Patrick Callaghan Tom Palmstierna Henk Nijman - Nico Oud. Proceedings of the 5th European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry

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1 Patrick Callaghan Tom Palmstierna Henk Nijman - Nico Oud Proceedings of the 5th European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry

2 Violence in Clinical Psychiatry

3 Design and production: DM Creatieve Communicatie,

4 Prof. Dr. Patrick Callaghan Prof. Dr. Henk Nijman Prof. Dr. Tom Palmstierna Mr. Nico Oud, MNSc, N.Adm, RN Editors Violence in Clinical Psychiatry Proceedings of the 5th European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry October 2007 Congress Centre De Meervaart Meer en Vaart LE Amsterdam The Netherlands

5 Kavanah, Dwingeloo & Oud Consultancy, Amsterdam Publisher KAVANAH Eemster PP Dwingeloo The Netherlands Oud Consultancy & Conference Management Hakfort LA Amsterdam The Netherlands Telephone: Telefax: ISBN-10: ISBN-13: All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be produced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, without the permission in writing of the copyright owner (Oud Consultancy & KAVANAH) and the concerned author.

6 5 Introduction I would like, in my capacity as Chairman of the European Violence in Psychiatry Research Group (EViPRG), to welcome you to this 5th. European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry. EViPRG is pleased to support this major international event and we anticipate that three interesting and inspiring days lie ahead. Violence in mental health services and the measures used by staff to prevent and therapeutically manage it have now moved up the national agenda in many countries around the world. We are all aware that some mental health problems are associated with an increased risk of violence and that violence by some service users has a serious negative effect on other service users, on care staff and on the general public perception of people with mental health problems. It also significantly restricts the liberty and life chances of the perpetrator. Furthermore, we know that practitioners working in mental health services around the world are committed to trying to deal safely and effectively with violence directed against themselves and others. Now we are learning much more as well about how to move away from reliance on highly coercive measures such as restraint and seclusion toward more collaborative and preventive measures. This is based on a better dialogue between practitioners and service users, an important development which will be reflected in some of the presentations here. Violence is an intractable and hugely complex problem with roots in the brain, the mind and the way society operates. We will learn here from the work of researchers studying at all three of these levels and from practitioners working in all the disciplines that make up a comprehensive high-quality mental health service. It is paradoxical that whilst the expression of violence and ideas on its therapeutic management vary widely across cultures, we all share a common goal of reducing violence and coercion in mental health services and will gain much from hearing about cutting edge developments from around the world. Once again, welcome to this event and I hope that you will return to your service recharged with new ideas for moving toward this common goal. Richard Whittington

7 6 Preface Proceedings of the 5th European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry Best Evidence Based Practice: Prevention, Treatment and Management of Violence at the Individual, Institutional and Governmental Level October This book contains the expertise and information provided by the contributors to the 5th European congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry. The volume of the book clearly suggests a marked increase in scientific interests and research initiatives in the last few years on how to prevent and manage violent behaviour within mental health settings. The large number of participants and contributions to the European congresses on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry, however, also seem to reflect the severity of the problem violence poses for people working in mental health; it is one of the major occupational health hazards they face. Repeatedly hostile and violent behaviour in patients will be often a major impediment to successful rehabilitation and treatment. The expanding number of participants and scientific contributions to these biannual congresses on violence in clinical psychiatry further suggests that psychiatric practitioners and researchers put great value in being able to share expertise on how to manage aggression across disciplines and borders. We feel that the strong traditional focus of these European violence congresses on practical, clinically relevant interventions is very visible in these proceedings and we are very grateful to all who made the 5th European congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry into a sound collection of evidence-based best practices. We hope these proceedings will be helpful in improving the care and quality of life of patients who exhibit aggression whilst using mental health services. Patrick Callaghan Henk Nijman Tom Palmstierna Nico Oud

8 7 Content 1. Keynote 1 Violent behaviour by people with schizophrenia: causes and remedies Prof. Sheilagh Hodgins (UK) 2. Keynote 2 Organizational readiness for reducing seclusion and restraint: From theory to practice David Colton, Ph.D. (USA) 3. Keynote 3 Preventing the Use of Seclusion and Restraint: A National Initiative to Transform Mental Health Systems of Care Kevin Ann Huckshorn, RN, MSN, CAP, ICADC (USA) 4. The community outcomes of forensic patients after prolonged hospitalisation Andrew Carroll (Australia) 5. Is (primary) psychopathy a superfluous construct? The relationship of factor 1 and factor 2 of the PCL-R with psychological and behavioural variables and risk assessment in a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital Lammers, S.M.M. (Netherlands) 6. Predicting future reconviction in offenders with Intellectual Disabilities: The predictive efficacy of VRAG, PCL-SV and the HCR Nicola S. Gray, Suzanne Fitzgerald, John Taylor, Robert J. Snowden (UK) 7. Treating violent sex offenders: the efficacy and frequency of use of alternative approaches Bernard J. Gallagher, III, Susan A. Bur, Michael J. Engle, Brian J. Jones, Dana M. Moss & Joseph A. McFalls, Jr (USA) 8. Situational management of institutional violence Lorraine Johnstone, David J. Cooke & Lisa Gadon (USA)

9 8 9. Changes in violence risk factors over time in a sample of forensic psychiatric patients in the Netherlands E. de Jonge, MSc, & H.L.I. Nijman, Phd. (Netherlands) 10 Workshop 1 Management of aggression Control, avoidance or contact? A different perspective on the management of aggression and disruptive behaviour in (child) mental health care and (special) school practice Fleury, H.W. & Van Engelen, Y.M. (Netherlands) 11. Workshop 2 Crisis Prevention Training Measuring success in crisis prevention training Boardman, R., Heidenreich, S., Kemp, S., Schubert, J., & Rettmann, R.(USA) 12. Prevention of post-traumatic stress reaction in staff following a patient assault principles of post-incident care Richter, D. (Germany) 13. Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) in England: characteristics of an effective care pathway Ken Barrett, Jeri Hawkins, Catherine Davies (UK) 14. Preliminary findings of an exploratory study on expressed emotion and aggression in psychiatric nursing Christoph Abderhalden, Bernd Kozel, Andreas Altorfer, Christa Thomke, Ian Needham, Marie-Louise Kaesermann (Switzerland) 15. Workshop 3 Therapeutic Management of Aggression Therapeutic management of aggression staff training program at Stavanger University Hospital Edouard Laiseau (main presenter), Kim Åke Sviland, Stig Egeland and Tom Runar Pettersen (co-presenters) (Norway) 16. Workshop 4 Reducing Seclusion and Restraint in the USA Successful restraint reduction practices across the United States: actualization of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association s seclusion and restraint standards of care Marlene Nadler- Moodie (USA)

10 9 17. Creatinekinase (CK) as predictor of aggressive behaviour. 78 Michael Grube, Robert Liszka, Hildegard Weigand-Tomiuk (Germany) 18. Blood levels of lipids and serotonin as predictors of self harm and violence in acutely admitted psychiatric patients Roaldset, J.O., Moger, T.A., Bjørkly, S., Bakken, A, Hervig, T. & Gøtestam, KG, (Norway) 19. Association between aggression and medication changes. 82 L.E. Goedhard, J.J. Stolker, H.L.I. Nijman, ACG Egberts and ER Heerdink (Netherlands) 20. Why do mentally ill individuals act aggressively in specific situations? Towards an integration of the individual model and the situational model Richter, D. (Germany) 21. The functions of aggressive acts for high risk personality disordered inpatients Michael Daffern and Kevin Howells (UK) 22. Profile of perpetrators with impulsive violence Rob C. Brouwers & T.I. Oei (Netherlands) 23. A brief checklist (VRS-10) for assessing violence risk among patients in acute psychiatric units P. Hartvig, B.Østberg (Norway) 24. The efficacy of violence risk assessment instruments in those with personality disorder and mental illness Robert J. Snowden 1, Nicola S. Gray 1,2, and John Taylor 3 (UK) 25. Risk factors considered by nurses when assessing subjectively the risk for violence among patients in psychiatric admission wards Christoph Abderhalden & Caroline Gurtner (Switzerland) 26. Therapeutic Management of Violence (TMV) A multichannel approach to prevention and management of violence E. Lovestad and M. Løvstad (Norway)

11 Evaluation of a 3-day training course in aggression management on nursing students Johannes Nau, RN, MA, (Germany), Prof. Dr. Theo Dassen (Germany), Dr. Ruud Halfens (Netherlands), Prof. Dr. Ian Needham (Switzerland) 28. Management of violence training program in Castle Peak Hospital, Hong Kong Tam J, Yeung F, Lee YS, Cheong I, Chan WK (Hong Kong) 29. Withdrawal of antipsychotic medications in aggressive mentally retarded adults David S. Janowsky, M.D., L. Jarrett Barnhill, M.D. & Abdul S. Khalid, M.D., John M. Davis, M.D.(USA) 30. Double depot for severe psychotic aggression Mike Launer (UK) 31. The pharmacological management of agitated patients in emergency psychiatric hospitals in Rio de Janeiro Brazil: the results of two pragmatic randomized clinical trials Gisele Huf (Brazil), Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho (Brazil) & Clive Elliott Adams (UK) 32. Behaviour problems in childhood and adolescence in schizophrenic offenders: an exploratory study Kris Goethals 1 and Hjalmar van Marle 2 (Netherlands) 33. A study of forensic psychiatric screening reports and their relationship to full psychiatric reports Pål Grøndahl, MA, Stein E. Ikdahl, Alv A. Dahl (Norway) 34. Incident profiling on patients characteristics in a forensic setting F. Tonnaer, M.Sc & Mr. F.Chakhssi, M.Sc (Netherlands) 35. Workshop 5 Reducing Seclusion and Restraint An institutional model for reducing restraints and seclusions Martha J. Holden (USA) 36. Workshop 6 Emergency Response Belt Safely restrain and transport violent persons Boatman, P. (UK) & Fleury, H.W. (Netherlands)

12 Mental health inpatient services: making safety our priority M.K McGeorge, L. Shinkwin, G. Hinchcliffe (UK) 38. Understanding and support vs. power and control in a psychiatric intensive care unit J. A. Noone & M. Moreau (Canada) 39. Violence, Self-Harm and Vulnerability: Development of a national mental health framework for best practice in the management of risk in England R. Whittington, W. Barr, A. Brown, M. Leitner, C. Logan and R. Nathan (UK) 40. The beliefs of mental health nurses regarding the causes and management of aggression and violence by psychiatric inpatients: a comparison between nurses from Switzerland and the United Kingdom J Duxbury, S Hahn & D Pulsford (UK) 41. Medical students perception of patient aggression A Hannah, J MacKay, C Gale (New Zealand) 42. An exploration of Irish mental health nurses experiences in the management of aggressive and disturbed patients Angela Cocoman, Anne Scott, Anne Matthews (Ireland), Professor Maritta Välimäki (Finland) 43. Seminar 1 Reduction of seclusion and restraint Assessing organizational readiness to reduce restraints David Colton PhD, (USA) 44. Seminar 1 Reduction of seclusion and restraint Why don t some organizations learn? Brodie Paterson,Ph.D., M.Ed, BA (hon) RMN, RNLD, RNT (UK) Seminar 2 Training in the management of aggression and violence Kevin McKenna & Gail Miller (England) (UK)

13 Seminar 2 Training in the management of aggression and violence Gail Miller (UK): Organisational Ownership and Cultural Change Rick Tucker & Gail Miller (England) (UK) 46. Seminar 2 Training in the management of aggression and violence Training who to do what?: Reappraising the role function and purpose of training in the management of aggression and violence within clinical settings Kevin McKenna (Ireland) 47. Workshop 7 Sibling violence and aggression Assessment & clinical intervention with children, families and adults John Caffaro (USA) 48. Protective factors for violence risk: clinical experiences and first results with a new instrument for risk prevention: the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors for violence risk (SAPROF) Michiel de Vries Robbé, MSc, Vivienne de Vogel, PhD, & Eva de Spa, MSc (Netherlands) 49. Structured crisis monitoring versus clinical judgement in psychiatric wards Roland van de Sande, PhD-Candidate, Promotors; Prof. Dr. Henk Nijman, Prof. Dr. Niels Mulder (Netherlands) 50. Implementation of a risk checklist for general psychiatry S von Berg, H Haselbeck (Germany) 51. Seclusion and restraint and other coercive measures in Flanders Highlights of the research-efforts over a period of 25 years in Flanders Bart Thomas (Belgium) 52. The use of seclusion in the Netherlands compared to countries in and outside Europe W.A. Janssen MSc, Dr. E.O. Noorthoorn, Drs. W.J. de Vries, Prof. Dr. G.H.M. Hutschemeakers & Dr. H.H.G.M Lendemeijer (Netherlands)

14 Monitoring seclusion and restraint use: the introduction of a new registration form in the Netherlands Janssen W.A., Noorthoorn E.O., De Veen R.C.A. & Lendemeijer H.H.G.M. (Netherlands) 54. Workshop 8 Violent offender treatment program: developing evidence based practice for working with violent mentally disordered offenders theory, integration & practice. 170 Dr Louise Braham & Mr David Jones (UK) 55. The effect of NK1 receptor blockade on territorial aggression and in a model of violent aggression in rats J Haller, J Halasz, M Toth, E Mikics, E Hrabovszky, B Barsy, B Barsvari (Hungary) 56. No abstract available Unfortunately there was no text available at the copy deadline for this book of proceedings. 57. Rapid tranquillization of acutely agitated patients: intramuscular olanzapine vs haloperidol + promethazine pragmatic randomized control trial Nirmal Sikkathambur Raveendran (India) 58. The findings of the intervention study: early recognition of violence in forensic care Fluttert F.A.J., Van Meijel B., Nijman H., Grypdonck M. (Netherlands) 59. Positive clinical interventions for psychiatric patients presenting with extreme levels of violence and aggression K Scholey, B Simms, S Hickson, D Angus & C Lawrence (UK) 60. Managing aggression a self-evident task for mental health nurses? Jonker E.J., Goossens P.J.J., Steenhuis I.H.M., Geerling B., Heemskerk L.C., Fluttert, F.A.J. & Oud, N.E. (Netherlands) 61. Seminar 1 Reduction of seclusion and restraint Six cores strategies to reduce the use of seclusion & restraint Kevin Ann Huckshorn RN, MSN, CAP (USA)

15 Seminar 1 Reduction of seclusion and restraint Practice implications Wanda Mohr (USA) 63. Seminar 1 Reduction of seclusion and restraint Organizational diagnostics David Leadbetter, M.Sc, BA (Hons) CQSW (UK) 64. Seminar 2 Training in the management of aggression and violence Effectiveness of training interventions in the management of violence in healthcare: a systematic review Dirk Richter (Germany), I. Needham (Switzerland) 65. Seminar 2 Training in the management of aggression and violence The safety of physical interventions: a literature review Dr. Andrew McDonnell (UK) 66. Seminar 2 Training in the management of aggression and violence Developing a framework to evaluate the safety of physical interventions Dr. Brodie Paterson (UK) 67. Workshop 9 Prediction of aggression Prediction of aggression of patients while on crisis duty E.J.M. Penterman / K. Berkhout (Netherlands) 68. Workshop 10 Predicting Adolescent Violence (SAVRY) Predicting violence among adolescents: predictive accuracy and clinical utility of the SAVRY Structured Assessment of Violence Risk Among Youth Anders Tengström, Ph.D. FORUM & Therese Åström, Ph.D-student. FORUM (Sweden) 69. Structuring multidisciplinary judgements of risk: developing an evidence base in applied practice T E Hogue & C Allen (UK) 70. Risk for being restrained among girls in residential settings J. J. Haugaard and B.D. Leidy (USA)

16 Aggressive behaviour in an adolescent forensic unit: the perceptions of adolescents and staff Johanna Berg, Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino & Maritta Välimäki (Finland) 72. Workshop 11 Prediction and Prevention of Violence Presentation of an interactive model that predicts and prevents violent and aggressive inpatient behaviour Erik Kuijpers (Netherlands) 73. Frequency and severity changes of violent behaviour in psychiatric inpatients K. Arbach, C. García-Forero, E. Pomarol-Clotet, J. Gomar, A. Andres-Pueyo (Spain) 74. The clinical evaluation of aggressive mental health inpatients in Greece P. Varda 1, A. Douzenis 2, L. Lykouras 3 (Greece) 75. Ward safety perceived by nurse managers in Great Britain, Germany and Switzerland P.Lepping, T.Steinert, P.Schmid,C.Abderhalden,I.Needham (UK, Germany & Switzerland) 76. Repetitive aggression in mental health care: characteristics of repeat assaulters and changes over time in staff and patient behaviour R. Whittington, W. Barr, G. Lancaster, M. Leitner, and J. McGuire (UK) 77. A study of violence in acute care of a psychiatric hospital Sengupta S N, Maiti K, Desai N G. (India) 78. Violence against nurses in Thailand: prevalence and consequences Fongcum T., Sitthimongkol, Y., Klainin, P., Vanicharoenchai, V., Sangpow, C., & Sathiraangkura, T. (Thailand) 79. Seminar 1 Reduction of seclusion and restraint Reducing reactive aggression by reducing coping demands: principles supporting why it works within child & adolescent treatment environments Kathleen Delaney, PhD, RN, APRN (USA)

17 Seminar 1 Reduction of seclusion and restraint Issues of power & control that lead to human service-perpetrated violence Marc Tumeinski (USA) 81. Seminar 1 Reduction of seclusion and restraint Containment and physical restraint Laura Steckley (UK) 82. Seminar 2 Training in the management of aggression and violence Toward integration: organisational approaches to training David Leabetter (UK) 83. Seminar 2 Training in the management of aggression and violence Non physical management of aggression and violence: a training problem? Gail Miller (UK) 84. Seminar 2 Training in the management of aggression and violence The future: clinical governmental and organisational perspectives Kevin McKenna (Ireland) 85. Workshop 12 Prevention, Intervention & Evaluation Violence Policy Preventing, intervening and evaluating in-patient violence incidence Is it really working? Lene Berring, Chief Developer, RN, BA, MScN; Juno Calmer, Chief Psychologist, RN; Fergus Clancy, RN; Morten Ekstrøm, Specialist in Psychiatry, Ph.D.; Bent Slot, Psychologist (Denmark) 86. The use of police officers within mental health institutions: a case study from Ohio USA David Sharp, PhD, MSc, MA, RMN, RGN, RNT, RN. Professor and Associate Dean (USA) 87. Handling patient violence in in-patient settings: implications for nursing management Alexia Stantzos, Professor, M.A, (Switzerland) Didier Camus, (Switzerland) Ian. Needham, Professor, PhD, RN,

18 Violence reduction strategies: a multidisciplinary collaborative effort to manage violence behaviour Low Juat Ngan (Singapore) 89. The engagement model and the use of comfort rooms as a means to reduce aggression, seclusion and restrictive measures results of a baseline study Noorthoorn E.O., Vruwink, F., Janssen, W.A, De Veen R.C.A., Lendemeijer, H.H.G.M. (Netherlands) 90. A randomized clinical trial of schema focused therapy in forensic PD patients M. E. de Vos, MSc., E. de Jonge, MSc., E. de Spa, MSc. & D. P. Bernstein, Ph.D (Netherlands) 91. Prevention of aggressive incidents on acute psychiatric wards Maria Isabel Dias Marques 1 ; Aida Cruz Mendes 2 ; Liliana de Sousa 3 (Portugal) 92. Workshop 13 Legislation and practice of coercive measures during in-patient treatment in 15 European countries: Results of a case vignette study Steinert T, Lepping P. (Germany) 93. Self-Efficacy in self- management programs to prevent aggression in children with a psychiatric disorder E.L. Meerwijk MS RN, J.J. van der Bijl PhD RN, and F. de Boer PhD (Netherlands) 94. The role of cognitive distortions on the effect of Aggressive Replacement Training (ART) on adolescents; mediator or moderator? Preliminary findings Johannes H. Langeveld, Knut K. Gundersen, Frode Svartdal (Norway) 95. Compassion fatigue and burn out syndrome in professional helpers working with traumatised clients V. Petrovic (Serbia) 96. The use of coercion in Norwegian adult psychiatry T. Hatling, P. B. Pedersen and J. H. Bjørngaard (Norway)

19 Gender related aspects of coercive interventions in a German psychiatric hospital Steinert T, Borbé R, Eisele F. (Germany) 98. Observations in acute psychiatric units in Landspitali University Hospital in Reykjavik J. Snorrason (Iceland) 99. Seminar 1 Reduction of seclusion and restraint Does over training lead to over use of physical interventions? Andrew McDonnell (UK) 100. Seminar 1 Reduction of seclusion and restraint Tell me what to do! How to change from old habits to new Lorelei Faulkner, RN, BSN, CPMHN(C), MSN(c) and Ross E. Gibson, BA, MEd(c) (Canada) 101. Seminar 1 Reduction of seclusion and restraint Developing and implementing the promotion of a safe and therapeutic services program Gail Miller. BA (CBT) RMN, (UK) Seminar 2 Training in the management of aggression and violence Kevin McKenna (Ireland) will lead an international open panel / forum discussion: From issues and perspectives to the future 102. Workshop 14 Forensic Psychiatric Care Forensic psychiatric care in a general mental health institute David Koppers Frank Don, Erik Sikkens & R. Schroevers (Netherlands) 103. Keeping the unit safe M.E. Johnson & K.R. Delaney (USA) 104. Identification and management of domestic abuse in accident and emergency departments L A Lynch & J E Kenkre (UK) 105. Implementation of the early recognition method in forensic care Carla van Ingen, Miranda Kers, Frans Fluttert (Netherlands)

20 Effectiveness of assertive community treatment for patients mandated for involuntary outpatient treatment Eris F. Perese, DSN, Professor. Yow-Wu Bill Wu, PhD & Ranganathan Ram, MD (USA) 107. Differences between seclusion and mechanical restraint in restrictions to human rights - a randomised controlled trial Bergk, Jan & Steinert, Tilman (Germany) 108. Aggressive behaviour by people with dementia: issues and answers? D Pulsford & J Duxbury (UK) 109 Workshop 15 Neurobiological Aspects Neurobiological aspects of aggression: an update and clinical implications A.M. van der Loo, M. Loomans, G. Goriounov & F. Timmermans (Netherlands) 110. Workshop 16 Dialectical Behaviour Therapy S. Kuipers, S.Lammers, L.M.C. van den Bosch. (Netherlands) 111. Keynote 4 Clozapine: anti-aggressive effect and compulsory treatment P.F.J. Schulte and the ClozapinePlusCollaborationGroup (Netherlands) 112. Keynote 5 Treatment of aggression with psychotropic drugs: bridge between evidence based practice and practice based evidence Joost J. Stolker, Laurette E. Goedhard, Toine C.G. Egberts, Eibert R. Heerdink (Netherlands) 113. Keynote 6 Violence Research: Pharmacological and Fundamental Aspects Berend Olivier (Netherlands) 114. Keynote 7 The use of physical restraint within the context of the ethical standards of psychiatric professionals Wanda K. Mohr Ph.D., A.P.R.N., F.A.A.N. (USA) 115. Keynote 8 Do patients with Asperger s Syndrome have an increased risk of violence? Some preliminary findings from a literature review Stål Bjørkly (Norway)

21 Keynote 9 The violent offender What do we know? What can we do? Clive R. Hollin (UK) 117. Keynote (10) Searching for new strategies to reduce inpatient violence Henk Nijman (Professor Forensic Psychology, Nijmegen University) (Netherlands): Poster 1. Sudden Unexplained Death Study of Psychiatric In-Patients Aged Under 45 years S. McDonnell, N. Swinson, N. Kapur, K. Windfuhr and L. Appleby (UK) Centre for Suicide Prevention, University of Manchester, (UK) Poster 2. Study of psychodynamic factors of suicide in Persia. 332 Ghaffarinejad, A., Associate Professor of Psychiatry, K., MD (Iran) Poster 3. Violence risk estimates and gender Gammelgård, M., Eronen, M. & Kaltiala-Heino, R. (Finland) Poster 4. Successful seclusion and restraint reduction techniques on inpatient psychiatric units Bannerman, Reginald E., RN, MSN, MBA, and Garten, Kathryn RN, MSN, APRN, BC (USA) Poster 5. In the eye of the beholder: how female caregivers in nursing homes perceive violence Isaksson, U., Åstrom, S. & Graneheim, U.H. (Sweden) Poster 6. Violence on the schizophrenic disorder Garriga Guitart, D. (Spain) Poster 7. Nursing care management of clients with aggressive behaviour Burkertová, H. & Treslová, M. (Czech Republic) Poster 8. Constellation of five rare psychiatric syndromes in a single case Alireza Ghaffarinejad MD,associate professor of psychiatry (Iran)

22 21 Poster 9. Intensive care room concept implementation: opportunities and questions Camus, D., Faust, J.M. & Chappuis, V. -Psychiatric Department, CHUV (Switzerland) Poster 10. Violence in older adults with Alzheimer s disease: rates and risk factors in community based caregiver / patient dyads VandeWeerd, C. & Paveza, G.J. (USA) Poster 11. Caregivers reflections on their interactions with people with intellectual disabilities Antonsson, H.A., Åstrom, S. & Graneheim, U.H. (Sweden) Poster 12. The European Violence in Psychiatry Research Group (EVIPRG) R. Whittington et al. (UK) Poster 13. Factors associated with effective interventions for violence involving people with a mental disorder and / or offending behaviour: a systematic review R. Whittington, M. Leitner, W. Barr1, J. McGuire & S. Jones (UK) Poster 14. All Wales Care Pathway: Routine enquiry into domestic abuse Lynch MBE, L.A. & Kenkre, J. (UK) Poster 15. Prevention and management of violence in Belgian psychiatric institutions: do current practices respect international guidelines? Lardennois, M., Duquesne, P., Gillain N., Vanbelle S., Leduc, D. & Bardiau, F. (Belgium) Poster 16. Differences between seclusion and mechanical restraint in restrictions to human rights a randomised controlled trial Bergk, J. & Steinert, T. (Germany) Poster 17. Blood levels of lipids and serotonin as predictors of self harm and violence in acutely admitted psychiatric patients. 352 Roaldset, J.O., Moger, T.A., Bjørkly, S., Bakken, A, Hervig, T. & Gøtestam, K.G. (Norway)

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