alienation can become isolation. CRITICAL TASK Deal with potential of social alienation
7 "I'm not the only one." Accepts the probability of being gay or lesbian. Recognizes sexual, social, emotional needs. Increased commitment to being lesbian or gay. CRITICAL TASK Decrease social alienation by seeking out other lesbians and gays.
8 "I've got to let people know who I am!" Immerses self in gay and lesbian culture. Less and less involvement with heterosexual community. Us- them quality to political/social viewpoint. CRITICAL TASK Deal with incongruent views of heterosexuals.
9 Develops holistic view of self. Defines self in a more complete fashion, not just in terms of sexual orientation. CRITICAL TASK Integrate gay and lesbian identity so that instead of being just the identity, it is one aspect of self.
10 How does Lesbian and Gay Identity Development impact College Student Development as a Whole? Does it matter if the coming out process occurs in High School, College, Graduate school or later? What are the developmental implications of coming out earlier or later in life?
11 Dr. Eric Owens Department of Counselor Education West Chester University of PA
12 It is essential that Higher Education Counselors and Student Affairs Professionals remember that the Lesbian/Gay identity is only one part of college student development. Students who identify as lesbian and gay are also experiencing all the other developmental milestones associated with the college years.
14 1. Developing Competence 2. Managing Emotions 3. Moving Through Autonomy Toward Interdependence 4. Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships 5. Establishing Identity 6. Developing Purpose 7. Developing Integrity
15 is involved in making choices, interacts with diverse individuals and ideas, is directly involved in new and varied experiences, is involved in solving problems without demand for conformity to an authority s opinion, and is involved with receiving feedback and making an objective self assessment.
16 Intellectual and interpersonal competence, developing physical and manual skills
17 Students develop the ability to recognize and accept emotions, as well as to appropriately control and express them.
18 Increased emotional independence, self direction, problem solving. Recognize connectedness and interdependence.
19 Intercultural and interpersonal tolerance. Relationship experience contributes significantly to the sense of self. Accept people for who they are.
20 Acknowledges differences in identity development based on gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Comfort with sense of self.
21 Clear vocational goals, making meaningful commitments to interests and activities, intentionally making and staying with decisions.
22 Humanizing values, personalizing values, and developing congruence. Going from a rigid moralistic thinking to humanized value system
23 Vectors 1-4 apply to Freshmen and Sophomores Vector 5 applies to Sophomores and Juniors Vectors 6 & 7 apply to Juniors and Seniors
24 How are these 7 vectors impacted by the coming out process? How can we integrate these two theoretical models to better understand the overall development of lesbian and gay college students? We recommend: Zubernis, L., Snyder, M. & McCoy, V. (2011). Counseling lesbian and gay college students through the lens of Cass and Chickering s developmental models. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 5 (2),
25 Dr. Vickie Ann McCoy Department of Counselor Education West Chester University of PA
26 As Higher Education Counselors and Student Affairs professionals we can foster opportunities for college students to explore sexual identity as part of their development. We can work to make certain that our campuses are safe places with opportunities for lesbian and gay students to participate, advocate and receive supportive services.
27 Explore core personal beliefs and distinguish them from internalized societal attitudes Explore misconceptions about career possibilities and limitations Develop coping strategies Create a safe environment for understanding and integrating both LG identity development and typical college student development.
28 Understand that LG status is NOT indicative of mental illness Recognize how their attitudes and knowledge about GLB issues may be relevant to assessment and treatment, and seek consultation or make appropriate referrals when needed (APA Guidelines, 2000) Understand the ways in which social stigmatization (prejudice, discrimination, violence) poses risks to the mental health and well- being of LG clients Understand how inaccurate or prejudicial views may affect the client s presentation in treatment and the counseling process
29 Be knowledgeable about and respect the importance of LG relationships Understand how a person s LG orientation may have an impact on his or her family of origin and the relationship to that family of origin Recognize the particular life challenges of LG members of racial and ethnic minorities that are related to multiple and often conflicting cultural norms, values and beliefs Understand the special problems and risks that exist for LG youth and adolescents Recognize the particular challenges experienced by LG individuals with disabilities
30 Encouraging trust Promoting disclosure Supporting risk- taking Confronting homophobia Confronting non- adaptive defenses Generalizing group experiences to real world Discussion of non- LG issues germane to college students (i.e. love relationships, sexual fidelity, aging, physical appearance, health, death/dying, F.O.O. concerns, friends, employers, co- workers, career concerns, spiritual/religious concerns)
31 1. Identity Confusion 2. Identity Comparison 3. Identity Tolerance 4. Identity Acceptance 5. Identity Pride 6. Identity Synthesis
32 I am NOT GAY. (?) I AM NOT GAY! I am not gay. I am gay. I AM GAY! I am Gay.
33 1. Identity Confusion (Less Effective) 2. Identity Comparison (Effective) 3. Identity Tolerance (Effective) 4. Identity Acceptance (Effective) 5. Identity Pride (Less Effective) 6. Identity Synthesis (Most Effective) Chojnacki & Gelberg, 1995
34 What is the cultural climate of your campus community? urban/rural? conservative/liberal? boundaries? SES? patriarchal/matriarchal? collective/individualistic? religious/spiritual? traditional/modern? majority/minority race, ethnicity, heritage, language, ability?
35 Understand the various stage theories regarding LG identity development and typical college student development. Familiarize yourself with the LG research Gain knowledge about appropriate and inappropriate LG conceptualizations and interventions Refresh knowledge base or add greater detail about appropriate and successful group interventions Continue developing multicultural competence to include LG worldview
36 Question: Do I have to identify as Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual to be an effective group leader? Answer: NO!
37 We need to provide: Facilitation of supportive relationships on campus to buffer the potential discrimination in the larger society. Connection with supportive faculty and student affairs professionals on campus, which may include counseling center professionals. Opportunities for students to safely advocate for the needs of the LG community. Education about LG issues and non- discrimination for Student Organization Leaders and Residence Life Leaders.
38 What would you do? What offices on campus can assist you? Do you know faculty members and other students who are out and advocating? How can they help this student? How can you prepare yourself to work more effectively with the developmental needs of lesbian and gay college students? Questions for the Presenters?