THE INSCRIPTIONS FROM TEMPLE XIX AT PALENQUE

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1 DAVID STUART THE INSCRIPTIONS FROM TEMPLE XIX AT PALENQUE

2 The Inscriptions fromtemple XIX t Plenque A Commentry

3 The Inscriptions from TempleXIX t Plenque A Commentry By Dvid Sturt Photogrphs y Jorge Pérez de Lr The Pre-Columin Art Reserch Institute Sn Frncisco

4 Contents Acknowledgments 6 A Note on Orthogrphy nd Hieroglyphic Trnscription 8 Introduction 11 Chpter 1. The Alfrd Tlet 17 Chpter 2. The Sculpted Pier 21 Chpter 3. The Pltform 59 Chpter 4. The People 113 Chpter 5. K inich Ahkl Mo Nh: His Nme Glyphs nd Historicl Setting 148 Chpter 6. A New Look t Plenque s Mythology y The Pre-Columin Art Reserch Institute All rights reserved Designed y Chip Breitwieser nd Dwn Glenn for Precolumi Mesowe Press Printed in Chin on cid-free pper Lirry of Congress Control Numer ISBN Chpter 7. The Weight of Time 186 Appendix A. Trnscription of the Temple XIX Inscriptions 190 Appendix B. Trnslitertion nd Prose Trnsltion of the Temple XIX Pltform 196 Biliogrphy 201

5 Acknowledgments 7 Acknowledgments My reserch on Temple XIX nd its texts enefited from the help nd insights of mny friends nd collegues. Aove ll, my wrmest nd most hertfelt thnks go to Merle Greene Roertson. Her invittion to me to prticipte in the Temple XIX work rought me ck to Plenque fter mny yers, to the plce where so much of my interest nd enthusism for the My egn to develop seriously in the lte 1970s. Merle s constnt encourgement nd help in those yers strted me off on wondrous pth with the My, nd for tht she hs my everlsting love nd pprecition. Perhps I cn express little of these thnks y dedicting this study to her, s well s to her long-lsting contriutions to the study of Plenque nd the ncient My. Alfonso Morles, who oversw the excvtions of Temple XIX, hs een constnt source of encourgement s well, nd without his generosity nd support the present work would simply not hve een possile. Over severl months I egerly wited his chocoltes in emil form imges of the inscriptions nd tlets sent soon fter they were unerthed. He is true pioneer of cyer-rcheology. Among the excellent tem working longside Alfonso I would like to thnk in prticulr Ed Brnhrt, Julie Miller, Christopher Powell, nd Kirk Stright. Jorge Pérez de Lr kindly mde ville his stunning photogrphs of the Temple XIX pltform, without which this study could not hve een mde. Needless to sy, the ides nd musings in this work re my own, ut over the pst few yers I hve enefited from the feedck nd oservtions of mny epigrphers. I would like to prticulrly cknowledge (in lpheticl order) Kren Bssie-Sweet, Guillermo Bernl Romero, Stnley Guenter, Stephen Houston, Alfonso Lcden, Simon Mrtin, Jorge Pérez de Lr, Werner Nhm, Christopher Powell, John Roertson, Joel Skidmore, Krl Tue, Alexnder Tokovinine, Erik Velásquez Grcí, nd Mrc Zender for the mny emils exchnged over the detils of the Temple XIX inscriptions. Indeed, it is difficult to dequtely cknowledge their fertile contriutions to my own thinking nd interprettions, nd no dout mny of their individul insights will find their wy into print in other venues. Christopher Powell, for exmple, hs discerned numer of fscinting stronomicl ptterns in the dtes of Temple XIX (personl communiction 1998), which hopefully will find their wy to puliction soon. Clerly the Temple XIX texts will e discussed for yers to come, nd with this study I cn only im to help get the ll rolling. Much of this work ws written over two summers t the Center for My Reserch in Brnrdsville, North Crolin, mong the seemingly limitless ooks of my fther s lirry on things Mesomericn. I cn think of no etter plce to enjoy the serenity of life thn in the crdle of those mountins, nd I thnk my dd, George Sturt, nd his wife Melind for the time I pssed there, nd the good compny nd hospitlity they provided. Severl people t the Peody Museum in Cmridge offered their views nd kind support during the lst few yers. I prticulrly thnk Willim Fsh, Brr Fsh, Evon Vogt, nd In Grhm. In hs een remrkly ptient while I took time wy from the Corpus of My Hieroglyphic Inscriptions Project to focus on the Plenque mteril. Students nd other prticipnts in my seminrs hve een sources of insight nd inspirtion over severl yers, mong them Gerrdo Aldn, Jmes Fitzsimmons, Drcie Flnnign, Tom Grrison, Luci Henderson, Srh Jckson, Alln Mc, Lur O Rourke, Shnnon Plnk, Willim Sturno, nd Alexnder Tokovinine. Most of ll, I offer thnks nd love to my wife Bridget, who encourged me to complete this work efore even more time pssed fter the discovery of the Temple XIX mterils.* My sons Peter nd Richrd lured me wy from my writing nd drwing on countless occsions, much to my etterment. I would not hve hd it ny other wy. * Editor s note: The text of this ook is essentilly tht of mnuscript sumitted in Ferury, The dely in puliction ws ttendnt upon Dr. Sturt s move to the University of Texs t Austin nd the completion of the drwings nd cptions. The few chnges to the text rose from the editoril process, nd only existing cittions were updted.

6 A Note on Orthogrphy nd Hieroglyphic Trnscription 9 A Note on Orthogrphy nd Hieroglyphic Trnscription Mny reders re no dout wre tht pulictions in My epigrphy re highly inconsistent when it comes to trnscriing hieroglyphic signs. Specilists re eqully conscious of the sitution, nd ll who ctively pursue or follow My glyph studies struggle with the seemingly constnt chnges nd refinements found in the literture. Any single orthogrphy nd its idiosyncrtic fetures cn never e perfect, since it is forged from n rry of difficult (nd sometimes unnswerle) questions involving linguistics nd epigrphy. For these resons I m well wre tht the system dopted here, different from others used in recent yers, will frustrte some reders, confuse others, nd perhps stisfy few. Even so, I elieve tht the system used in these pges, sed s it is on erlier nd well estlished conventions, will e mngele one for students nd collegues to follow, even if not widely dopted for future use. Generlly speking, the chnges in orthogrphy chosen y epigrphers reflect the rpid chnges nd refinements in hieroglyphic reserch. Nerly two decdes go, Fox nd Justeson (1984) outlined the sis for the glyphic trnscription system tht cme to e dopted y most specilists in susequent writing. George Sturt (1988) modified these slightly when estlishing conventions to e used in the Reserch Reports on Ancient My Writing, nd this system cme to e widely dopted. Justeson (personl communiction 1997) hs rightly noted tht the ncient script differentited etween the frictives h nd j, s reconstructed for proto-ch oln (Kufmn nd Normn 1984). Mny epigrphers, including the uthor (see D. Sturt 1987), hd filed to tke this into ccount, influenced perhps y the long-lsting focus on Yuctecn lnguges in epigrphic reserch (in their erly history Yuctecn lnguges lost this distinction, with oth proto-myn *j nd *h merging s h). Internl evidence for the j nd h distinction in the hieroglyphic script hs een strengthened considerly in recent yers, nd the two consonnts were no dout seprte in the phonology of Clssic Myn, or Clssic Ch olti n, s the lnguge of the inscriptions hs recently een dued (Houston, Roertson, nd Sturt 2000). In following the orthogrphy dopted y the Reserch Reports, I hve chosen one slight modifiction from erlier conventions y using tz nd tz in plce of ts nd ts. Also, there is now good evidence tht the lnguge of the inscriptions distinguished etween long nd short vowels (Houston, Roertson, nd Sturt 1998). In the trnscription of signs nd the trnslitertion of texts, I hve chosen to mrk long vowels y douling the letter:, for exmple, in contrst to short. Vowel length cn e mrked in one of severl wys, nd in some previous works I nd others hve employed vowel letter followed y colon (:, u:, etc.). My preference for douled vowel letters stems from desire for visul simplicity, nd it is strengthened y its recent use y Mrtin nd Grue (2000) in their remrkle ook on Clssic My dynstic history. Discussions continue out whether glottl stops ttched to vowels in word-initil position should e represented in glyphic orthogrphy (e.g., AJAW), nd how this is est done if so. Trditionlly this hs not een mrked in the older epigrphic literture, ut it is stndrd prctice in vrious linguistic orthogrphies nd now often used in glyphic trnscriptions. I hve opted to omit the representtion of pre-voclic glottls, since these re not mrked in the ncient script (s post-voclic glottls re, s in tz i-i, for tz i, dog ). This hs the dded dvntge of simplifying the trnslitertions nd trnscriptions somewht, ut I relize tht others my well prefer to indicte it. In the sme vein, I hve opted to omit the postrophe in the implosive, which, while phoneticlly more precise, does not contrst with n unglottlized in Myn lnguges. The orthogrphic conventions underlying My epigrphy certinly hve een in flux for severl yers, ut with improvements in the understnding of the script nd its own linguistic conventions, I m confident tht the dust will settle. Good communiction mong scholrs will e key in seeing this come out. Also, the recent inugurtion of the My glyph dictionry project, generously funded y FAMSI, will provide n excellent chnce for epigrphers nd linguists to collorte on consistent nd hopefully stisfctory system.

7 10 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Introduction Before 1998 little ttention ws pid to Temple XIX, then one of gret mny mounds enveloped in the drk rin forest surrounding Plenque s min center. The loction of the uilding within the lrger rchitecturl complex of the Cross Group, nd its pprent orienttion fcing directly towrd the Temple of the Cross (Figure 1), indicted its importnce to the few visitors who pid Temple XIX ny ttention, ut the sence of stnding wlls nd decortion hd long prevented its meningful study. This nonymity quickly chnged with the excvtions undertken t Temple XIX under the uspices of the Proyecto Grupo de ls Cruces, the joint effort of the Pre-Columin Art Reserch Institute nd Mexico s Ntionl Institute of Anthropology nd History (INAH). The results of the excvtions show tht Temple XIX is one of the mjor ritul structures t Plenque nd mong the city s richest sources of hieroglyphic inscriptions. The present study offers n initil ssessment of these extrordinry texts, which open mny doors onto Plenque s history nd mythology, s well s the religion of the ncient My in generl. Four very different inscried monuments were uncovered in the Temple XIX excvtions, nd their plcement within the greter rchitecturl scheme of the uilding is shown in Figure 2. On the uilding s exterior, frgments of single lfrd (or lustrde) tlet from the upper stirwy (Figure 3) er dedictory inscription, much like the similr monuments known from the sustructures of the nery Cross Group temples. Presumly two lfrd tlets originlly existed on the temple, s seen in other exmples. A tll msonry pier just inside the centrl doorwy originlly ore stone pnel on its front side, portrying the Plenque ruler K inich Ahkl Mo Nh flnked y two kneeling noles (Figure 4). This extrordinrily eutiful relief, roken nd removed in ntiquity, hd text pnel ove the figures, ut gin only smll portion hs een found thus fr. Decorting the left fce of the sme interior pier ws tller polychrome stucco relief, lso ccompnied y hieroglyphic text (Figure 5). Finlly, the most extrordinry new text from Temple XIX comes from smll ltr-like pltform constructed t the northest corner of the temple s interior (see foldouts t Detil of the stone pnel from the Temple XIX pier.

8 12 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Introduction 13 end of volume). This construction, rectngulr in pln, ore sculpted pnels on its west nd south fces, ech with figurl scene nd lengthy hieroglyphic text in n incised clligrphic style similr to tht on the celerted Tlet of the 96 Glyphs. The record of mythicl nd dynstic events recorded in these texts wrrnts their ddition to the select group of highly importnt religious nd historicl documents from Plenque. A Soon fter the excvtions in Temple XIX cme to n end (nd s initil drfts of the present work were eing circulted), Arnoldo González Cruz of the Plenque INAH project B C D E A. ALFARDA TABLET B. STONE PANEL C. STUCCO PANEL D. WEST PLATFORM E. SOUTH PLATFORM c Figure 2. Temple XIX: () pln of the superstructure, indicting the originl plcement of the four inscried monuments, () the structure in the erly stges of explortion, (c) the structure in the finl stges of restortion (photogrphs y Joel Skidmore). Edwin L. Brnhrt 2000 Figure 1. Mp of the lrger Group of the Cross, showing the orienttion of Temple XIX towrd the Temple of the Cross (detil of mp surveyed y Ed Brnhrt of the Plenque Mpping Project). Figure 3. The prtil lfrd tlet of Temple XIX (photogrph y Jorge Pérez de Lr).

9 14 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Introduction 15 Figure 4. The stone pnel from the Temple XIX pier. (Not to scle with Figure 5.) Figure 5. The stucco pnel from the Temple XIX pier. (Not to scle with Figure 4.) excvted the nery Temple XXI, with remrkle results. In the summer of 2002 severl new inscriptions were found, including pltform with decortions strikingly similr to the monument from Temple XIX s interior. Indeed, s Guillermo Bernl hs shown in his excellent preliminry nlysis (Bernl 2002), the Temple XXI inscriptions show importnt prllels to the Temple XIX corpus of texts, oth in terms of suject mtter nd style. As result, mny of the oservtions nd discussions in the present work will necessrily touch on Temple XXI. The inscriptions of Temple XIX nd XXI ll dte to out the sme time, hving een dedicted twelve to fifteen yers into the reign of the fourteenth Plenque king, K inich Ahkl Mo Nh (known s Chcl III or Akul An III in numerous erlier studies). This importnt ruler ssumed the throne on Ik 5 K y (Berlin 1968; Mthews nd Schele 1974), nd he ppers to hve reigned for lmost two decdes. The history surrounding him nd the yers of his rule is still poorly understood, ut the Temple XIX nd XXI monuments shed considerle light on this somewht enigmtic king in Plenque s history. The finl yers of his reign come t the eginning of long fifty-yer gp in Plenque s Lte Clssic historicl record. After Temple XIX s nd XXI s inscriptions, the next well-dted monument is the Tlet of the 96 Glyphs, dedicted twenty yers into the reign of K inich K uk Bhlm, the son of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. In this study I will consider ech of the four Temple XIX monuments seprtely, in the order presented ove (this corresponds, s it hppens, to the order of their discovery). A greter mount of spce nturlly will e devoted to the lengthy pltform inscriptions, ut it is importnt to understnd from the outset tht ll three inscried settings the lfrd, the pier with its stone nd stucco pnels, nd the pltform re themticlly linked nd exhiit some redundnt or overlpping informtion. Interpreting one text entils n occsionl reference to one or oth of the others. Writing lengthy tretise on My glyphs is not esy, nd reding it my e even more of n onerous tsk. There is little wy of voiding the dry tone tht comes with technicl descriptions nd rguments for this or tht reding, nd some my wonder why such detiled glyph-y-glyph ccount is necessry in these dys tht see so mny dvnces in My epigrphy. I chose this structure in order to wring little of the perceived mystery out of the methods of epigrphic nlysis. Non-specilists sometimes see hodgepodge of ever-chnging ides nd decipherments reflected in the work we do, nd I hve chosen to counter this view through detiled exmple of text nlysis. This is not to sy tht wht follows in the chpters elow will lwys prove to e correct in the end, ut hopefully it will demonstrte the flow of thinking tht goes into epigrphic nlysis in the current intellectul moment. Another motivtion ehind the precise tretment of the glyphs is to help do wy with smll portion of the grey literture of unpulished redings nd ides tht circulte mong epigrphers, minly y impermnent emils. A numer of such smll ides nd oservtions will wend their wy into the discussions elow, nd with luck some my ly the foundtions for other more developed ides nd decipherments. I should lso note tht Chpter 2 hs een slightly modified from previously pulished rticle devoted to the stucco text of Temple XIX (D. Sturt 2000). A very generl overview of the pltform inscription ws lso pulished (D. Sturt 2000c), lthough with little in the wy of specific epigrphic commentry. Most of the mjor ides reflected in these erlier works remin unchnged, ut in the yers since I hve produced few refinements to vrious points of the glyphic nlysis.

10 16 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter 1. The Alfrd Tlet Among the distinctive fetures of Plenque s rchitecture is the frequent presence of crved nd sometimes inscried tlets on the lfrds flnking the uppermost series of steps leding to the doors of temple. Elorte exmples re found on ech of the three min temples of the Cross Group, for exmple, where their inscriptions provide quick encpsultion of ech temple s significnce nd dediction dte. The prtilly preserved lfrd tlet of Temple XIX is, we will see, very similr, nd its inscription foreshdows severl of the events recorded in other, longer texts within. Only one of the lfrd tlets from the outer steps leding into the centrl doorwy of Temple XIX ws found, nd it remins incomplete (Figure 6). The three frgments tht mke up the extnt inscription were found to the right of the door nd re likely prt of the second of two lfrd tlets originlly flnking the steps. The glyphs hve suffered vrying degrees of erosion, unlike the inscriptions of the temple s interior, suggesting long-term exposure to rin nd the elements. The glyphs egin in mid-sentence, s it were, with personl nme glyph nd title, t pa1 nd pb1, respectively. The nme is unlike ny other from the known stndrd Plenque pa pb pc pd pe pf 1 2 Figure 6. The prtil lfrd tlet of Temple XIX. (This nd ll drwings y Dvid Sturt unless otherwise indicted.) Detil of the Temple XIX lfrd tlet.

11 18 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Alfrd Tlet 19 Figure 8. Exmples of the Plenque dediction ver ochotot(-nh): () TFC lfrd, G1, () Dumrton Oks Tlet, A5 (drwings y Lind Schele). c d f g Figure 7. Exmples of the glyphic title Yjw K hk, Lord of Fire : () Plenque, T. XIX lfrd, () Plenque, T. XIX pltform, cption of Portrit E, (c) Plenque, T. XIX stone pnel, cption of right figure, (d) Tonin, M.140, po, (e) Tonin, unnumered stel se, (f) Plenque, Tlet of the Slves, E1, (g) Comlclco, Stingry Spine 2 (drwing y Mrc Zender), (h) Chichen Itz, Four Lintels, Lintel 1, H2-G3, (i) Chichen Itz, Four Lintels, Lintel 4, H5-G6. corpus nd certinly is not tht of ny fmilir ruler. The four signs which mke up the nme re yo-ok-?-tal, where the prominent looping min sign, in third position, remins undeciphered. The title ccompnying this nme is more redily understood, written y- AJAW-K AHK, for Yjw K hk, Lord of Fire. This refers to n importnt office or sttus within courts t Plenque nd elsewhere, nd it is cited in the inscriptions of mny sites (Figure 7). As we will see in Chpter 3, yjw k hk my specificlly serve s militry title or, lterntively, it my designte some ctegory of priest or religious functionry. The well known Plenque nole nmed Chk Suutz, who is celerted in the text of the Tlet of the Slves, ws susidiry in the court of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh who lso crried the yjw k hk title. It ppers tht more thn one such Plenque officil could exist t given time. The nme written on the lfrd tlet (yo-ok-?-tal) ppers prominently in two other inscriptions of this temple, ut his role within the Plenque dynsty nd court, prt from eing connected to Temple XIX, remins puzzle. After the nme nd title the end of n incomplete pssge the lfrd text continues with Distnce Numer of leding to the Clendr Round 9 Ki 19 K y, written t pc1. This flls on ny numer of Long Count dtes, of course, ut the prticulr Distnce Numer strongly suggests the following reckoning from Period Ending tht would hve een written on the initil nd missing lfrd tlet: h i e ctivtion of temples or shrines (Schele 1990; D. Sturt 1998). At Plenque och otot ppers frequently in rchitecturl dediction sttements (Figure 8), including those ssocited with the three min pyrmids of the Cross Group, the Temples of the Cross, the Sun, nd the Folited Cross. As I hve suggested previously (D. Sturt 1998), this glyphic expression cn proly e relted to the house dediction nd purifiction ceremony descried y Lnd clled ok-nh, house entering (see Tozzer 1941:161). Where the sme dte occurs on the pltform inscription of Temple XIX we find somewht different verl expression, och k hk, fire entering, lso widely used in dedictory texts for uildings (D. Sturt 1998). The vers mke it cler tht this prominent dte ws the dediction of Temple XIX itself. By exmining similr pssges from the Cross Group, we cn see tht the next two glyphs of the lfrd tlet, t pc2 nd pd2 respectively, proly provide proper nme for house nd term for some specilized rchitecturl type. For exmple, the Temple of the Folited Cross hs n lfrd tlet with text offering some importnt prllels to the Temple XIX inscription (Figure 9). Agin we find the OCH-OTOT ver (written in slightly lterntive form) followed directly y the proper nme of the temple or snctury (in this cse?-?-k AN-NAAH) nd then the possessed noun u-pinh-il, it is his oven house (Houston 1996). The next two locks red u-k uh-ul K inich Kn Bhlm, the god of K inich Kn Bhlm, n indirect reference to the Plenque Trid deity GII, the owner of this snctury of the Folited Cross. Very much the sme thing ppers in the Temple XIX lfrd tlet (Figure 9), where the term CHAK-?-NAAH-hi, for chk..?.. nh, (it is) the Red... House, specifies the plce of the dediction. The centrl sign of this house nme is frustrtingly elusive, ut it seems to represent fish fin or perhps some type of tri-loed flower (clerer exmples will pper in the pltform inscription). The possessed noun t pd2 is much eroded, ut looks to e U-?-pi?-ji-li. I hve no decipherment to offer for this expression, nd no other exmples re known to me, ut there cn e little dout tht, like the Cross Group s oven house, the phrse u-..?..-pij?-il refers to certin type of rchitecturl spce, perhps even some smll re within Temple XIX. Here the lfrd inscription ruptly ends efore gp of two glyphs, picking up gin t ( Ajw 13 Yx) missing Ki 19 Ky Confirmtion of these plcements comes from the fct tht these sme dtes nd nother on the lfrd tlet still to e discussed re lso cited on the stone tlet of Temple XIX nd on the inscried pltform within the temple (see Pssges W-2 nd W-3), s well s on now-missing portion of the pltform text of Temple XXI. The event or ction ssocited with 9 Ki 19 K y is fmilir glyph in the Plenque corpus of texts. It is dediction ver ssocited with uildings, proly red OCH-OTOT, for och otot, enters house, nd seems closely relted to other expressions tht concern the Figure 9. Prllel dediction pssges: () from the lfrd inscription of Temple XIX, () from the lfrd of the Temple of the Folited Cross (drwing y Lind Schele).

12 20 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque pe2 with dte tht includes the month 3 Wye. If we continue seeking the prllel with other lfrd texts of the Cross Group, however, it might e possile to reconstruct the missing portion t pe1 nd pf1. As we hve seen, in those texts god s nme lwys follows the possessed noun u-pinh-il, expressing the owner of the oven-house within the temple. Given this pttern, nd especilly the informtion given in the pltform inscription to e discussed elow, there cn e little dout, I think, tht lock pe1 ws once the nme glyph of the god GI of the Plenque Trid. As we will see, he is the supernturl protgonist of the Temple XIX inscriptions, singled out s the chief memer of the Plenque Trid of gods. Block pf1 my hve extended the nme phrse of the god GI, or else it ws Distnce Numer reckoning forwrd to the hevily eroded dte visile t pe2, with the 3 Wye month record. The dy sign is eroded, ut gin, to nticipte, there is strong reson to elieve tht this ws once Ajw 3 Wye, flling 24 dys fter the 9 Ki dte of the house dediction. This Clendr Round is written in the pltform inscription directly fter the sme 9 Ki 19 K y dte found on the lfrd tlet, nd it seems very likely tht pf1 ws once the required Distnce Numer 1.4. Unfortuntely the event ssocited with this dte is missing (originlly t pf2 on the lfrd tlet), ut we will find complete record of it on the pltform inscription, in Pssge W-4. Summrizing the lfrd tlet inscription thus fr, we hve the following three dtes nd events: (1) The Period Ending , implied nd proly on the missing initil lfrd tlet. The ruler K inich Ahkl Mo Nh my hve een nmed s the celernt of the Period Ending, ut ll tht survives is reference to certin suordinte figure nmed yo- OK-?-TAL, who we will find mentioned in the other inscriptions of Temple XIX (see Figure 21). This lesser figure ers the title Yjw K hk, Fire Lord, which my concern wrfre or priestly duties of some sort. (2) A uilding dediction on Ki 19 K y, proly for Temple XIX itself. The structure is clled Chk-..?..-Nh, or Red..?.. House, nmed in other texts from the temple s type of uilding ssocited with GI of the Plenque Trid. (3) Finlly, destroyed reference to ritul on Ajw 3 Wye, which is repeted in the inscription of the temple s pltform nd, s we will soon see, proly lso on the stone tlet of the interior pier. The frgmented lfrd tlet from outside Temple XIX is quite like other similr tlets from the Cross Group, presenting synopsis of the principl dedictory nd ritul events recorded in longer texts within the temple. As we move inside nd consider the other texts of the temple, we will find tht the lustrde provides importnt contextul informtion for understnding nd interpreting these significnt episodes in Plenque s ritul history. Chpter 2. The Sculpted Pier I. The Stone Pnel Inside the single doorwy of Temple XIX stood tll supporting pier, originlly dorned with wht must surely rnk s one of the gret msterpieces of My relief sculpture (Figure 4). The thin sl of extremely fine-grined limestone is roken, with slightly more thn hlf of its surfce recovered from the temple s excvtions. The stnding figure in the center of the pnel is the ruler K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, nmed in n ccompnying cption nd in his glyphic heddress. Two ttendnt figures kneel t either side, lso nmed with their own cptions. The king s portrit, with its fntsticlly designed costume, is one of the most remrkle imges of My rt. He stnds within the gping mouth of ird s hed shown en fce, proly constructed s n elorte ck-rck like the complex costume elements sometimes seen on pinted cermics, often in ssocition with dnce ( very similr costume dorns the striding figure on the stucco frieze of the sme pier). The ird s lrge upper ek rers ove the king, with the lower ek extended forwrd nd round his midsection. The mssive costume is prtly supported from elow y the kneeling men, one of whom tenderly holds the lower ek with one extended hnd. The lrge eyelshes nd the distinctive toothed or serrted ek strongly resemle fetures of the crested ird sign MAT, commonly found s n Emlem Glyph min sign in Plenque s inscriptions (Figure 10). The sme ird is lso n importnt prt of severl personl nmes in Plenque s history, including those of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh s mother nd fther, s recorded on the Tlet of the Slves. The MAT vlue ws estlished from vrious contexts where the syllles m-t replce the ird hed logogrm (D. Sturt 1979; Bowen nd Anderson 1994) (Figure 11; see lso Figure 17). Interestingly, in modern Chontl mt is Figure 10. The Plenque Emlem Glyph ird, from the Plce Tlet, N10. Figure 11. Replcement of the signs m-t y the Emlem Glyph ird MAT (with m- phonetic complement) in the nme of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh s mother, Ix Kinuw Mt: () Tlet of the Slves, figure cption (drwing y Merle Greene Roertson), () T. XXI pltform.

13 22 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Figure 12. The doule-crested cormornt. term for vrios tipos de ptos (Keller nd Lucino G. 1997:156), which is no dout relted to the more specificlly defined Yuctec term mch, cormornt (Hrtig 1979). The crest my suggest the doule-crested cormornt (Phlcrocorx uritus floridnus) or the neotropic cormornt (Phlcrocorx olivceus mexicnus) (Figure 12). Alterntively, the ird my e hooded mergnser (Lophodytes cuculltus), which ers strong resemlnce to the sign s well, nd is distinctive mong wter irds for hving serrted or toothed ill, unlike the cormornt (see O Mck 1991). At present I m somewht hesitnt to choose one specific species identifiction over the other, though I do see the mergnser s hving more direct visul connection to the MAT glyph. The possile connections drwn y O Mck etween mergnsers nd the iconogrphy of Ehectl-Quetzlcotl in Centrl Mexico perhps drw me further to this identifiction, ut firmer resolution will hopefully rise out of discussion nd considertion y others on the mtter. As noted, the MAT sign often ppers s n Emlem Glyph t Plenque, where it likely helps to spell the importnt plce nme Mtwil or Mtwil, cited mny times s the locle of key events in Plenque s mythologicl history, including the irth of the Trid Gods (Sturt nd Houston 1994). The equivlence etween the MAT Emlem Glyph nd the Mtwil toponym is perhps est seen in the compred nme phrses of the so-clled mother goddess of Plenque s mythology, who will e discussed t length in Chpter 5. These key ssocitions of the mt ird mke it highly chrged iconogrphic symol, nd I elieve they will prove importnt in understnding the mening ehind the unusul costume. 1 One noteworthy detil of the king s costume is his hedger, which presents n emlemtic version of his personl nme (Figure 13). A mcw hed showing detiled fetherwork round its eye domintes the symolic rrngement, nd emerging from the ek s nostril is squred Zip monster snout tht is one of the more sutle ut dignostic fetures of the sun god, K inich Ajw. This ngulr motif is clerly relted to the lter Xuihcotl entity of Postclssic centrl Mexico, nd likely represents solr het s the sun god s reth. Indictors of the turtle (hk) nd the wter lily (nh) seem sent from this heddress nme, ut they my hve een somehow indicted on frgment now missing, elow the upper ek of the mcw. The wering of nme glyphs in the heddress is very common in My nd Mesomericn rt (Kelley 1990), lthough it must e sid tht we still lck detiled study of conventions underlying this interesting ridging of rt nd writing. The Glyphs Only few glyphs remin of the pnel s min text, which once spnned the upper edge of the pnel, ove the king s portrit. The fitted frgments of the tlet llow us to visulize likely formt of the whole inscription, ssuming it ws originlly symmetricl in shpe (Figure 14). Seventy-two glyph locks re provided for in this scheme, reveling tht the inscription ws originlly quite sizle. Even though much is missing, we will see tht the surviving text offers importnt clues for reconstructing segments of the text tht re completely gone. The inscription egn on smll frgment from the upper left corner of the tlet (Figure 15), where we The Sculpted Pier 23 Figure 13. The glyphic heddress of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh from the Temple XIX stone pnel. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P 1 The MAT ird hs een vriously identified over the yers s hrpy egle (Schele, personl communiction 1977), heron, or crow (Ringle 1996), lthough the Yuctec word mch, cormornt (Hrtig 1979), is fr stronger connection. The mythicl toponym is spelled in vriety of wys: MATl, m-t-wi-l, m-t-wi, or m-mat-wi-l (the lst from the pltform text of Temple XIX). I cnnot t present explin the -wil ending. The Mtwil Emlem Glyph ppers with the erliest royl ncestor of Plenque s mythologicl history, here nmed the Trid Progenitor. As we will see, Mtwil is specified in this nd other Plenque inscriptions s the irthplce of the individul memers of the Plenque Trid. The more stndrd BAAK-l emlem for Plenque occurs first with the personge known s Uk ix Chn, nmed on the Tlet of the Cross (E10-Q3), who ws sid to hve tken office on Kn Seting of Uo (mended from the erroneous Seting of Pop s written t P3) Figure 14. Suggested rrngement of the inscription t the top of the Temple XIX stone pnel.

14 24 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Sculpted Pier 25 c Figure 15. Enlrgements of the three extnt portions of the Temple XIX stone pnel inscription: () I.S. frgment from the upper left, () middle portion, (c) end portion. find prtil Initil Series ?. The month ptron within the Introducing Glyph is profile mize god indicting tht the dte fell in the month K y. There cn e no dout, therefore, tht the full Long Count ws originlly Ki 19 K y, the dedictory dte we hve lredy found recorded on the temple s lfrd, nd which gin ppers in the extensive text on the interior pltform (to e discussed in Chpter 3, under Pssge W-3), s well s on the pltform s twin in Temple XXI. In ddition to the incomplete Initil Series, the corner frgment preserves smll portion of lock C1 t the upper right, showing numericl coefficient 9, 14, or 19; the numer could e ll tht remins of the month position 19 K y. Although the initil pssge following the dte is missing ltogether, the ver phrse must hve recorded uilding dediction, either in the form found on the lustrde (och otot) or y mens of some relted event phrse, such s och k hk, fire-entering. Most of the inscription on the tlet is missing, nd the next surviving glyph comes in the centrl horizontl nd, directly ove the ruler s portrit (Figure 15). The first legile sttement, corresponding to lock H1 in the originl rrngement, is prt of Distnce Numer of four Winls nd ten dys. The elorte form of the Winl sign is unique to my knowledge, showing the eye nd cruller of the Jgur God of the Underworld. The eye of this god is known from Glyph C of the Lunr Series nd other settings to e grphic revition of the lrger hed of the deity prs pro toto nd it is therefore proly relted to unusul Winl glyphs exhiiting jgur fetures found on Figure 16. A Winl period glyph with jgur fetures, from Quirigu, Stel D (from Thompson 1950:Fig. 29). Copn Stel N nd Quirigu Stel D (Figure 16). These re not imges of the Jgur God of the Underworld ut look insted to e skeletl or prtilly de-fleshed jgurs. Rre Winl vrints, they my e relted to other odd forms of the Winl period glyph found in the inscriptions of Tonin nd Scchn. The next lock of the tlet t position G2 is missing, ut it is likely to hve een piring of the H component of the Distnce Numer with the dy sign preceding the preserved 6 Muwn t H2. The event is the stndrd wing-shell expression signifying deth, red K A -yi U-?-SAK-IK -li, k -Vy u-? sk ik -il, his? white spirit finishes. 2 The suject s nme comes in the next glyph, ut only hlf of it survives, showing prefix of strnge, long-lipped humn profile. This is very distinctive nd recognizle sign, nd llows us to confidently identify the whole nme s the fther of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh (Ringle 1996). I tenttively red his nme s Tiwol Chn Mt. 3 He is depicted s the left-hnd figure on the Tlet of the Slves (Wld 1997) (Figure 17), nd his nme glyph ppers numerous times in the stucco text of Temple XVIII (Figure 17), his prole funerry structure (Schele 2 My nlysis of the wing-shell ver phrse stnds in contrst to other recent ssessments, such s tht offered y Mor-Mrín (2000). The lengthy expression is certinly difficult in mny wys, ut few points concerning its reding deserve explntion. First, I continue to dout the vlidity of the NIK vlue (Grue 1992) for the simple jw sign T533 tht is often inserted within SAK. The common -ki suffix is clerly importnt for estlishing its vlue, ut other possiilities should e considered since nik or its cognte nich, flower, is lredy ttested widely in the script s T646, representing florl lossom. This ltter sign might well red NICH, s indicted indirectly y the spelling ni-chi t Tortuguero for the Tzeltln kin term nichim, son of mn, noun derived from Greter Tzeltln nich, flower. My use of the trditionl IK, wind, reth, reding differs from others who prefer to red it s NAL (see Schele 1992:21; Mor-Mrín 2000). Agin, my preference is sed on the simple resoning tht NAL is well estlished reding for T89, the sprouting mize plnt, nd I see no overlp etween these signs. The NAL vlue for the wind sign ws sed on two exmples on the Hieroglyphic Stirwy t Copn, where it ws reduced to form identicl to the syllle n, efore li. The -li or -IL suffix ppers on virtully ll deth expressions, including the one here from the Temple XIX pnel, s -Vl ending on the full possessed noun nd therefore cnnot e nlyzed s prt of syllic sustitution for the IK. The supposed n is in fct replcement for IK, ut it is surely simple grphic revition of the wind logogrph. This is strongly suggested y the presence of the n ove the IK sign in mny exmples, including in the contexts of the second dy sign which ws surely red IK in Clssic times. 3 Ringle refers to the king s fther s Lord T231. The phonetic reding of the nme is sed minly on its form on the Tlet of the Slves, where the syllles ti-wo clerly replce the long-lipped fce (TIWOL?) of other exmples, s Wld (1997) nd others hve noted. On the Temple XIX pnel, the -l suffix eneth the hed my signl the full reding of the logogrm, ut the semntics of this reconstructed term tiwohl re oscure. It would seem not to e cognte of chiwoj, the widespred lowlnd word for trntul.

15 26 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Sculpted Pier 27 were set t five nd eight, respectively. If we consider the possile Distnce Numers set t one Tun intervls, we hve severl Long Count cndidtes to consider: Figure 17. Portrit nd nme glyphs of Tiwol Chn Mt: () Tlet of the Slves, left figure (drwing y Merle Greene Roertson), () T. XVIII stucco glyph, () Tlet of the Slves, cption, (c) T. XVIII jm (drwing y Luci Henderson). c d Lmt 16 Yx Lmt 1 Sk Lmt 6 Sk Lmt 11 Sk Lmt 16 Sk etc. Mny others re possile, of course, ut lredy one of the ove dtes stnds out s significnt: Lmt 6 Sk ws the irth dte of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, s recorded in n Initil Series on the jms of Temple XVIII. This is unlikely to e coincidence. We cn therefore e firly sure tht this is missing dte nd event of the tlet, recorded somewhere in the intervl etween the opening house dediction record nd the deth of the ruler s fther. Such sequence of dtes would entil n initil ckwrd reckoning from the Initil Series, ut, s we shll soon see, forwrd count from there on. The record of the fther s deth is followed y nother Distnce Numer written t lock J2, ut of this only n initil coefficient of twelve survives, presumly s the numer of K ins. This is n extremely importnt clue for scertining the next dte, for twelve dys eyond the dy Etz n is the tenth dy, Ok. Significntly, the next mjor dte in Plenque s history flls on this very dy, nmely the ccession of K inich Kn Bhlm on Ok 3 K y, flling some three yers lter. I think this is most likely the following dte on the Temple XIX tlet. Sixteen glyph locks re missing until we come to the ottom of column N (Figure 15c) nd prtilly preserved Distnce Numer written s >12 Winls nd >17 dys, with possile missing Tun component s well, t the top of column O. After this, the only portion of the min text to survive ws four glyphs t the very end of the inscription (O6-P7), where we find the nme of the ruler K inich Ahkl Mo Nh nd the Plenque Emlem Glyph. The royl nme tkes highly unusul form with its prominent turtle shell plced efore 1992). A stone incensrio stnd from Temple XVIII hs more complete record of his deth on Etz n 6 Muwn, greeing with the surviving portion of the dte on the Temple XIX tlet (Ringle 1996). 4 Titles for this person occupy the following glyph on the tlet, including the junior-level designtion Ch ok, Emergent One, nd possile plce nme. The ch ok title signls tht Tiwol Chn Mt ws not ruler of Plenque, nd oth Bssie-Sweet (1991: ) nd Ringle (1996) present compelling evidence to suggest he ws third son of K inich Jn Pkl who never ssumed the throne. A more detiled discussion of the king s fther is presented s prt of the historicl nlysis offered in Chpter 4. Now tht we hve securely plced dte in the middle of this very frgmented text, we cn see how the erlier Distnce Numer of?.4.10 might llow us to reconstruct portions of the missing chronology. The intervl of time my or my not include Tun period, ut enough survives to show tht the Winl nd K in positions of the erlier nd missing dte c 4 Ringle (1996) correctly reconstructed the dtes on the Temple of the Cross incensrio stnd (presented lso in Ringle nd Smith-Strk [1996:28]). His chronology differs considerly from tht presented in Schele nd Mthews (1979). Figure 18. Exmples of the rope-tking ver from three Plenque texts: () k -m-rope?, T. XIX stucco pnel, D2, () similr glyph in longer pssge, T. XIX pltform, west, (c) U-K AM-m- ROPE? ch o-ko, u-k m- rope ch ok, the young one s rope(?)-tking, T. XVIII stucco glyph (from Schele nd Mthews 1979:No. 409, drwing y Lind Schele).

16 28 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque mcw hed. The crpce is the logogrm AHK ( turtle ), here replcing the spelling -ku or the turtle s hed (likewise AHK) found in etter-known exmples of the king s nme. The mcw (MO ) is revited in other spellings s ek, which ws previously misred s n vrint. The drped wter lily pd t the ck of the mcw s hed lone ssumes the role of NAHB. The full result is K INICH-AHK-l-MO -NAHB. Just efore the ruler s nme is scttering ver written U-CHOK?-ji, u-chok-ij, he csts (incense) on it(?), n expression tht follows other events or vers to specify the king s role in lrger nd previously stted ritul context. Only portion of the preceding glyph (t O6) nming this ritul survives, ut enough is discernile to see tht it is the comintion k -m ove now-missing element tht, on the sis of strong prllel cse, we cn confidently reconstruct s twisted nd looped rope or cord. This grouping of signs (k m- rope ) is n importnt verl expression found in three exmples from the inscriptions of Temple XIX, where it ppers with the dtes Ajw 3 Wye nd precisely one K tun erlier with Ajw 18 Tzek (Figure 18, ). The k -m- rope expression in ll likelihood includes the trnsitive root k m, to tke or receive something, with the looped or twisted sufix likely stnding for the oject of the ver. 5 Such n unmrked ver, stripped of temporl nd person mrkers, is nominlized form similr in structure to other impersonl events such s chum tuun, stone seting, och k hk, fire entering nd k l tuun, stone inding. Another record of the k m- rope event ppers in loose glyph lock from the Temple XVIII stucco inscription, ut spelled somewht differently (Figure 18c). Here k m is the fmilir jw-in-hnd logogrph (K AM or CH AM), replcing the k -m syllles of other exmples. Using pictogrphic convention, the scrie hs plced the rope-like element, the direct oject, within the hnd, much s we find in common spellings of the God K-in-hnd ccession glyph red k m k wil, or the K wil-tking. The twisted rope sign ppers elsewhere in My texts, ut its reding is still difficult to estlish. Perhps its est-known usge efore now ws in the spelling of the nme of prticulr serpent wy (niml co-essence) shown on some Clssic cermics, where it refers to the drping nd rided snke collr worn y fntstic deer (Schele 1990; Grue nd Nhm 1994:693) (Figure 19). A similrly twisted cloth dornment is worn round the neck of two figures on the pltform of Temple XIX (see Figure 19c) nd lso y the younger Kn Bhlm II portryed on the min tlets of the Cross Group (Figure 19d). One might well consider tht the sign s usge in Temple XIX is relted to the wering of this looped costume 5 The spelling k -m rises n importnt issue out linguistic vrition in the Clssic inscriptions. We re ccustomed to reding this receive ver in its expected Ch oln form ch m, which hs for severl yers een the more estlished vlue of the jw-in-hnd. This ws sed originlly on n exmple from Piedrs Negrs Pnel 2, where the logogrph tkes the prefix ch - nd the suffix -m s phonetic complements, clerly indicting the Ch oln pronuncition. K m, however, is the Yuctecn cognte. The sitution is not unique, for Plenque is unusul for its occsionl use of Yuctecn spellings in plce of expected Ch oln forms. Other exmples include su-ku for sukun, elder rother (elsewhere spelled s Ch oln s-ku, skun) nd k- for k, erth (in Ch oln this would e ch). These words lone do not indicte tht Plenque ws Yuctecn site, for the overwhelming phonologicl nd morphologicl ptterns in Plenque s inscriptions re decidedly Ch oln (Houston, Roertson, nd Sturt 2000). Rther, such spellings re est seen s sutle indictions of close lnguge contct etween Ch oln nd Yuctecn spekers in the northwest lowlnds during Clssic times, if not erlier. The sme connection is reflected in Chontl, Ch oln lnguge, where erth is k insted of ch (Kufmn nd Normn 1984), exctly s indicted in Plenque s texts. c Figure 19. The twisted rope element in ssocition with rided snke or cloth costume dornments: () the rope sign, () wy chrcter, Chijil twist Chn, the Deer Rope-Snke(?) (from Grue nd Nhm 1994, Fig. 15), (c) similr dornments from T. XIX, west, (d) exmples of cordge worn y the young K inich Kn Bhlm on the Tlet of the Sun (drwing y Lind Schele). device. As we will see, however, rope-tking surely must refer to the curious scene on the west side of the pltform, where the min figure (one Slj Bolon) crdles mssive coil of rope. In its two other occurrences in Temple XIX, the k m- rope glyph ppers to mrk significnt clendr sttion within K tun. As we will find in discussions to come, the two other dtes ssocited with the ver re nd , where ech flls on the precise hlfwy point of the initil Hotun of the K tun period (2.9.0, or one-eighth of K tun). On the stone pnel there is good reson to think tht now-missing record of Ajw 3 Wye originlly preceded the k -m- twist glyph. The sme ver ppers with this dte on the pltform text, nd we cn discount the erlier possiility ( ) s it flls The Sculpted Pier 29 d

17 30 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Sculpted Pier 31 well efore the reign of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, who is nmed in the following locks. This dte would lso mke sense in light of the fct tht it flls close to the house dediction noted in the Initil Series of the pnel. These two dtes, we should recll, were recorded together on the lfrd, nd we will find them lso in the pltform s inscription in close ssocition with one nother. It seems resonle, then, tht this importnt dte would e recorded on the pier in ny cse, nd the end of the text looks to e very likely plce for it. Remrkly, even though the extnt portion of this long inscription is smll percentge of the entire text, it my e possile to infer ll of the dtes nd events originlly recorded. We hve seen tht one dte proly recorded in the inscription ws Ok 3 K y, the ccession of K inich Kn Bhlm, indicted y the 12 K ins in the incomplete Distnce Numer t J2. It is resonle to suppose, therefore, tht somewhere in this ltter portion of the inscription we would expect to find record of the ccession of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, the contemporry king, on Ik 5 K y. Moreover, there is mple spce in the text for nother dte to e recorded efore the finl one resonly estlished s If the lfrd nd the pltform text of Temple XIX cn e used s sis for comprison, likely cndidte would e the K tun ending Ajw 13 Yx. The presence of these dtes would e no more thn suppositions were it not for the prtil Distnce Numer surviving in column N, where the K in looks to e seventeen or higher, nd the Winl twelve or higher. It just so hppens tht the intervl etween the ccession dte nd the Period Ending is , very good fit with wht remins. Tking ll of these clues nd specultions together, the following scheme of dtes emerges s prole reconstruction (missing elements of the Clendr Rounds nd Distnce Numers re shown in itlics; the unwritten Long Counts re in prentheses): Ki 19 K y house dediction sutrct ( ) 3 Lmt 6 Sk irth of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh dd ( ) 7 Etz n 6 Muwn deth of Tiwol Chn Mt dd ( ) 8 Ok 3 K y ccession of K inich Kn Bhlm dd ( ) 9 Ik 5 K y ccession of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh dd ( ) 4 Ajw 13 Yx Period Ending dd ( ) 7 Ajw 3 Wye Period Ending; rope-tking Only the eventul discovery of the missing frgments of the upper text of this tlet will confirm or deny this reconstruction, ut in the mentime it ppers to e likely scenrio. The Figures nd Nme Cptions Now we turn our discussion to the nme cptions pertining to the two kneeling figures. The figure t right is dressed in more elorte costume nd grsps so-clled incense g in his left hnd, while his right supports the king. His proper nme is written in two glyph locks, with n extended title phrse following in seprte phrse of four locks (Figure 20). The nme, written in the first lock, is yo-ko-?-tal, repeting the nme fetured on the frgment of the temple s lfrd tlet, ut now replcing the yo-ok comintion y the syllles yo-ko (Figure 21). Interestingly, the undeciphered scroll-like min element of the nme glyph hs two smll dots ttched t upper left, which in other settings is used to indicte sign s douling (see Sturt nd Houston 1994:Fig. 57), ut here it is difficult to know how the repetition works. Other exmples of the drkened scroll sign, including its use s n Emlem Glyph in womn s nme t Tonin, suggest tht it is logogrm, nd Stone (2002) cogently suggests it represents ruer ll. The title fter the nme is gin the sme yjw k hk term tht follows his nme on the lfrd, possily militristic title. Here it hs n interesting lterntive spelling, y-j-k AHK. The spelling of yj(w) is truncted here, nd the K AHK logogrm is noteworthy for displying the smoke scrolls on its underside. The importnce of this mn is gin emphsized on the pnel, nd we will see him portryed gin on the temple s decorted pltform (Portrit E). Throughout these texts nd imges he emerges s mjor protgonist with some specific ties to Temple XIX, perhps s prmount religious officil for the uilding. The extended nme phrse then reds down to column of four glyphs just eneth the elow of the kneeling figure t right (see Figure 20). The first of these glyphs is y-j-k UH- HUUN-n, the possessed form of the common title jk uhuun, used throughout the My re for certin ctegory of secondry or susidiry lords (Houston 1993; Lcden 1996; Jckson nd Sturt 2001). Here the possessed form, indicted y its (u)y- ergtive pronoun prefix, sttes tht the kneeling figure is the jk uhuun of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, nmed in the remining three glyphs. The king s nme is written K INICH AHK-l-MO -NAHB, form recognizle from other Plenque inscriptions, including others from Temple XIX. The king s Holy Lord title closes the extended nme phrse. Despite eing so widespred, it is difficult to understnd the literl mening of the jk uhuun title mentioned here nd in mny other My inscriptions. Lcden (1996) hs offered n importnt nlysis of the glyph s mening messenger (hk -huun). Recent concurrent reserch y Houston nd Grue, working independently, hs led to the suggestion tht it mens He of the Holy Books, in which cse the glyph would e nlyzed morphologiclly s AJ-K UHUL-HUUN. Coe nd Kerr (1997) hve tken this to e title for scries nd ookkeepers. I m not s yet convinced of these decipherments sed on Figure 20. The figure nme cptions from the Temple XIX stone pnel: () nme nd titles of the lower left figure, () nme nd titles of the figure t right.

18 32 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Sculpted Pier 33 Figure 21. Nmes of fetured protgonist from Temple XIX, s recorded on: () the lfrd tlet, () the pltform, (c) the stone pnel. Figure 22. Exmples of yichn jw, the lord s mternl uncle : () Yxchiln, Lnt. 58, C (from Grhm 1979:125), () T. XIX stone pnel, figure cption, (c) Yxchiln, Lnt. 9, C1-C4 (from Grhm nd Von Euw 1977:29). c c ook, for generlly the HUUN logogrm is lte nd rre element in the title. Alterntively, I elieve the gentive word my e sed on the derived trnsitive root k uh-vn, mening to gurd something or to venerte. The semntics re somewht complex, ut the full menings of jk uhuun could e one who gurds (ojects) or one who oeys, perhps in reference to court officils who oversw the mteril goods within the plces (Jckson nd Sturt 2001). Whtever its precise sense, the title clerly refers to mny of the most importnt noles within Clssic My kingdoms. Copn gives us n interesting cse for comprison, for jk uhuun lords were clerly of enough socil nd politicl importnce there to wrrnt their own smll plces nd wrds. The est exmple is Group 9N-8 locted some distnce from the min cropolis t Copn (Wester 1989). The fmous inscried hieroglyphic ench from Structure 9N-82 records tht the locl lord ws the jk uhuun of the current Copn king, expressing the sme reltionship given in the cption of the Temple XIX pnel. Now we cn turn to the kneeling figure t left, mustchioed mn simply cld in loincloth who supports the lower ek of the king s ird costume. His nme cption ppers in four glyphs rrnged verticlly elow his rms (Figure 20), ut the symmetry of the pnel suggests tht it is proly incomplete, nd tht the first two or three glyphs of the cption, ove the hed, re on still-missing frgment. The first surviving lock is the fmilir designtion ch oko, for ch ok, conveying the sense of junior lord or, more literlly, emergent one. The second glyph is possily proper nme for the individul, ut t present very hrd to understnd. The lrger element ove the -l seems sed on logogrm ending in -N. The upper prt of the glyph shows three sprout-like plnts nd my constitute seprte sign. 6 Finlly, the lst two glyphs together red yi-ch-ni AJAW, for y-ichn jw, (mternl) uncle of the lord (D. Sturt 1997). The ch element of yi-ch-ni hs the distinctive ik element in the eye, ut shows some unique nimted chrcteristics resemling snke, chn. One wonders 6 An erly vrint of this sign or sign comintion occurs in Tom 6 from Río Azul, Guteml, in the nme of uilding or tom, YAX-?-l-NAAH (see Houston 1998:Fig. 15). Figure 23. Detil of the Temple XIX stone pnel, showing the fce nd hnd of the kneeling figure t left. if the scrie chose to modify the ch sign in this wy in order to construct prtil reus relying on the resemlence of ichn nd chn. We cn est understnd this reference to mternl uncle y turning to the inscriptions of Yxchiln, where two exmples pper (Figure 22, c). These re similrly written y-ichn jw, in reference to mn nmed CHAK-JOL-mi (Chk Joloom?). In oth portrits he is shown with the young Shield Jgur II, nd the settings of the kinship sttements would seem to show tht the lord is the future king. On the Plenque pnel we cn redily conclude tht the kneeling mn is the mternl uncle of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, given tht no other memer of the royl fmily is depicted in the scene. Such ws my initil interprettion, ut Stnley Guenter hs pointed out to me (personl communiction 2000) tht the term yichn jw here my still hold the specific mening shown y its use t Yxchiln, where the lord is the heir pprent (s discussions lter in this chpter will show, the successor of the king my e depicted on the stucco pnel decorting this sme pier). For now, it seems most likely tht he is the kings s mternl uncle, the rother of Ix Kinuw Mt (see Figure 11). The mn s portrit hs one interesting feture tht is perhps worthy of little specultion. As Joel Skidmore pointed out to me during n inspection of the pnel, the mn s fingers seem shortened nd lck nils (Figure 23). We will find in Chpter 3 tht one other person hs similr hnds in the rt of Temple XIX, nmely n ttendnt depicted in the pltform s ccession scene (Portrit G) with the nme MUWAAN-ni ch-nu-l -AHN?. He too hs moustche rre feture in Clssic My portriture nd there is strong reson to suggest the two portrits my e of the sme person. To summrize the min points concerning the stone pnel, we cn sy tht the inscription fetures the dediction dte of Temple XIX nd in ll likelihood once recorded numer of fmilir historicl dtes from Plenque s royl history. The Period Ending ritul mentioned in the lst few glyphs is perhps rope-tking, nd some clues to its significnce will emerge from discussions of the nery stucco pnel nd pltform text of Temple XIX. In the c-

19 34 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Sculpted Pier 35 compnying portrit the king wers lrge hed of cormornt (mt), which in some wy proly lludes to the supernturl plce nmed Mtwil or Mtwil, fetured throughout Plenque s inscriptions s n Emlem Glyph for gods nd historicl rulers. Once more the yjw k hk officil (Yok? Tl) ppers s n importnt ritul prticipnt. The other kneeling figure my e the mternl uncle (ichn) of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. A B C D 1 II. The Stucco Pnel The temple s centrl pier ws lso decorted with lrge stucco frieze on its left or western side (Figure 5). The polychrome relief depicts single striding figure in profile wering n immense costume of ird s hed, similr in most respects to tht worn y the king on the ccompnying stone pnel. Twelve hieroglyphs ccompny the portrit (Figure 24), ech glyph pinted drk lue ginst red ckground. The inscription is difficult to red in plces, yet enough is understndle to llow severl new insights into the ritulism nd dynstic history of Lte Clssic Plenque. The Dtes The inscription cites three Clendr Round dtes, ech ccompnied y short verl sttement (Figure 24). No Distnce Numers connect them, ut they cn nevertheless e securely plced in the Long Count s: A1: ( ) 3 Ajw 3 Yxk in B2: ( ) 6 Ajw 13 Muwn C2: ( ) 9 Ajw 18 Tzek The middle of these cn only e the K tun ending , s confirmed y the glyph which follows t C1, CHUM-TUUN-ni or chum tuun, stone-seting. Such expressions re used throughout texts t Plenque, Pomon, nd some neighoring sites to descrie the initition of series of twenty ritul stones tht symolized the twenty units of the K tun period (D. Sturt 1996). The K tun ending in the second dte therefore serves s welcome nchor for the plcement of the other two dtes in the Long Count, s given ove. Significntly, ll three dtes re erlier thn most cited in Temple XIX s inscriptions. The uilding s dediction ceremony wht the My clled n och k hk or fire entering ws on Ki 19 K y, dy recorded prominently in the three other texts of the temple (the lfrd tlet, the stone pnel nd the pltform) nd in Temple XXI. The initition of oth uildings cme nerly twenty yers fter the ltest of the three dtes in the stucco inscription, indicting tht the stucco pnel commemortes times nd events tht occurred significntly efore it ws mde. The possiility remins tht the stucco sculpture is even lter thn the temple s dediction dte, hving een creted sometime fter the other monuments of the gllery. A simple ut interesting numerologicl pttern links ll three dtes in the inscription. Tken in sequence, ech is seprted y the sme intervl of 2.9.0, or 900 dys. While never noticed efore s meningful sudivision in My time reckoning, is hlf Hotun, the exct midpoint within the ritully importnt spn of five Tuns (5.0.0). Exctly five Tuns thus seprte the initil nd finl dte. The significnce of this pttern will e discussed s we consider the detils of the nrrtive nd the glyphs within the text The Events Figure 24. The stucco inscription from the Temple XIX pier: () originl rrngement of the text, () the text structurlly prsed for comprison. An unusul ver or predicte follows the opening dte 3 Ajw 3 Yxk in. The glyph lock t B1 is prtilly lost, ut the upper left corner displys mn s hed turned upwrd, just ove fethered wing. Enough is preserved to indicte tht it is n exmple of ird-mn sign ttested in other inscriptions from Plenque, Tonin, nd possily Tikl. The single other exmple I know from Plenque comes from the Temple XXI pltform (Figure 25), where it ccompnies the very sme dte (D. Sturt 2000). The form of the glyph indictes tht it is not ver in the proper sense; rther its presence fter the dte suggests tht it is descriptive term or noun for the dte itself. Although the reding of the ird-mn glyph is uncler, exmples from Tonin (where it is prticulrly common) sometimes tke -ti suffix, nd strongly suggest tht the full-figure ird is the MUT ird logogrm known from other texts. The humn hed resemling XIB my ctully e seprte sign red efore MUT, suggesting the comintion XIB-MUT ( mle ird?) s possile decipherment. 7 Whtever the cse, it is significnt tht the irdmn glyph is consistently ssocited with hlf-hotun (2.9.0) dtes like the ones we hve seen 7 The rtionle for this tenttive XIB-MUT reding comes in prt from yet nother tlet from Tonin, where the sme MUT ird with -ti suffix displys the hed of God D, red ITZAMNAAJ. The comintion is lmost surely ITZAMNAAJ-MUT, which I hve suggested on the sis of other inscriptions to e the prole nme of the so-clled Principl Bird Deity

20 36 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Sculpted Pier 37 A B C D E Figure 25. Exmples of the ird-mn glyph t Plenque nd Tonin: () Plenque, T. XXI sl (from Schele nd Mthews 1979:No. 553), () Tonin, M. 141, C3 (from Grhm nd Mthews 1999:173). on the Temple XIX pier. Tonin Monument 141 cites the ird-mn in connection with the dte Ajw 13 Ch en (Figure 25). It stnds lone without ny other ver or protgonist, suggesting tht it somehow descries some generl chrcteristic of the dte, rther thn n ction of ny kind. Another Tonin stel (s yet undesignted) ers the dte Ajw 8 Zip on its se, once more with the ird-mn glyph. 8 There it follows stndrd hlf-period glyph (u-tnlm-il), indicting tht the My themselves viewed the dte s the midpoint of the five Tun period. Grouping the known ird-mn cittions from Plenque nd Tonin, we find tht their dtes fll into pttern clerly relted to tht lredy descried for the three dtes of the Temple XIX stucco text: Ajw 13 Ch en Tonin: Monument Ajw 3 Yxk in Plenque: T. XIX stucco; T. XXI sl Ajw 8 Zip Tonin: undesignted stel se Ajw 18 Wo Tonin: Monument Ajw 13 Pop Tonin: undesignted stel se Precisely ten Tuns (10.0.0) seprte the first nd second dte, nd fifteen Tuns (15.0.0) fll etween the second nd third. Five Tuns (the common denomintor of ll the intervls) seprte the finl two dtes, nd ll the dtes gin fll on the midpoints of the four stndrd Hotun sudivisions of the K tun (2.9.0, 7.9.0, , nd ). It ppers, then, tht the ird-mn in some wy mrks previously unknown ritul or clendr cycle. But it is interesting tht the lst dte in the stucco text from Temple XIX, , is of the sme type, yet no ird-mn glyph ccompnies tht sttement This smll monument ws displyed t the Museo Arqueológico de Plenque in June, 1999, s prt of specil exhiition orgnized for the Tercer Mes Redond de Plenque. The dtes nd interprettions given re sed on my inspection of the monument t tht time. A numer designtion will e given to the stone in redying it for puliction in the Corpus of My Hieroglyphic Inscriptions. 9 The pulished drwing of Tonin Monument 1 (Mthews 1983:14) does not indicte the ird-mn glyph very clerly, ut it is evident in the ccompnying photogrph with -ti suffix. 10 Severl Tonin inscriptions highlight similr sttions of the hlf-hotun period, ut gin without n ssocited ird-mn hieroglyph. These texts include the so-clled Pestc stel, with the dte , nd M.104, stel se recording Ajw 3 Sk. A few s-yet-unnumered monuments t Tonin lso record these unusul Period Endings, including stel se citing Ajw 13 Ch en, nother se dedicted shortly fter royl ccession on Ajw 3 Yxk in (the sme dte tht opens the stucco text from Temple XIX), nd figurl stel celerting Ajw 8 Zip. The lst exmple is of specil interest ecuse the dte is clled u yx k ltuun, the first stone-inding, of the current ruler, emphsizing its intrinsic qulity s Period Ending (Simon Mrtin, personl communiction 2000). Figure 27. The heron sign in other settings: () nme cption of figure from the T. XIX pltform, west side, () edge inscription of the T. XXI pltform. Figure 26. The gret lue heron (Arde herodis), compred to the glyphic sign from Temple XIX. The third glyph of the stucco text (lock A2) follows the ird-mn nd provides more specific informtion out the opening dte. Its first prt is U-NAAH-hi, u-nh, (it is) his/her/its first. The second hlf of A2 is lso prefixed y U- (though different sign vrint) efore n intriguing min sign showing crested ird consuming fish. The wter ird sign hs no known reding, ut the drkened nding round the eye suggests its species identifiction s gret lue heron (Arde herodis) (Figure 26) or possily n osprey. 11 This is followed in turn y the sufix -le. Jumping hed somewht, we will come to find two other exmples of the sme U- heron -le glyph in the stucco inscription (t D1 nd D3) remrkle fct considering the short length of the entire text. Ech ppers in direct ssocition with one of the three dtes, nd it is proly no coincidence tht these dtes re ll connected numerologiclly. With the u-nh first modifier eforehnd, I suspect tht U- heron -le cn e nlyzed s nominlized ver (s in the first x -ing ), or perhps more likely s sttion or office of some sort. Whtever ction or term the heron glyph records, it is the key topic of the inscription. Unfortuntely, its decipherment is unlikely until more exmples cn e found; 11 Words for heron vry widely cross Myn lnguges nd seem to offer little clue for the vlue of this sign. Given the form of the ird sign in this text, it is interesting tht in Tzeltl ll types of herons re clssed under the term hti choy, or fish eters (Hunn 1977). The identifiction of the ird sign s n osprey lso seems plusile given the drkened eye mrkings, s suggested independently y Guillermo Bernl Romero (2002) nd Geoffrey Hel (personl communiction 2003). The elongted form of the ek more closely resemles tht of heron, perhps, ut the question hd est e left open for the time eing.

21 38 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Sculpted Pier 39 only two other cses of the glyph re known, from the pltform of Temple XIX nd from curious pssge from Temple XXI. In the first instnce the heron glyph occurs in the nme cption of seted nole, seemingly s title or personl reference, ut without ny of the ffixtion seen in the stucco inscription (Figure 27). The titulr nture of the glyph is supported y its importnt ppernce in Temple XXI s prt of the phrse w -wn t?-el, he stnds in/s the? (Figure 27). Here, the suject is Upkl K inich, whom we will very shortly encounter s the protgonist of the Temple XIX stucco, nd significntly the event recorded tkes plce on the very sme dy recorded here Ajw 3 Yx. In ll likelihood the Temple XXI record offers n elortion on the terse phrseology from the stucco text, specifying tht Upkl K inich stood up in whtever cpcity the ird sign specifies. Block C2 is the third of the evenly spced dtes, 9 Ajw 18 Tzek, or The ccompnying ver phrse t D2 is slightly dmged glyph, consisting of the sign k, second missing element, nd the twisted or looped rope. This is surely the sme k m- rope expression lredy encountered ner the end of the stone pnel s min inscription (see Figure 18). A complete exmple ppers in the text from the west side of Temple XIX s pltform, in connection with the dte Ajw 3 Wye (Figure 18). As noted, I suspect tht this expression my descrie some ritul ssocited with the midpoint (2.9.0) of the first Hotun of K tun, lthough there is perhps more to it thn this, s discussions t the end of this chpter will try to ddress. Returning to the stucco text, the second portion of lock D2 is hi-li, which precedes the third nd finl exmple of the heron glyph with its fmilir ffixes, t D3. The preceding pssges hve lredy tlked of the first nd second instnces of this heron event or ction, nd it seems tht hi-li here is somehow prllel to those ordinl numers (see Figure 24). Significntly, hil is n intrnsitive root in Ch oln Myn lnguges mening to end, rest, finish (Kufmn nd Normn 1984), nd in this setting it proly refers to the ending or resting of the three-stge ritul process involving the heron ction. Aside from n ppernce in pssge W-8 on the Temple XIX pltform, the only other known instnces of the word hil come from two exmples of the expression hil ok (literlly rest-leg ) cited t the widely seprted sites of Copn nd Tortuguero; oth seem to relte to the end-point of journey (see D. Sturt 2004) (Figure 28). In the stucco inscription from Plenque, it thus seems tht the ct of tking the rope lso sw the resting of the ceremonil cycle tied to the hlf-hotun intervl of After the lst of the heron glyphs we come to the first personl nme of the stucco inscription, written U-PAKAL-K INICH, or Upkl K inich, The Sun God s Shield. The nme tkes the title -ch o-ko, for B(h) Ch ok, mening Principl Heir. Although this person is not yet mong the fmilir chrcters in Plenque s history, recent suggestions y Bernl Romero (1999, 2002) hve convincingly shown tht Upkl K inich is the nme of lord who ruled t Plenque fter K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. Being the only nme in the stucco text, we must conclude tht the portrit on the stucco pier is Upkl K inich s the heir pprent, d c Figure 28. Exmples of hil ok, rest-leg, t Copn nd Tortuguero: () Copn, Altr Q (hi-li o-ke) (drwing y Lind Schele), () Tortuguero, Monument 8 (U-hi-li-OK) (drwing y Luci Henderson). e Figure 29. Upkl K inich: () portrit from the Temple XXI pltform, () tlet frgments recovered from the Temple of the Folited Cross nd the Plce (drwing y Lind Schele), (c) nme glyphs from the T. XIX stucco pnel, (d) cption from the T. XXI pltform, (e) nme glyphs from the horizontl text of the T. XXI pltform.

22 40 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque shown efore ssuming the throne. Upkl K inich is mentioned nd portryed on the Temple XXI pltform s well (Figure 29), nd in his lter records he ers the slightly more elorte royl nme Upkl K inich Jn Pkl (Figure 29), clerly evoking the memory of his illustrious ncestor (possily his grndfther). This ruler remins very oscure, nd no ccession dte is known for him. However, he ws in office on Ben 16 Kumk u, dte cited on the K n Tok pnel for the ccession of junior lord under the uspices of the Plenque king (Bernl Romero 1999). 12 This flls only few yers fter the lst known dte from Temple XIX, , when K inich Ahkl Mo Nh celerted the Period Ending. Evidently Upkl K inich Jn Pkl succeeded K inich Ahkl Mo Nh s king t some point etween these two dtes. The title h ch ok shows us tht Upkl K inich ws considered the heir to Plenque s throne, ut it is difficult to reconcile this with the finl dte cited in the stucco inscription Ajw 18 Tzek fell within the reign of K inich K n Joy Chitm, when tht king ws nering seventy yers of ge. The mn who eight yers lter would tke the nme K inich Ahkl Mo Nh ws in his mid-thirties t this time. It is therefore difficult to see how Upkl K inich could e nmed s h ch ok t time when his own predecessor in office hd not yet ssumed the throne. It insted seems likely tht Upkl K inich ws the Principl Heir during the reign of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, when the text ws written nd produced. We know the three dtes on the stucco pnel record retrospective history, ut the h ch ok title is proly to e considered contemporneous with the stucco pnel s lter composition. For some time I considered the possiility tht Upkl K inich ws the son of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, n interprettion echoed y Bernl Romero s (2003) own understnding of Plenque s history. This my well e so, ut with the discovery of the Temple XXI pltform it seems plusile tht he ws younger rother of the reigning king. No direct reltionship is ever provided for these historicl figures, ut it is significnt tht the scene from Temple XXI presents oth lords s dults, flnking their venerted ncestor K inich Jn Pkl. If the scene corresponds to the opening dte of the Temple XXI monument ( ) nd this is y no mens ovious then the future king K inich Ahkl Mo Nh ws just over thirty yers old, fr too young to hve dult offspring. In the ccompnying texts of Temple XXI, Upkl K inich is nmed not just s Bh Ch ok, ut s Bh Ch ok K uhul Bkl Ajw (Figure 29d), curious title tht comines heir nd Holy Lord t time efore he ssumed the throne (Temple XXI s pltform ws dedicted efore Upkl K inich s ccession). More will e sid of these complex historicl issues in Chpter 4. Bck now to the stucco inscription, in the second hlf of lock D4 is fmilir glyph with min sign representing left rm, ending with -NAL-l. A yi- prefix is found on other exmples of this rm glyph, sometimes infixed into the neck re of the min sign, s my e the cse here. The glyph customrily interposes etween two nmes, the second often eing god s designtion, nd it seems to e some sort of possessed noun or reltionship glyph (Figure 30). The environment of the rm glyph, long with the yi- prefix nd -NAL ending, hs rised the possiility tht it is vrint of y-ichnl, together with, in the compny of (Orejel 1996), ut on closer review this equivlence seems prolemtic. The rm seems more 12 The so-clled K n Tok pnel records series of junior-level ccessions overseen y Plenque kings over the course of severl centuries. Bernl Romero (1999) interprets the protgonists s rulers of suordinte site in Plenque s domin. While this my e true, it seems eqully plusile, if not more likely, tht the ccessions pertin to priestly office or position within Plenque s locl court society. The Sculpted Pier 41 Figure 30. Exmples of the left rm reltionship glyph: () T. XIX stucco text, () pssge from the Plce Tlet recording childhood ritul of K inich K n Joy Chitm, (c) jms of T. XVIII (from Ruz Lhuillier 1958: fig. 16), (d) similr pose on y jgur glyph from Tikl, Stel 29, za8 (from Jones nd Stterthwite 1982:Fig. 44). themticlly restricted thn the widespred y-ichnl, for it often ppers fter the nmes of children or young people. For exmple, on the jm inscription of Temple XVIII (Figure 30c) it follows the pre-ccession nme of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh s oy, nd on the Plce Tlet it follows the youth nme of the preceding king, K inich K n Joy Chitm (Figure 30). In oth instnces the event is youth s ceremony I red s k l myij, scrifice- or gift-inding. The Temple XIX exmple provides third cse from Plenque where the rm reltionship glyph ppers with youth or pre-ccession rites. Perhps it is no coincidence tht the rm sign is visully similr to the pose of infnts in My rt nd iconogrphy (Figure 30d), s we see in the portrit nme of GII of the Plenque Trid, given lter in lock D At Piedrs Negrs, two other exmples of the left rm reltionship glyph seem to e relted to young people. On Pnel 3, it occurs in the min text in pssge descriing n Erly Clssic ritul tht is proly depicted in the ccompnying scene. At lest one figure, stnding ehind the ruler, is young oy. On the shells of Buril 5, the twelve-yer-old Ldy K tun is nmed eside nother exmple of the rm reltionship glyph (here right rm, it seems), which pprently estlishes some connection etween the girl nd womn nmed in the next lock. c d

23 42 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Sculpted Pier 43 Figure 31. A hlf-hotun dte used s clendricl nchor, from Plenque, Temple of the Inscriptions, est pnel (drwing y Lind Schele). Despite such contextul nd visul clues, it is difficult to estlish vile reding of the left rm reltionship glyph, if it is in fct distinct from y-ichnl. In the cses from Plenque nd elsewhere, the nme written fter the rm expression is of god or lord of higher rnk thn the youthful protgonist, suggesting tht, like y-ichnl, the rm glyph helps to specify who snctioned, oversw, or ttended to the ritul concerned. The nme fter the rm glyph in the stucco inscription is, s noted, GII of the Plenque Trid (D5). Like Upkl K inich, GII ers the designtion ch o-ko, ch ok, young one, presumly ecuse of his infnt spect. The inscription closes t D6 with title or designtion for GII sed on the sign K UH, god, with two prefixed signs of unknown vlue. The second of these prefixes, the lrger of the two, resemles My representtions of n eye, so perhps the title designted GII s the?-eyed god. The singling-out of GII s the divine prticipnt in or overseer of the finl of the heron events is extremely interesting, ut once more not esy to explin. The stucco inscription thus reltes nrrtive of three evenly spced rituls, the first, second, nd lst of series spnning five yers. All three events re descried y n undeciphered heron sign, which my in some wy e relted conceptully to the wter ird costume worn y the protgonist, Upkl K inich. The use of the ver w, stnd up, in conjunction with the heron sign in Temple XXI s inscription my hold n importnt clue for interpreting the odd costume oth he nd the king wer on the pier of Temple XIX. Certinly the imge conveyed in the glyph ird tking fish in its ek is repeted on fr lrger scle y the costumes themselves, even though the ird species of the costumes is not heron (the glyphic expression would e expected to e more conventionlized, of course). It is worth reclling tht on Temple XXI the event is stnding s or in whtever the heron sign mens; from this it is tempting to consider tht it signifies the costume itself, or the sttion the costume conveys. Significntly, the ct of stnding up or ecoming erect (w ) is lso visully suggested y the ttendnts to the king depicted on the pier, who visily support the unwieldy outfit. Returning to the dtes from the stucco text, we hve seen tht the three rituls re ech spced (900 dys) prt, nd fll over two decdes efore the dediction dte of Temple XIX. They re therefore retrospective records of specific ritul cycle involving the would-e heir to the throne, possily the first son or rother of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, who cme to rule sometime fter the ltter s deth nd efore the ccession of his younger rother or nephew, K inich K uk Bhlm. The deity GII hs some involvement with these rituls, ut it is difficult to know in wht cpcity. The lst of the heron events lso involves curious rite descried s something like tking the rope, n event mentioned in nother text from Temple XIX in connection with Ajw 3 Wye, precisely one K tun lter. I m inclined to see the glyphs tht immeditely follow the first nd lst dtes in this inscription the ird-mn ver nd rope-tking s structurl prtners to the stone seting glyph used simply to descrie the clendricl significnce of the middle dte. All would serve like-in-kind roles s descriptions of sttions within the K tun period, like the fr more common nd fmilir Hotun mrker glyphs used to nme the qurters of the K tun. The ird-mn is found in severl cses t Plenque nd Tonin to mrk dtes tht re divisile y one-eighth portions of the K tun. The two known instnces of rope-tking events (if this is the true reding) occur on dtes tht fll on 2.9.0, or the initil one-eighth within K tun. It is possile tht rope-tking therefore descries specific rite ssocited with the first 900 dys of K tun, ut this remins to e firmly estlished. At ny rte, there is now good reson to elieve tht the My recognized the one-eighth sudivisions of the K tun s ritully significnt, even if these were not so routinely commemorted in My inscriptions s whole. Joel Skidmore (personl communiction 2000) hs pointed out to me n exmple tht proves the point very well. The est tlet of the Temple of the Inscriptions cites the Clendr Round 13 Ajw 18 Mk (M7, N7), corresponding to , or seven-eighths of the K tun (Figure 31). The text does not mention ny event for this dte; insted, it is self-evident sort of Period Ending tht provides chronologicl nchor for the event recorded in the next locks, nmely Plenque s conquest t the hnds of Clkmul on Figure 32. The inscription from the south side of Copn, Stel J.

24 44 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter Nme 45 Figure 33. Mention of ropetking ritul on Period Ending, from the Plce Tlet, G10-I7 (drwing y Lind Schele). Relevnt to these curious ptterns is Stel J of distnt Copn, which presents list of individul Tuns within K tun period, ech ccompnied y its proper glyphic designtion (Figure 32). Some of these re quite fmilir: first five Tuuns, the tnlm hlf period term, nd so forth. Yet three of the terms descrie ctions or rituls involving the word k m or ch m, tke, receive, perhps strengthening the notion tht the rope-tking event is similr sort of term used to designte or descrie set period or sudivision of the K tun. The stucco pnel must e considered in the context of pre-ccession rituls involving young kings-to-e, for the rope-tking event recorded in the Temple XIX stucco seems to concern young or yet-to-e-estlished rulers. We cnnot know Upkl K inich s ge t the time of the ritul cycle commemorted (his irth dte is unknown), yet there re importnt connections to e drwn etween the dtes nd events of the stucco pier nd other known rituls involving youngsters. On the Plce Tlet, we red of rope-tking rite involving K inich K n Joy Chitm s young mn, on Ajw 3 Ch en, mny yers efore his ccession (Figure 33). Here, however, the event is somewht different, written U-K AM-w CHAN-?, or u-k m-w chn..?.., he tkes the snke rope. (Notice the nturlistic depiction of the twisted fiers within the rope element.) The comintion of CHAN nd the rope reclls the imgery on the serpent deer wy entity mentioned ove, nd we cn perhps imgine tht the oject tken in this ceremony ws snke or snke effigy worn round the heir s neck, like on the deer figure. On the hieroglyphic jms of Temple XVIII we red tht the young K inich Ahkl Mo Nh prticipted in pre-ccession event on Ajw 18 Yx, when fifteen yers of ge, nerly three decdes efore his own ccession to office. Most of the ssocited text in the upper portion of the south jm is missing, unfortuntely, ut the dte once more is significnt, ending in The finl dte of the Temple XIX stucco text ( ) comes one K tun fterwrds. We therefore hve two independent records of royl heirs prticipting in rituls on this chronologiclly significnt sttion. One wonders if perhps these less importnt sttions of the K tun were considered to e the ritul responsiilities of rulers-in-trining. Detil of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh from the stone pnel of the Temple XIX pier.

25 46 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter Nme 47 Detil of the kneeling figure t left on the stone pnel. Detil of the kneeling figure t left on the stone pnel of the Temple XIX pier.

26 48 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter Nme 49 Detil of the kneeling figure t right on the stone pnel of the Temple XIX pier. Detil of the kneeling figure t right on the stone pnel.

27 50 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter Nme 51 Detil of the stone pnel from the Temple XIX pier. Detil of the stone pnel from the Temple XIX pier.

28 52 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter Nme 53 Detil of the stone pnel from the Temple XIX pier. Detil of Upkl K inich from the stucco pnel of the Temple XIX pier.

29 54 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter Nme 55 Detil of the stucco pnel from the Temple XIX pier. Detil of the stucco pnel from the Temple XIX pier.

30 56 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter Nme 57 Detil of the stucco pnel from the Temple XIX pier. Detil of the stucco pnel from the Temple XIX pier.

31 58 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter 3. The Pltform Of the extrordinry monuments discovered in Temple XIX, the most significnt is the unusul decorted pltform uilt ner the northest corner of the structure s interior gllery. This rectngulr construction ore two sculpted pnels on its west nd south fces, ech with figurl scene msterfully crved in low relief nd lengthy hieroglyphic text in n incised clligrphic style similr to tht of the celerted Tlet of the 96 Glyphs (see foldouts t end of volume). In 2001, very similr crving ws unerthed in nery Temple XXI, nd the two monuments were, s we shll see, likely dedicted on the sme dte. No other My monument cn e esily compred to the pltforms of Temples XIX nd XXI. Their sculptured fces re smll, no more thn fifty centimeters high, nd they were set t floor level s the verticl sides of the rectngulr pltform. The est nd north sides of the Temple XIX pltform re uncrved, proly ecuse of their proximity to the end wll of the gllery. The pltform no dout served s some type of supporting surfce, ut eyond this no ovious function comes to mind. We cn proly discount its role s throne, or t lest distinguish the pltform from other types of enches nd thrones tht re customrily plced in centrl line ginst the ck wll of structure. As the discussion will show, the inscription my provide some importnt clues out the purpose of this odd monument. The condition of the sculpted pnels is nerly pristine, the only dmge resulting from hirline frctures nd some loss of detil in single glyph column on the west side. Upon excvtion, remins of red pigment were esily discernile in res on the south fce. A stucco lyer ws pprently pplied to the temple floor t some time fter the dediction of the pltform nd lipped up ginst the se of the crving, oscuring mny glyphs in the ottom rows. The removl of the stucco reveled more well-preserved glyphs, including severl ner the end of the min south text tht look to hve een incised in quick nd slipshod mnner. They stnd in gret contrst to the eutifully detiled crving of most other glyphs. Perhps the difference is due to the position of these glyphs t floor level; if the sculptor worked in situ, these would hve een quite difficult to crve. The longer south fce of the pltform cn e considered the front of the monument, nd it is clerly the more importnt of the two sculpted pnels. A eutiful scene in low relief shows seven seted or kneeling individuls, the centrl one nmed s the enthroned Plenque ruler K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. The remining six men pper to e high-rnking court ttendnts Detil of glyphs from the Temple XIX pltform, south fce.

32 60 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform 61 prticipting (s the text will mke cler) in ceremonil hednd crowning of the king on the dy of his ccession, or Ik 5 K y. The portrits of oth sides re ll highly individulized nd must rnk mong the finest figurl crvings of ll My rt. Ech figure hs glyphic cption vrying in length from two to five glyph locks (the nmes nd identities of ll the ttendnts re discussed in Chpter 4). The inscription of the principl southern pnel is divided into two flnking sections of fifty-six glyphs ech, giving totl of 112 glyphs. The west side of the pltform is significntly shorter thn the south fce ut holds to similr design overll. Three figures sit in somewht less forml poses, nd the focus is gin on seted mn in the center, who holds lrge undle of coiled rope unique imge in My rt. Glyph pnels on ech side contin thirty-two glyphs, providing totl of sixty-four in ll. Together the min texts of the two side pnels of the pltform hold 176 glyphs, mking for one of the longer inscriptions t Plenque. Ech of the two side pnels is self-contined composition. Their respective hieroglyphic texts re not continuous, nd the scenes nd inscriptions re themticlly distinct in mny wys. For this reson I will discuss them in seprte sections elow, eginning with the longer south side nd then moving on to discussion of the west side pnel. For the ske of clrity, my text nlysis will follow the nturl divisions of the inscription into pssges or episodes. Here, pssge refers to the sic sudivision of nrrtive tht is nchored to specific dy, nd includes t the very lest some predicte or verl sttement (Dte-Ver). Typiclly Distnce Numer, or time intervl, connects the individul pssges, which in the ensuing discussion will e consecutively numered nd prefixed y S (south) or W (west) to mrk the side of the pltform to which they elong (Pssge S-1, S-2, etc.). In essence, pssges re kin to wht some epigrphers hve clled cluses (Kuler 1973; Mthews 1977). More recently Jossernd (1991, 1997) hs conducted more refined studies of these essentil uilding locks of Clssic My discourse wht she clls episodes nlyzing them for hierrchies nd juxtpositions of informtion. Due to the unusul length of the document, the Temple XIX ench inscription provides fine cse study for looking further into the structures of nrrtive discourse in Clssic My texts. The discussions of ech pssge egin with summry prgrph of the contents, followed y more specific commentries on individul glyphs nd issues of interprettion A B C D I. The South Pnel Pssge S-1 (Figure 34) Summry: The inscription commences on the pnel s west side, with the Initil Series Ik 5 Mol, corresponding to Mrch 10, 3309 B.C. Supplementry informtion for the dte includes the moon ge record nd reference to the current sttion in the 819-dy circuit, positioned in the est. The opening dte is given s the inugurtion dte of fmilir mythicl figure from Plenque known s GI. His ccession ws overseen or mnged y the noted My deity Itzmnj. The opening Long Count dte presents no miguities, with the cler record t B1-B3 of The corresponding dy nd month re 9 Ik 5 Mol, with the dy position t A4 nd the month further long in the text t lock D4, fter lengthy supplementry series. The dte Ik 5 Mol is pre-er, flling nerly ten K tuns (pproximting two centuries) efore the conventionl strting point of the Long Count on Ajw Figure 34. Temple XIX pltform, Pssge S-1.

33 62 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque c d Figure 35. An unusul vrint of the Bk tun period: () T. XIX pltform, () Lcnh, Pnel 1, (c) Nrnjo, Stel 1, E9 (re-drwn y Dvid Sturt from Grhm nd Von Euw 1975:12), (d) Dresden Codex, p. 61, B4. Kumk u, or August 13, 3114 B.C. if we use the Goodmn-Mrtinez-Thompson correltion with constnt. In our own system the dte flls on Mrch 10, 3309 B.C. nd plces the opening of the nrrtive squrely within mythicl time. The eginning of this text reclls the similrly distnt Initil Series on the three tlets of the Cross Group, yet the Temple XIX dte is significntly erlier thn ny of them. As Dvoust (2001) hs noted, this opening dte lso corresponds to the ppernce of Venus s Evening Str nd seems the first of severl Venus ssocitions found in the inscription. A few grphicl spects of the Initil Series re worth noting. The Introducing Glyph presents the k l ptron sign for Mol, here somewht unusul profile vrint representing the night sun deity. 14 In other contexts this sign is simply red AK AB, night, drkness. The Long Count periods ll pper in their stndrd forms, with the conspicuous exception of the Bk tun t B1. This is very rre vrint composed of sky or CHAN sign nd sufix whose reding remins uncertin. Only few other exmples of this odd Bk tun glyph re known, nd to my knowledge they hve never een discussed in pulished tretments of the Long Count clendr nd its nottion. Two exmples re ttested from Lcnh nd Nrnjo, nd others from the Dresden Codex (Figure 35-d). I hve no decipherment to offer for this odd glyph, ut it is interesting tht the Plenque, Nrnjo, nd Dresden exmples ll pper in records of extensive time periods reching ck efore the current er event. The Lcnh cse is the ovious exception, eing used in more stndrd wy to record the historicl Period Ending (see Coe nd Benson 1966). The K tun nd Tun glyphs re perfectly regulr in form, yet ech crries the sufixed sign -y (T126 in Thompson s [1962] ctlog). This sign is customrily used on period glyphs when they help to express Distnce Numers, ut it is highly unusul to find -y s suffix in Long Count nottion such s this. In Distnce Numers, -y likely serves to represent the temporl ending -iiy, mrking time go, which is relted to the completive spect mrker on root nd derived intrnsitive vers in Clssic Myn grmmr. I suspect tht its presence here is to indicte hun h-iiy, one yer (pst), nd tht its use here is due to the dte eing very erly. It is difficult to confirm this specultion, however, since the -y sufix does not pper on the other Long Count periods used to write erly dtes, such s those in the Cross 14 The iconogrphy of this night sun deity shows n essentil similrity to the stndrd K inich Ajw sun god, the only difference eing the use of k l signs in plce of the k in, sun, elements tht regulrly decorte the solr god s forehed, rms, nd legs. This drk sun god, if we cn cll him tht, should not e confused with the jgur god of the underworld, who hs his own dignostic fetures including, t times, the k l symol. I suspect the jgur deity ws specificlly nocturnl fire god with close conceptul ties to the night sun (D. Sturt 1998). The Pltform 63 Group tlets, for instnce. The supplementry series following the 9 Ik dy glyph consists of three prts: (1) Glyphs G nd F (B4 nd A5), which set the dy in nine-dy ritul cycle relted proly to the Aztec Nine Lords of the Night, (2) the moon ge, recorded in glyphs D, C, X, B, nd A (B5-B7, respectively), nd (3) prentheticl reckoning ck to the nerest sttion for the 819-dy cycle nd record of the stnding of God K or K wil figure t one of the four crdinl directions (t A8-D3). These records in this prticulr order re stndrd fre for lengthy Plenque texts, nchoring the recorded dte within severl importnt ritul nd stronomicl cycles. The Long Count in question clls for Glyph G1, which is esily recognizle t B4, lthough in somewht unusul form. (Here Glyph G1 should not e confused with the deity GI to e discussed lter t some length.) The 9 prefix nd the God C hed (K UH) within the hnd re stndrd for Glyph G1, ut the -j postfix is not seen in ny other exmple. Its presence must point to verl interprettion of the hnd sign, which we know in other exmples is the word K AM or CH AM, to tke, receive something (the -m sign eneth the hnd provides further evidence for this reding). I consider the K UH hed to e the direct oject of the tking ction. Considered s whole, Glyph G1 might now e redle s 9-K AM-m-j-K UH, Bolon K (h)m-j K uh, Nine (or Mny) Times re the Gods Tken. I offer this s tenttive solution, ut it my prove importnt for the eventul decipherments of other Glyphs G, which up to now hve een very oscure. The form of Glyph F, following t A5, ssumes the firly stndrd spelling U-TI -HUUNn. The reding of the uppermost element s TI for ti, mouth, lips, edge, comes from recent proposl (D. Sturt 1998c), nd I elieve it hs much to recommend it, despite hving n uncler role in Glyph F itself. The sttement u-ti huun is ttested in the dictionries s mrgin of pge, which is somewht difficult to explin in this context. I m, however, reminded how the Centrl Mexicn glyphs for the Nine Lords of the Night corresponding to the nine Glyphs G of the My re regulrly pinted long the pge mrgins of mnuscripts in the Mixtec-Puel style. Glyphs G1 nd F might e tken s proper nme for god or ritul followed y possessive construction orienting tht nme to ook or pge (huun): Bolon K hm-j K uh u-ti huun, Nine (or Mny) Times re the Gods Tken is the pge s mrgin. Admittedly this sounds very oscure, ut it is n ltogether possile reding. Be tht s it my, the use of the ergtive pronoun u- s prefix on Glyph F is somewht unusul for Plenque scries, s is the jester god HUUN hed vrint. The moon ge for the dy is recorded in Glyph D s twenty-two dys, t position B5. The numericl sttement itself is unremrkle, ut the remining sign of the glyph lock is certinly unusul. In the records of moon ges, the elpsed numer of dys rnging from one to twenty-eight must lwys precede verl sttement mrking the rrivl of the lunr month, or the strting point of the count. In the vst mjority of cses the ver is hul, rrive, s deciphered y Brr McLeod (1990) some yers go. This ver is lwys written in pst form s hul-iiy, with the -y sign suffix following wht McLeod nd others, including myself, hve tken to e the syllic comintion hu-li. Prior to the discovery of the Temple XIX inscription, I hd considered tht the hu- sign in fct originted s representtion of humn footprint nd noted few Erly Clssic exmples where the footprint ppered without the -li. This suggested tht the footprint the symol of trvel pr excellence in Mesomericn rt served not s hu ut s the logogrm HUL. The Plenque exmple confirms this interprettion, for it too hs very cler footprint sign followed y -y, spelling hul-iiy,

34 64 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque c Figure 36. Logogrphic forms of HUL, to rrive, s footprint: () T. XIX pltform, () Bejucl, Stel 1 (inked from field drwing y In Grhm), (c) El Zpote, Stel 1 (inked from field drwing y In Grhm). it rrived (Figure 36). There re cler prllels to this in erly exmples of Glyph D (Figure 36 nd c). Tken together with the numer, we hve 22-ji-HUL-y, for two-nd-twenty dys go it rrived. The suject of this ver, s we hve known since McLeod s work, is the numer of the lunr month, given s Glyph 2C in the susequent lock, A6. The vrile hed top the outstretched hnd in Glyph 2C is the jgur god, which is in keeping with the numericl coefficient of two (Schele, Grue nd Fhsen 1992). Glyph X of the supplementry series, t B6, generlly functions s proper nme for the moon or some spect of it, chnging during the course of its phses or ccording to its position in the sky. This ws clled the moon s ch ok k, or emergent nme, which is the prole reding of Glyph B in the following lock. 15 Here the Glyph X nme vrint shows crocodile s hed with its mouth gpe, out of which emerges jgur tht in turn elches forth the hed of God C. No reding is possile for this moon or luntion nme, ut the ending -ni is importnt here, suggesting hin, crocodile, s the finl element of the glyph (?-?-AHIN-ni). 16 Glyph B comes next t A7, red U-ch o-ko-k ABA, u-ch ok-k, (it is) its youth nme, nd then B7 holds Glyph 9A, the numericl grouping specifying luntion of twenty-nine dys durtion. So ends the supplementry lunr dt. The susequent eight locks give us prentheticl pssge stting the position of reltive to the ritul cycle of 819 dys. Numerous other inscriptions t Plenque follow this sme generl structure, nd 819-dy count records re highly consistent in their internl phrsing. Here, t A8-C1, we encounter Distnce Numer of reckoning ck to the 819-dy sttion 1 Chikchn 18 Ch en, or , recorded s Clendr round t D1 nd D2 (the month coefficient is crved s 17, ut clerly 18 Ch en ws intended). The ccompnying explntory sttement consists of only three glyphs nd fetures the customry ver possily red w, to stnd upright, 15 The trnsltion of the common word ch ok s emergent ws suggested y Jossernd (1999) nd seems more correct thn simply young or youth. In this context, u-ch ok k, its emergent nme, proly refers to some spect of the moon during its progressive chnge over the course of the luntion. 16 The word hin is est trnslted s crocodile, lthough t times I nd others hve referred to it mistkenly s n lligtor (see, for exmple, D. Sturt 2003). Kren Bssie-Sweet (personl communiction 2003) clrified the importnt distinctions etween these nimls for me nd noted tht imges of crocodilins in My rt nd writing proly re Crocodylus morleti, or Morlet s crocodile, the species most commonly found in the lkes nd rivers of the My lowlnds (Schlesinger 2001: ). The AHIN vlue for the crocodile glyph is strongly indicted y syllic sustitution in the nme of womn, Ix Yok Ahin, Ldy Crocodile s Foot. On one polychrome vessel (Freidel, Schele, nd Prker 1993:Plte 40) the nme is spelled IX (Y)OK-ki AHIN-n. On compnion vessel now in the Museo Popol Vuh in Guteml, the very sme nme is written s IX-(Y)OK -hi. The lternte use of the -ni nd -n suffixes my well indicte different vowel lengths in the term for crocodile hin t Plenque ut hiin on the vessel proly from Peten. The Pltform 65 here given s WA?-ji-ji-y, for wh-()j-iiy, it ws stood-up (the redundnt ji elements re different signs, nd I tke them to e scril idiosyncrsy). 17 The suject of the ver, t C3, is the nme of K wil, or God K, ut in this context his nme is lmost lwys with the vegetl mize superfix. Lstly the glyph for elk in, est (EL-K IN-ni) specifies the estern world qudrnt s K wil s sttion. 18 The entire prentheticl record of the 819-dy count sttes tht go, K wil ws stood up(?) in the est. The conventionl rrngement of Long Count dte clls for the month glyph to follow its Supplementry Series. In some texts this cn simply e Glyphs G nd F, ut more often, s here, the moon ge is given nd sometimes the 819-dy count record s well. In this wy one might think of the two Clendr Round components s rckets round the supplementry dt, emphsizing the prentheticl nture of the informtion within the lrger discursive structure of the text. In this prticulr inscription the scrie hs chosen to do something it unusul: he hs plced the expected 5 Mol month glyph t D4, following the odd insertion of I-u-ti, or i-uht-ø, then it hppens. This is unexpected, ut perhps it revels the true internl structure of these complex opening dtes. Since the supplementry series we hve seen contins two Distnce Numers linking erlier dtes to the fetured Long Count, the use of i-uht-ø here is n explicit mens of returning the reder to the fetured time, 5 Mol. If we offer quickly sketched prphrse, it might red Ik ; it ws twenty-two dys go tht the second moon entered...; it ws go tht K wil ws stood up in the est, nd then (9 Ik ) 5 Mol comes to pss. Now, fter this look t the opening dte, let us turn to the ctul event phrse connected with this erly mythicl time. The ver phrse opens t C5 with CHUM-l-j, or chum-(u)l-j-ø, he is seted. The prepositionl phrse in the following lock is TA-AJAW-le, t jw-le(l), in the rulership, providing the second prt of sic nd uiquitous sttement for royl ccession. The protgonist or suject of the ver is nmed in the very next lock nd is recognizle s the god GI, the initil memer of the Plenque Trid of ptron gods, who ws first pointed out y Berlin (1963) nd lso discussed y Kelley (1965) nd Schele (1976). Here his nme glyph is in its full form, with the ddition of three poorly understood signs efore his portrit fce. We cn e certin, therefore, tht the opening pssge of the inscription commemortes the seting into office of this deity. The remining five glyphs of Pssge S-1, up to the ottom of column D, provide importnt 17 The WA vlue for the ver s min sign my e less ovious thn previously thought, nd nother reding is worth considering. The sign displys consistent similrity to the niml red s OK, leg, foot, especilly in erly exmples, ut is distinctive in hving split chuwen element within its eye. This infix we know from other contexts s se or ch ( visul distinction etween the two is uncertin). Of these, the se vlue is intriguing, for this might give us OK-se, or ok-es, to put in something. In Yuctecn this is trnsitive stem nd the custive derivtion from the root ok, enter. However, we know och (glyphic OCH or o-chi) to e the Clssic Myn cognte of enter, with och-es ttested s the custive form in Ch olti nd other Greter Tzeltln lnguges. Although reding of this ver glyph s ok-es-()j-iiy, it ws put in, is ttrctive semnticlly since the event seems to refer to the positioning of K wil figure in one of the four crdinl directions, this could only e considered if we were to ccept n irregulr phonologicl process wherey Clssic Myn och nd its derivtion ok-es coexist. 18 Stephen Houston (personl communiction 1993) first posited the EL vlue for the k in owl sign, corresponding to the ver root el, go out, emerge. The Clssic term for est, elk in, crries the descriptive mening emerges-sun nd is contrstive with ochk in, west or enters-sun (OCH-K IN). In the lter codices we find the etter-known Yuctecn terms lk in nd chik in, spelled with the hieroglyphs l-k IN nd chi-k IN. As Nichols Hopkins nd Terrence Kufmn note (cited in Bssie-Sweet 1996:195), these words re corrupted forms derived from *el-k in nd *ochi-k in.

35 66 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform 67 Figure 37. Exmples of ccession events supervised y overlords: () T. XIX pltform, () unprovennced pnel from the Cncuen region (drwing y Srh Jckson). contextul informtion concerning GI s ccession to office. The glyph t D6 is the common U-KAB-ji-y expression tht hs een recognized y severl epigrphers s secondry ver, specil type of trnsitive construction tht employs deictic suffix to refer to previously specified direct oject. Here the sense is likely to e he oversees it, which I elieve relted to the derived trnsitive root in Tzotzil chi, to govern, oversee, tend to (Lughlin 1988). Syntcticlly, the suject of this secondry ver cnnot e GI, ut rther must e nother personge who should e nmed in the susequent glyphs. This personge is the importnt My deity Itzmnj (or God D), whose portrit nme is in the second of the two locks t C7 nd D7. The full nme is unusul: YAX-NAAH-hi ITZAMNAAJ-ji, for Yx Nh Itzmnj, perhps First Itzmnj or First House Itzmnj. 19 Comintions of the seting ver with the secondry overseeing sttement re found in other My inscriptions, ut we know them only from purely historicl contexts (Figure 37). One generl prllel ppers on pnel from the Cncuen region (Figure 37), where fter the ver phrse chum-wn-ø ti-jw-le(l) we find the nme of the locl Cncuen ruler. The u-k-j-iiy glyph comes next, followed y the nme of nother lord, in this instnce the contemporry ruler of Clkmul. From other uses of the u-k-j-iiy phrse, we cn surmise tht it designtes hierrchicl reltionship etween two rulers. In this cse t Cncuen the Clkmul lord is overseeing or somehow is responsile for the seting of the locl Cncuen ruler. The recent work y Mrtin nd Grue (1995) outlining Clkmul s politicl power structures during its rivlry with Tikl is sed in lrge prt on such evidence (see lso D. Sturt 1995). The loction for the inugurtion event is presented in the finl two glyphs of columns C nd D, where we find the completive ver ut-iiy (u-ti-y), it cme to pss, followed y plce nme. This short closing phrse prllels gret mny others t Plenque nd other 19 The ltter my seem n odd epithet, ut it is worth noting tht on the Hieroglyphic Stirwy t Copn, on Step 31, we find the record of mythic house dediction event involving Itzmnj, where the initil phrse is u-nh-tl el-nh y-otot u-mm, (it is) the first censing, (in) the house of his grndfther The nme of Itzmnj follows in the next stirwy lock. I see this pssge of the stirwy text s prt of cretion nrrtive, perhps specifying temple dediction of Itzmnj s first house in the very distnt pst. sites where they re often used to specify the locle of prticulr ritul event. Here, the loction is given t D8 with TA-?-CHAN, t the..?.. sky, where the unknown sign is the so-clled mirror prefix found with some deity nmes. I m not certin how this comintion of the mirror nd sky serves to indicte loction, ut I elieve it is still some generl reference for heven. The sme comintion of the mirror nd CHAN occurs in few other My texts, including Stel 24 t Nrnjo, where it refers to the plce of the moon goddess who is impersonted y the Ldy of Dos Pils (Figure 38). The glyph is lso sometimes in couplet structure with KAB, erth (Figure 38c). 20 In the Plenque text, I elieve tht the generl sense is tht the ccession of GI took plce in the hevens. From wht we red in the Plenque text, there cn e little dout of the interprettion tht the inugurtion of GI ws overseen or in some mnner done y Itzmnj, rguly the supreme deity of Clssic My religion. The opening event of the pltform s nrrtive is therefore one of epic nd cosmologicl significnce. It immeditely rises numerous questions out Plenque nd My mythology, not the lest of which is: how cn GI ssume the throne mny centuries efore his irth, lso on the dy 9 Ik, identified long go y Kelley (1965) in the inscriptions of the Temple of the Cross? The dy 20 The mirror prefix nd its hed vrint hs proved difficult to decipher, despite severl proposls. Grue nd Schele (1991) red the sign s TZUK, prtition. This vlue is highly doutful, however, for it rests on visul confusion etween the mirror hed vrint nd n nimted form of the syllle tzu used in some spellings of tzu-ku. I hve considered tht more supportle reding could e discerned from this sign s frequent use s prefix to BAAH or -hi, pprently in spelling term connected to imge. On Copn Stel 4, for exmple, U-?-BAAH-hi-li would seem to refer to the monument or imge (Houston nd Sturt 1996). The otherwise-ttested term winh, msk, imge, hs suggested WIN s possile reding, ut this cnnot e confirmed. Alterntively, I hve considered tht the comintion of this mirror element with CHAN might relte to the Tzeltln term for sky, st chn, literlly fce-sky. The term for fce is highly complex mong Myn lnguges (Kufmn nd Normn 1984:120), nd in proto-ch oln it ws *(h)ut, with the menings fce, eye, fruit (the distinct Myn terms for fce st, hut or wut, nd ich ll shre these menings). Interestingly, on the vse K1226 we find hnging fruits on tree depicted s the mirror, strengthening the connection to st chn or, perhps in Ch oln, no-longer-ttested term *wut chn, fce-sky. c Figure 38. The Mirror-Sky glyph: () T. XIX pltform, () Nrnjo, Stel 24, D5 (from Grhm nd Von Euw 1975), (c) Copn, Stel A, left side (drwing y Lind Schele).

36 68 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform G E Figure 39. Temple XIX pltform, Pssge S-2. F H 9 Ik, equivlent to Nine Wind in centrl Mexicn sources, will prove to e of prmount importnce in this inscription nd is cited totl of four times in the inscription of the south pnel. The implictions of these references, including possile connections to other Mesomericn mythologies, will e discussed in more detil in Chpter 6. Pssge S-2 (Figure 39) Summry: On the dy Etz n 6 Yxk in, Strry Deer Crocodile (or possily two spects of tht cosmic entity) is (or re) decpitted, perhps t the hnds of GI. Severl glyphs re difficult to decipher, ut we find reference to some deity s fire-driller. The pssge closes with reference to the forming or construction of some oject ssocited with GI. The theme seems to e world cretion. Pssge S-2 presents considerle difficulties for decipherment. Numerous glyphs re unique or employ vguely understood signs, nd the internl structure of the pssge is complex, with t lest three vers plced mong its ten constituent glyph locks. Nevertheless, enough is discernile to know tht this portion descries some event of gret cosmologicl importnce coming eleven yers fter the inugurtion of GI. The pssge opens t E1 nd F1 with Distnce Numer of , which when dded to the Initil Series reches Etz n 6 Yxk in, written s the Clendr Round t E2 nd F2. We will soon find tht the mythologicl event recorded in this pssge is ritul decpittion, which rises the strong likelihood tht its ssocition with the dy 1 Etz n ( 1 Flint in the centrl Mexicn clendr) is not fortuitous. The opening ver phrse t E3 is CH AK-k-U- BAAH, reding tht follows in prt Orejel s (1990) importnt decipherment of the xe/com comintion s ch k, to cut, chop something. The xe sign lone is the logogrm CH AK, with the -k or com element serving s phonetic complement (CH AKk). Ch k is trnsitive ver root in proto-ch oln with specific mening of to injure someone/something (Kufmn nd Normn 1984). In other well known cses the sme xe ver precedes toponymic glyphs s records of wrfre nd conquest, s in the sttement ch hk-j Lkmh, Lkmh (Plenque) ws conquered (Schele 1982:109; D. Sturt 1998). 21 The phrsing on the Temple XIX pltform is different nd somewht more complex, however. After the CH AK-k sequence, the remining two signs in E3 re U-BAAH, spelling the possessed noun u-h, his/her/its self/ody/hed (D. Sturt 1996; Houston nd Sturt 1998). Given its position fter the trnsitive root, u-h is likely direct oject of the ction, nd confirmtion comes from the ppernce of this sme chops-self comintion in the nme of nightmrish wy or ngul entity depicted on numer of polychrome vses (Grue nd Nhm 1994:708; Houston nd Sturt 1998) (Figure 40). The Plenque event cn e similrly interpreted s reflexive construction, ut given the complex rnge of menings of h, including ody, person, more ccessile mening of chops the hed seems eqully plusile. In the Plenque text the full construction CH AKk-U-BAAH is proly somewht truncted spelling of pssive construction, since no gent is specified nery (n ctive voice would necessitte the construction u-ch k-w, he chops it ). Pssives re derived from trnsitive roots y the insertion of post-voclic -h- into the CVC root nd the ddition of the suffix -j to the derived stem (CVC > CVhC-j) (Lcden 1997). Usully the -j suffix is spelled y the ffixtion of the -j sign, ut here it is not present. I nevertheless elieve pssive construction is likely, given the common lterntion of the spellings CH AK-k nd CH AK-k-j in severl other inscriptions (numerous exmples pper t Nrnjo). CH AK-k my simply e n idiosyncrtic spelling of pssive, following long-lsting scril convention. The complete ver is thus perhps ch hk-j u-h, its hed ws chopped off. Following the conventions of Myn syntx, the referent of the possessive pronoun the hed s owner, s it were would logiclly follow directly fter the oject. The glyphs t F3 nd E4 clerly operte s pir, perhps referring to two seprte entities or, lterntively, to single chrcter through 21 In K iche, ch k is root mening conquer, defet (Edmonson 1965), nd I elieve this ws semntic extension from chop, cut in Clssic Myn s well. Figure 40. The self-decpitting wy figure nmed Ch k Uh Akn (detil of rollout photogrph y Otis Imoden, from George Sturt 1975:774).

37 70 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform 71 Figure 41. Exmples of the ck sign: () T. XIX pltform, () Tonin, M.159, A1-B4 (drwing y Luci Henderson), (c) Crcol, Stel 6, D7-F9. c descriptive couplet. Both glyphs shre two distinctive nd unusul signs: representtion of hunched nd seemingly hedless humn ody nd, elow, hed of the creture I cll the Strry Deer Crocodile, who seems distinctive yet poorly understood spect of the Celestil Monster or Cosmic Serpent, originlly identified nd discussed y Spinden (1913). Before these shred elements in F3 nd E4 re different prefixes, surely operting s modifiers to the noun se. In F3 the prefix is the hole or well sign tht is est known s the initil element of the Wye month glyph. The following glyph hs more complex modifier spelled with the three signs tz i--l, for tz i-l, proly prticipil derivtion from the ver tz i, to pint, write, with the more specific sense of pinted, written. The hunched ody signs tht precede the crocodile heds re otherwise rre elements, ut there is some circumstntil evidence tht they re to e red s logogrphs for PAAT, ck. The imge of the sign is certinly suggestive enough, ut oth phonetic nd iconogrphic evidence cn e cited s t lest circumstntil support. The most common setting for the sme ck sign is s suffix to numers in wht would seem to e ordinl constructions ( first, second, third, etc.) efore vers. As seen in Figure 41, the glyphs re written either U-Numer- Bck -li or U-Numer- Bck -ti-li, strongly suggesting tht the vlue of the ck sign ends in -t. Perhps significntly, estlished spellings of the word for pt, ck, re p-ti. In two inscriptions from Dos Pils nd Agutec we find wr event phrse eginning with CH AK-k (ch hk-j) nd followed y the curious sequence U-tz i--li p-ti-k AWIL (Figure 42). The sentence is difficult to trnslte, yet the comintion of the ch hk-j ver with direct oject tht includes the words tz i nd pt offers n interesting prllel to the Plenque text. Figure 43. The two vrieties of cosmic crocodiles : () Piedrs Negrs, Stel 25 (from Proskourikoff 1993:48), () Copn, Altr D (CPN 82) (from Schele nd Miller 1986:45). The crocodile heds t F3 nd E4 ech disply the long-lshed str eye nd the long deer er, lso decorted y str, tht redily identify it s the Strry Deer Crocodile. The strs of the eye nd er distinguish it from nother crocodile or cimn hed often found in My inscriptions, which hs crossed-nds decortion in the eye (Figure 43). A good exmple of this ws seen in Pssge S-1, used s prt of Glyph X in the Lunr Series. Significntly, the Strry Deer Crocodile serves s the hed vrint of the dy sign Lmt nd lso in the month ptron for Yx, which in their stndrd forms re simply the str, proly red EK, str, plnet (Figure 44). In the Plenque inscription, however, the unusul context mkes it difficult to know if EK is the intended vlue of this prticulr crocodile glyph. As mentioned, the Strry Deer Crocodile is vrition or spect of the Celestil Monster entity discussed y mny scholrs over recent yers (mong them Milrth 1999; D. Sturt 1984, 1988; Schele nd Miller 1986; Tue 1988, 1989). As n iconogrphic imge the Strry Deer Crocodile, like its close reltive, is often seen rching over some spce or scene s Figure 42. An xe event recorded t Dos Pils: Stel 16, D2-C4 (from Grhm 1967:Fig 7). Figure 44. The Strry Deer Crocodile s the personifiction of str: () the dy sign Lmt, from the Hieroglyphic Stirwy t Copn, () ptron of the month Yx, from Tikl Stel 31, (c) Quirigu Stel K (drwings y Luci Henderson). c

38 72 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform 73 symol of the sky (Figure 45). All hve the generl hed nd ody mrkings of crocodile, ut lso disply deer hooves, the fmilir deer er, nd sometimes lso n ntler on the forehed (Tue 1988). The so-clled niche stele of Piedrs Negrs, depicting the newly inugurted kings of tht site, portry the Strry Deer Crocodile in their lower registers, where they clerly hve some celestil significnce in structurl opposition to wter nd erth nds elow (Figure 43, Figure 45). Other notle imges of the Strry Deer Crocodile include portrits on the Cosmic Plte in the codex style (Figure 45) nd of course the inner sculpted doorwy of Temple 22 t Copn. I elieve tht the Strry Deer Crocodile is more thn n nimted sky symol. The iconogrphy consistently ssocited with the creture strongly indictes tht it represents the strry, nocturnl spect of the more rodly conceived Celestil Monster, nd tht it in essence symolizes the cloudy Milky Wy (D. Sturt 1984; Milrth 1999). This is est exemplified y the imge within the scred mountin of Copn s Temple 22, where the ody of the creture is composed of seven S-shped scrolls tht re the representtions of clouds in My Figure 46. Crocodiles with inscried cks: () Plenque, Cosmic Throne from the suterrneos of the Plce (drwing y In Grhm), () Dresden Codex, pp. 4-5 (from Villcort nd Villcort 1977). Figure 45. The Strry Deer Crocodile s celestil imge: () the Cosmic Plte (drwing y Luci Henderson fter Schele nd Miller 1986:315, Pl. 122), () Piedrs Negrs, Stel 6 (drwing y Dvid Sturt from Sturt nd Grhm 2003:36). rt. 22 The Strry Deer Crocodile my thus serve s representtion for the drkened Underworld sky, nd in this cpcity its role overlps somewht with the more conventionl understnding of the crocodile s symol of the erth. Tht is, the erth elow us ws, to n Underworld inhitnt, the sky ove. (The iconogrphy surrounding the Celestil Monster nd its reltives is exceedingly complex nd vried, nd cn e revisited t lter dte.) In the Temple XIX pssge we hve two sequentil references to the Strry Deer Crocodile, with only single lterntion in ech. The first nme, s we hve riefly touched upon, mkes use of so-clled hole sign efore the hunched ck nd the Strry Deer Crocodile s hed. The next crocodile nme is more esily understood, showing the hole replced y the modifier tz i-l (tz i--l), pinted, written, or perhps simply spotted. If we entertin the PAAT reding for the ck sign, we cn perhps red the second reference in full s tz i--l-paat- Strry Deer Crocodile, the Pinted-Bck Strry Deer Crocodile or Written-Bck Strry Deer Crocodile. Such nme or designtion, while odd-sounding t first, does seem relted to few known representtions of the crocodile with hieroglyphs pinted long the length its ody (see D. Sturt 2003) (Figure 46). Tue (1989) ssocited these nd other imges with the concept of the Erth Cimn of Lte Postclssic Yuctn, clled in some sources Itzm K Ayin. The Plenque glyph my nme specific spect of this roder nimte spect of the erth, nd I hzrd to guess tht it is directly relted to these widespred imges of inscried crocodiles, however we might eventully come to interpret them. The hole sign cited in these nmes deserves few comments, since it is n importnt element of the script nd significnt symol within My iconogrphy. This crescentshped sign hs een discussed y numer of scholrs, nd there is generl greement tht it represents some cvity within the erth, such s cve or cenote (Thompson 1972:150). In iconogrphic settings the hole symol cn redily trnsform into ony serpent s mouth or mw, nd it is often used s the setting for the emergence or descent of gods or people from, or into, the erth s surfce (Freidel, Schele, nd Prker 1993:269). In recent study, 22 Freidel, Schele, nd Prker (1993:85-87) offer somewht similr interprettion of tht Temple 22 doorwy, ut they overextend the interprettion to include the more stndrd Stony Crocodile tht is, in my view, the symol of the consuming erth.

39 74 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform 75 c Figure 49. Wter nds: () T. XIX pltform, (-c) wll pintings of Río Azul, Tom 1. Figure 47. The hole in the crocodile s ck: () incised jde, possily from the Río Azul region (drwing y Dvid Sturt fter Townsend 1983:No. 56), () cly censer figurine from Snt Rit, Belize (fter Gnn 1918:Fig. 18). Figure 48. Lmni, Stel 9 (drwing y Stnley Loten). Tue (2003) suggests tht the ony snke is in fct centipede, nd tht the hole sign nd motif derives from the representtion of pincers on centipede. A well known exmple of its iconogrphic use comes from the srcophgus lid of Pkl t Plenque, depicting the decesed king s emergence from the Underworld s the reorn sun of the est. The precise reding of the glyphic hole element is difficult to nil down with much confidence, despite hving firly good semntic understnding of the term s something like hole, cvity, opening, etc. The sign often tkes the suffix -y, suggesting CVY or CAY vlue. Schele opted for the reding WAY, cistern, room, lthough this requires more testing efore it cn e widely pplied to the sign. In the Plenque glyph, then, we hve reference to something nmed (in rough prphrse) the Hole-Bcked Strry Deer Crocodile, if we gin consider the PAAT or ck vlue of the hunched-over ody sign. Remrkly, My rt shows severl representtions of crocodiles or reptiles with holes in their cks. One possile representtion of this entity comes from n Erly Clssic erspool, where the centrl hole of the jde ppers on the ody of the creture (Figure 47). Another exmple cn e seen on Lte Postclssic cermic figure excvted mny yers go y Gnn t Snt Rit, Belize (Gnn 1918) (Figure 47). Few iconogrphic detils re present on this figurine, ut the crocodile clerly hs deer ntler, nd its ck is lrge hole or receptcle. The crocodile or other reptile with hole in its ck cn e trced fr ck into Preclssic My rt. On Stel 8 from Izp, reptile of some sort hs on its ck qutrefoil crtouche enclosing n enthroned figure. More direct prllels re found in representtions of upright crocodiles tht form trees from their tils, s depicted on Izp Stele 25 nd 27. In the second of these monuments, the trunk of the tree shows the qutrefoil hole. Another likely representtion from the My lowlnds comes from recently unerthed stucco frieze t Becn, Cmpeche, dting to the Erly Clssic (Cmpñ nd Boucher 2002). Its design is sed on n inverted humn form, with the hed of ruler t the se of lrge tree trunk tht, s in similr scenes (see vessel K6547 in Justin Kerr s photogrphic dtse t seems to e equted with his torso nd the ody of crocodile. The hnds of the ruler form the roots of the tree, nd his ck the trunk. The lrge qutrefoil cvity ove the heddress of the Becn frieze thus cn e seen s hole in the figure s ck. 23 The specific connections mong these curious iconogrphic elements re oscure, ut there is enough to strongly suggest some connection to the hieroglyphic term t Plenque. Before leving the discussion of the enigmtic crocodiles, it is interesting to drw few further ssocitions out the crocodile scrifice mentioned in Pssge S-2. Lmni Stel 9, for exmple, is remrkle for showing locl king holding the hed of the Strry Deer Crocodile in his hnd (Figure 48); ll other imges I know of show the entire ody of the creture. Although the crrying or holding of gods heds is common in Erly Clssic iconogrphy t Tikl nd elsewhere, the Stel 9 exmple could well e connected to the Strry Deer Crocodile s decpittion on 1 Etz n 6 Yxk in. Another fscinting ssocition comes from Tikl, where the fmous Buril 10 contined, long with the prole remins of the ruler Nun Yx Ahin, the hedless ody of crocodile (Coggins 1975:147; W. Coe 1990, II:484). Returning now to Pssge S-2, the inscription continues t F4 with the first of severl glyphs tht re very hrd to red. I suspect tht F4 gives us new ver, the second of three cluses within the pssge. The min sign is rre, ut iconiclly its vrints seem to represent the wter nd sometimes found in My iconogrphy involving the Underworld (Hellmuth 1987) (Figure 49). These nds my well represent rivers nd strems. The numericl prefix three my e dveril ( thrice? ), nd the -j suffix my mrk the ver s pssive form, ut overll the significnce of this ver is difficult to scertin. 23 It is tempting to suppose tht this visul equivlence etween n inverted crocodile or humn figure nd tree is reflected more generlly in the shred menings of the root pt s oth ck nd rk in most lowlnd Myn lnguges (e.g. Tzotzil ptil).

40 76 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform In severl inscriptions the lood sign is comined with nother wtery ver, red nh-j, proly ws pooled I do not think the strem ver on Temple XIX is the sme, ut I suspect tht there is similr rhetoricl connection etween lood nd wter t work 25 The connection to fire is interesting in light of the following description from the Relción de Mérid, quoted y Thompson (1970:217): They lso hd knowledge of the flood nd tht the world must come to n end with fire, nd to show this they mde ceremony nd pinted lgrto which signified flood nd the erth. And on it they plced gret mound of firewood, nd set fire to it. The mention of pinting crocodile is lso fscinting, given the presence of tz i in one of the pired crocodile nmes in the pssge under discussion. 26 Nk is n ttested trnsitive ver in Colonil Tzotzil mening to do ttle or to conquer (Lughlin 1988). Hieroglyphic Stirwy 2 from Dos Pils shows likely use of the sme ver root in the spelling of the trnsitive form U-n-k-w, u-nk-w-ø, he fights him, possily in reference to wr etween Ruler 1 of Dos Pils nd lord from Kon (Houston 1993; Grue nd Schele 1993). Despite the restricted ppernce of the nk root in modern dictionries, its militristic ssocitions cn e indirectly seen in nkoml, term for enemy in Colonil Tzeltl (Humerto Ruz 1986), nd nkom, wrrior, in Clssicl Yuctec. Its suject t E5 is possessed noun proly red U-CH ICH -le or U-K IK -le, for u-ch ich el, its lood. The reding of the trefoil min sign s lood is proposed in recent pper (D. Sturt 2002), nd in this context such decipherment certinly seems fitting. Together with the strem ver in the preceding lock, I m led to wonder if the lrger phrse is something long the lines of thrice the lood flowed, lthough without secure reding of the ver, such reding must remin specultive. 24 It is interesting to note, however, tht one imge of the cosmic reptile shown on remrkle Erly Clssic vessel excvted t Becn (Cmpñ nd Boucher 2002) clerly shows it leeding profusely, with three scrificed humns (without the lower hlves of their odies) surrounding it. This my well relte to the pssge from Temple XIX, descriing the results of the mythicl scrifice nd decpittion of the crocodile(s). The next two glyphs (F5 nd E6) seem to form couplet nd my refer indirectly to the crocodile, or crocodiles, mentioned in the previous phrse. Both hve very interesting nd similr internl structures, consisting perhps of (1) trnsitive ver root, (2) direct oject, nd (3) the suffix sign -AJ. We see this most clerly in the second of the pir t E6, where jo-ch o spells the ver joch, to drill something, nd K AHK, fire, provides ver-oject comintion ( fire-drilling ) found elsewhere in My texts (Houston 1988; D. Sturt 1997). The -j suffix (not to e confused with the pssive ver ending) does pper in some other settings where it suggests mening of person, entity, nd I suspect tht here jochk hk j my well e nlyzed s fire-drill entity. I suspect it is descriptive term for the Strry Deer-Crocodile. 25 If we pply similr structurl nlysis to the glyph t F5, we might entertin the existence of trnsitive ver root nk (n-k) nd direct oject spelled y the sme wter-nd -w comintion found in lock F4. No trnsitive root nk cn e systemticlly trced in Ch oln lnguges, ut in Tumlá Ch ol we do find ñk in vrious derivtions for sit (Aulie nd Aulie 1978:84). I dout tht is its intended mening here, nd further reserch into the linguistic spects of this pssge my well prove rewrding. 26 In ny event, it is certinly interesting to see the pssge relte fire-drilling to the flowing lood descried in the erlier locks, for the reltionship etween scrifice nd fire-drilling is well estlished throughout Mesomeric (for exmple, see Miller nd Tue 1993:87). Glyph I6 reds I-PAT-l-j, i-pt-l-j, it is shped, uilt. Unfortuntely it is left unstted exctly wht ws constructed or fshioned. The pssge closes with mention of the god GI, following the curious nd still undeciphered ye-te -je ver. The ltter occurs with prticulr frequency in Plenque s inscriptions, usully s secondry ver efore the nme of king or principl ctor. It seems relted to glyph (ye-je-te ) commonly seen t Yxchiln etween the nmes of cptives nd cptors. Schele (1992:99) proposed tht this ws sed on Ch ol root e t, mening work, uthority, which to me still seems resonle, if unconfirmed, possiility. Whtever the reding, prllel exmples of the ye-te -je ver t Plenque nd elsewhere leve no dout tht GI is the principl ctor ehind the events descried in the preceding glyph locks. To summrize this complex pssge, we cn confidently sy tht it records the scrifice of one or two crocodiles, seemingly y the deity GI some eleven yers fter his inugurtion, recorded erlier. Pssge S-3 (Figure 50) Summry: An intervl of connects the inugurtion of GI to the dy of his own prole reirth on Ik 15 Keh, dte tht is prominently recorded in the Temple of the Cross. The intervl is multiple of 260 dys (hence the shred 9 Ik dys) nd equls twenty-nine Dresden eclipse cycles (29 x 11,960 dys). The reirth event tkes plce t supernturl loction known s Mtwil, which ecme strongly identified with the Plenque polity in Clssic times. Continuing on through columns G nd H, fter the nme of GI we come to Distnce Numer of expressed t G2-H3. In the next three glyph locks we find u-ti-y (G4) followed y the fmilir Clendr Round dte 9 Ik 5 Mol (t H4 nd G5). The completive ver uht-iiy, it hppened, efore the 9 Ik dte clls for the ddition of the Distnce Numer to tht se, nd not to the dte lst recorded in Pssge 2 (1 Etz n 6 Yxk in). The clcultion from the Initil Series Ik 5 Mol leds to Ik 15 Keh, recorded fter the I-u-ti ver t G6-H6. This dte is, of course, well known in Plenque mythology s the irth dte of GI of the Plenque Trid, s recorded in two plces in the Temple of the Cross (Kelley 1965; Lounsury 1976). The cittion of GI s irth dte is prticulrly interesting, since we hve lredy red of this god in connection with two erlier events in the inscription: his ccession in the opening pssge nd his involve G I H Figure 50. Temple XIX pltform, Pssge S-3. J

41 78 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque ment in some cpcity with the decpittion episode of Pssge 2. How could he e orn centuries fter these two importnt events? As we hve lredy seen, GI s irth on Ik 15 Keh is lso stted in the inscription on the Tlet of the Cross, with the similr conundrum tht he is lso mentioned there s n ctor prior to his own irth (Lounsury 1976). The prolem ws resolved to Lounsury s stisfction y the reconstruction of nother, elder GI deity, indistinguishle in nme, who ws the First Fther of the Trid deities (Lounsury 1976; Freidel, Schele, nd Prker 1993:69). The informtion presented y the new Temple XIX pltform inscription requires us to revisit this prolem, ut this complex issue is est left for seprte discussion in Chpter 6. Before we move on to the record of the irth event itself, rief return to the Distnce Numer linking the ccession nd irth dtes revels severl interesting numericl nd stronomicl properties. The intervl is multiple of 260 dys, of course, s shown y the shred 9 Ik dy of oth dtes (we will see tht the repetition of the dy 9 Ik is centrl to this entire text, s it will repper two more times). The intervl is lso the product of 29 x 11,960 dys, or the unit of the eclipse cycle s recorded on pges of the Dresden Codex. The lunr focus of this dy intervl, contrived y the priests of Lte Clssic Plenque, nticiptes the significnt importnce of the moon in the like-in-kind dtes nd events cited throughout this inscription (Christopher Powell, personl communiction 1998). Pssge S-3 continues with the initil glyphs of the right-side text pnel, requiring the reder to move cross the figurl scene to pick up the inscription in mid-strem. Such design ws proly intended y the rtist nd scrie, for GI is the centrl focus of the scene itself; the record of his irth would in this wy rcket the representtion of the ruler impersonting this god. The glyph t I1 unfortuntely presents the first totlly effced glyph of the inscription; only few detils of the lower left corner of the lock re visile. The context of the glyph fter the 9 Ik 15 Keh dte strongly suggests tht it ought to e irth glyph of some sort, nd the remins of the lock indeed suggest tht it is the stndrd up-ended frog vrint, possily SIH?-y-j for siy-j, he is orn. The -y-j suffixes re just discernile in the surviving portion. The following glyph (J1) too is prtilly effced, ut there is no dout it is GI s complete nme. The pssge therefore sttes rther simply GI is orn. The next two locks re lso fmilir from prllel sttements in the Cross Group. The first of these, t I2, is possessed noun U- hnd -k- tht likely derives from trnsitive ver construction where the plm-down hnd is ver root nd the direct oject k-, for k, erth. Lounsury (1980: ) mde note of the very sme glyph in the Cross Group temples (often with the single logogrm KAB replcing the k-) nd sw it ws lwys in ssocition with divine irth dte or event (Figure 51). He rillintly surmised tht it ws Figure 52. Mentions of Mtwil in non- Plenque texts: () from polychrome vse, K792, () lintel from the Yxchiln re (L Psdit?) (drwing y Peter Mthews). metphor for irth nd relted to series of Ch ol expressions such s iln pnimil, to see the world, nd perhps most relevnt to the glyph in question, täl lum, touch-erth. Building on Lounsury s discovery, there is the possiility tht the downturned hnd sign of the glyph is logogrm red TAL, trnsitive root in oth Ch ol nd Ch orti for to touch something, giving fuller reding U-TAL-KAB, or u-tl-k, it is his erth-touching. In its other ppernces this expression is lwys followed either directly or indirectly y the fmilir plce nme m-t-wi-l (Figure 51), for Mtwil. The Temple XIX pssge likewise fetures this plce glyph ut with the unusul spelling m-mat-wi-l, where the fmilir MAT ird stnds for the m-t of other exmples. We will find this toponym cited gin in Pssge S-5, in prllel setting fter the touching erth expression for irth. I would rgue tht the toponymic reference specifies the plce of the touching s it were, giving precise nme for the erth cited in the preceding glyph. Tken together, this suordinte sentence of Pssge S-3 sys (using the possile TAL vlue for the hnd) u-tl-k Mtwil, (it is) his erth-touching (t) Mtwil. A pressing question remins: wht or etter yet, where is Mtwil? Its function s mythologicl plce nme seems secure (Sturt nd Houston 1994:75-77), nd it is cited now in severl texts s the plce where the Trid gods were orn. Mtwil, toponym seemingly sed on mt, comornt, is cited in three inscriptions outside of Plenque (Figure 52), indicting tht it my hve held some generl importnce s cosmologicl loction eyond the concerns of Plenque s own mythologicl nrrtive. At the sme time, Mtwil s unique prominence within Plenque s inscriptions it is t times n Emlem Glyph for locl kings nd queens suggests tht it ws tied to the locl dynsty in some specific nd widely recognized wy. The identity of the plce will proly remin mysterious for some time to come, ut there re numer of intriguing ptterns ssocited with the events nd iconogrphy connected with it. As we will see in discussions in Chpter 5, Mtwil is closely ssocited with the Plenque Trid, nd especilly with the deity GI, who is so clerly focus of ttention within the Cross Group temples s whole. However we interpret its significnce, the prominent role of cormornts or wter ird imgery in Temple XIX shows us tht Mtwil s identity nd mening re keys to the overll symolic presenttion of Temple XIX. The Pltform 79 Figure 51. The hnd-over-erth (U- TAL?-KAB) irth expression, from the lfrd of the Temple of the Folited Cross (drwing y Lind Schele). Pssge S-4 (Figure 53) Summry: A short intervl of four dys tkes us to simple sttement of the irth of the second-orn Trid god, GIII. This section consists of mere four glyphs, ll of which re redle. There is no Distnce Numer to crry the chronology forwrd, ut simply the sttement of the Clendr Round 13 Kimi 19 Keh, dte well known from the Tlet of the Sun s the irthdy of the next memer of the Plenque Trid, GIII. The Long Count plcement is , only four dys fter the ppernce of GI (Kelley 1965):

42 80 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform I Figure 53. Temple XIX pltform, Pssge S-4. I K Figure 54. Temple XIX pltform, Pssge S-5. J J L Ik 15 Keh Kimi 19 Keh The ver t I4 is conventionl irth glyph, proly red sihy-j, he is orn, with the suject nmed in the following lock s GIII. The vrint forms nd reding of his nme glyph, s with the other Trid gods, will e treted in Chpter 5. Pssge S-5 (Figure 54) Summry: An intervl of fourteen dys counts forwrd to Ajw 13 Mk, the irth dte of GII of the Plenque Trid. In prllel to GI s irth record, GII is sid to hve touched the erth t the Mtwil loction. The irths of GII nd his two rothers re the cretions of n importnt mythologicl figure (the Trid Progenitor ) who ws perhps n spect of the mize god. Next we encounter Distnce Numer of fourteen dys written with the specilized phrse U-14-t-l, u-chnljun-tl. This is counted from the irth dte of GIII in the previous pssge. The Clendr Round 1 Ajw 13 Mk ppers in the following lock (J5, now in more compressed formt thn other dtes in the text), corresponding to , dte fetured in the texts of the Temple of the Folited Cross. As expected, the event is gin irth (I6), now in ssocition with the deity GII (J6). This deity is the infnt K wil nd the lst orn of the Trid gods. As in Pssge S-3, the irth record of the Trid memer is followed y u-tl?-k Mtwil, he touched(?) the erth t Mtwil, written in the two glyphs t K1 nd L1. Pssges S-3, S-4, nd S-5 clerly form discrete unit within the nrrtive of the inscription, recording the three closely spced irths of the Trid gods. The finl glyphs of Pssge S-5 seem to herken ck to ll of these events in expressing key reltionship etween the three deities nd nother mjor plyer in Plenque mythology, the First Mother figure who is celerted in the Temple of the Cross. This chrcter hs gone y mny nmes in the literture, mong them Lounsury s Ldy Methuselh (due to her gret ge) or Ldy Best-with-the-upturned-snout. This lst nicknme quickly cme to e shortened to Ldy Bestie, the nme y which the deity is perhps est known tody. Glyph K2 is U-BAAH-hi nd L2 is U-CH AB, two glyphs tht form fmilir piring in mny My inscriptions. In fct, in close prllel to the Temple XIX pssge, the very sme u-h u-ch comintion occurs in the min inscription of the Tlet of the Sun, where it links the nmes of GIII with the First Mother (Figure 55). For yers these reltionship glyphs hve een widely seen s vrition on common prentge expression, s first identified y Schele, Mthews, nd Lounsury (1977). For this reson, Lounsury, Schele, nd others interpreted the nme fetured fter u-h u-ch s tht of mother goddess who gve irth to the Trid deities. Since then the importnt functionl identifiction of the glyphic phrse, its reding, nd literl mening cme to e etter understood. The phrse u-h u-ch contins no direct reference to child-prent reltionship, ut insted cn e glossed s his person (or ody) is the cretion of... Tht is, it is generl sttement linking one person or entity to its cretor. An in-depth discussion of the nme nd identity of the cretor will lso come in Chpter 5, ut to summrize few importnt points I should sy tht the gender of the Trid Progenitor, s I prefer to cll this deity, seems now open to question. I elieve there is good evidence to suggest tht it is mle figure, nd not mother goddess s previously understood. I furthermore elieve tht this cretor god ws specific mnifesttion of the young mize god, who ws of course known to e mjor plyer in My cretion mythology. But more of this lter. Pssge S-6 (Figure 56) Summry: The nrrtive crries forwrd thirty-five yers to the inugurtion of the Trid Progenitor on Ik Seting of Sk. The ccession is the first of series, indicting the deity s role s founder or cretor figure within Plenque s politicl nd mythologicl history. The Trid Progenitor crries the title Holy Lord of Mtwil, the Plce of Cormornts. Blocks K4-K5 introduce Pssge S-6 with the Distnce Numer , expressing n intervl of out thirtyfive yers. This leds from Ajw 13 Mc, the irth dte of GII, to Ik Seting of Sk, written s Clendr Round t L5 nd K6. The clcultion cn e expressed thus: Figure 55. Portion of the min inscription from the Tlet of the Sun, C10-D13 (drwing y Lind Schele).

43 82 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform 83 K L Ajw 13 Mk Ik Seting of Sk E F M N The resulting dte lso is fmilir to students of Plenque s mythologicl texts, ppering in three other inscriptions s the ccession dte of the sme ncestrl Trid Progenitor who we sw nmed in the previous pssge. The verl sttement t L6 nd M1 includes, in the second of these locks, n ccession sttement found elsewhere t Plenque, with its distinctivelooking min sign of two seemingly squtting legs. Mthews nd Schele (1974) showed tht this ver must somehow e one of royl inugurtion, since it ppers with the ccession record of K inich Kn Bhlm on the Plce Tlet, in ddition to other kings on the Del Rio Throne of the Plce (see Schele nd Mthews 1979). Oddly enough, this form of the ccession ver is restricted only to Plenque s inscriptions, for resons unknown. 27 The preceding glyph in this pssge, t L6, is n dveril modifier U-NAAH-TAL-l, or u-nhtl, the first. These two locks together re very similr to the opening glyphs of the well known Yxchiln king list from Structure 12 of tht site (Figure 57), where efore the nme of the first king in the sequence we find U-NAAH-TAL-l flowed y glyph with squtting legs (now in profile) nd n AJAW superfix. There cn e little Figure 57. Yxchiln, Lintel Figure 58. Pssge from the Tlet of the Cross, E5-F9 (drwing y Lind Schele). Figure 56. Temple XIX pltform, Pssge S The full form of this prticulr ccession ver consistently hs n AJAW sign ove the legs nd the suffixes -y-ni. It is smll lep to suppose tht this represents nothing more thn locl Plenque version of the more widespred expression AJAW-y-ni, for jw-yn-ø, (he, she) ecomes lord. Although itself not very common mens of recording ccession, it is found in mny sites, including Nrnjo nd Tmrindito. One striking feture of jw-yn-ø events is their plcement in time: they re consistently ssocited with very ncient gods nd events, nd seldom with historicl kings. While we need to ponder the question further, I feel the frequent use of the inchotive form jw-yn-ø is pproprite with such founding deities, since they re not seted or otherwise pssively instlled the wy historicl kings seem to e. Tht is, they simply ecome lords s prt of sui generis process. We will find in the next pssge of the Temple XIX pltform n exception to this pttern, ut one tht my in fct prove the rule. dout tht the Plenque text is here recording similr kind of first ccession, lthough one mythologicl in nture. The nme of the so-clled First Mother, or Ldy Bestie, comes next t N1 nd M2, in form tht is essentilly identicl to tht encountered in Pssge S-5. One noteworthy difference here is the ddition of Mtwil Emlem Glyph title t N2, which ws not present in the preceding reference to this deity. Its ppernce here is certinly relted to the inugurl event, where the Trid Progenitor presumly ssumes the sttus of holy lord. Interestingly, the Trid Progenitor deity never tkes the more stndrd one vrint of the Plenque emlem, red Bkl (BAAK-l), nd in other exmples of the Trid Progenitor nme we find the Mtwil title spelled with logogrms, s here, or with syllles (see Figure 11). The prllel cses re importnt, for they firmly estlish tht the MAT-l emlem is shortened spelling of the fuller plce nme m-t-wi-l. So ends Pssge S-6, ut efore we move on it is importnt to note tht Temple XIX s record of the dte 9 Ik Seting of Sk helps resolve long-stnding prolem in interpreting the chronology presented on the Tlet of the Cross, which hs een discussed y severl

44 84 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform 85 erlier writers (Berlin 1965; Lounsury 1976; Schele nd Miller 1986:59). Blocks F7 through F9 of tht inscription refer to the very sme dte nd ccession event (Figure 58), nd follow Distnce Numer written , intended to specify the time elpsed from the irth of the Trid Progenitor to his ccession. However, if we dd this time intervl to the estlished dte of the irth, written s the Initil Series dte of the Cross Tlet, the result is prolemtic (the conflicting elements of the dte re shown in itlics): 1 2 pa pb pc pd pe pf pg ph pi pj Ajw 18 Tzek (Old Er) dd ( ) 3 Ik Seting of Sk The conflict centers on the 9 Ik written t E9, since 3 Ik is the result of the expressed clcultion. In light of the occsionl scril errors we encounter in other inscriptions, we might not e too concerned out single devition in the numericl prefix to the dy sign, ut the prolem with this text spreds somewht deeper. As Berlin (1965) noted long go, one Winl less thn the resulting dte ove is Ik Seting of Yx, which is in fct used s se dte for the Distnce Numers recorded in lter pssges of the Tlet of the Cross. Becuse of this, Berlin sw Ik Seting of Yx s the true intended dte of the clcultion, necessitting minor djustment of one Winl in the lengthy Distnce Numer ( ) linking the irth to the ccession (see lso Schele nd Miller 1986:59). Berlin nd Schele oth surmised tht the Distnce Numer could hve een written correctly ut ws clculted in error from the 819-dy count sttion recorded on the Cross Tlet, which flls twenty dys efore the irth dte. In this scenrio the result would e: pk pl pm pn po pp pq pr ps pt pu pv pw px py ( ) 1 Ajw 18 Sotz dd ( ) 9 Ik Seting of Yx The 9 Ik is now corrected, ut the month is off y one. Here we would need to ssume two domins of error: the se dte of the clcultion itself nd the writing of the month Sk in plce of the intended Yx. In wrestling with this prolem, we must recll tht the Temple XIX text clerly records Ik Seting of Sk, dte well nchored within the internl chronology of tht inscription. Were this not enough, two other Plenque inscriptions cite the dte of the Trid Progenitor s ccession. The Temple XVIII jms contin the clerest of these (Berlin 1965), with 9 Ik Seting of Sk linked to the ccession dte of the ruler K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, just s we will find on the Temple XIX text: ( ) 9 Ik Seting of Sk dd ( ) 9 Ik 5 K y The sme dtes nd time intervl cn e found in the pinted inscription under the vult spring of House E in the Plce (Figure 59). Thus, with three other independent cittions for the Ik Seting of Sk dte we cnnot dout its vercity. Furthermore, the House E text provides Glyph G4 with its reference, which is correct for plcement; the lterntive dte put forwrd y Schele would cll for Glyph G5. There is little choice ut to ssume tht 9 Ik Seting of Sk on the Cross Tlet is correct s written. The error in the Cross Tlet must therefore lie in the Distnce Numer Figure 59. Section of pinted text eneth the vult spring of House E in the Plce (photogrph y Alfred P. Mudsly). ridging the two well-nchored dtes of the Trid Progenitor s irth nd inugurtion. The corrected intervl, sutrcting the irth dte from tht of the ccession, is s follows: Ik Seting of Sk Ajw 18 Tzek (Old Er) This result is, I elieve, the intended Distnce Numer of the Cross Tlet, written in error s The mistke is confined now to the Distnce Numer lone, nd we cn perhps imgine the zero of the K tun period nd the 6 of the Winl eing mistkenly crved s 1 nd n 11, respectively. The revised chronology plces the inugurtion of the Trid Progenitor more thn one K tun erlier thn previously considered reconstructions. The djustment is hrdly mjor one, of course, given tht the ge of this ncestrl figure ws t the time of ccession, or slightly over eight centuries (Lounsury 1976). Pssge S-7 (Figure 60) Summry: The nrrtive now shifts to historicl time, s Distnce Numer of reches Ik 5 K y, the ccession dte of the ruler K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. The event is presented textully in wy tht evokes the ccession of the Trid Progenitor, using the sme distinctive seting expression on shred 9 Ik dte.

45 86 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform M N Figure 60. Temple XIX pltform, Pssge S-7. The next pssge rings us out of mythicl time nd into the roughly contemporry history of Plenque y connecting the ccession of the Trid Progenitor to tht of the ruler K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. The lengthy Distnce Numer t M3-N4 is , which leds from the Ik Seting of Sk to new Clendr Round 9 Ik 5 K y, written t N5 nd M6, or , the dy of the king s ccession, s recorded in severl other Plenque texts. 28 The clcultion is strightforwrd: Ik Seting of Sk Ik 5 K y The Ik dy sign t N5 is hed vrint, identicl to wht we sw used in the opening Initil Series of the inscription. This is the fourth 9 Ik dte of the text repetition to e ddressed shortly nd I feel it likely tht the use of hed vrints in two of these occurrences ws not rndom choice y the scrie. We should rememer tht these two dtes re the ccessions of the pre-trid GI nd the Plenque ruler, respectively, nd perhps something s sutle s the shred visul ppernce of dy sign served to strengthen the connection etween these two likein-kind episodes. As Lounsury (1976: ) insightfully determined, the intervl etween these two dtes ( ) is contrived numer incorporting even multiples of severl importnt stronomicl nd clendricl periods. Most oviously, the Distnce Numer contins precisely 4,278 cycles of 260 dys continution of the recurring pttern of 9 Ik s in this inscription. In ddition, Lounsury lso noted tht the intervl corresponds to the prole Mrs period of three 260-dy rounds (780 dys) s well s n integrl multiple of Dresden eclipse cycles, ech of 11,960 dys. Significntly, the ccession dte of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh flls on G1 of the nine-dy Lords of the Night cycle. This is not true of the Trid Progenitor s inugurtion, which clls for G4, yet it does provide 28 Other records of the 9 Ik 5 K y dte nd its ssocited ccession event pper on the Tlet of the 96 Glyphs, the Tlet of the Slves, the pinted text of House E in the Plce, nd lso the stucco text nd door jm of Temple XVIII. smll ut meningful connection to the 9 Ik inugurtion dte of GI, recorded t the eginning of the inscription. As expected, the event ccompnying 9 Ik 5 K y is ccession, here written with the sme distinctive squtting legs used in the preceding pssge. The connection to the Trid Progenitor s ccession, lso on 9 Ik, is reiterted through the use of this ver phrse (recll tht his ws sid to e the first such event), ut it is interesting tht GI s ccession record t the outset of this text is worded very differently: chum-l-j-ø t-jw-le(l). I think it prole tht such different phrsings imply different types of events nd rituls surrounding the ccession of new rulers. In terms of textul presenttion, the like-in-kind reltionship etween the ccessions of the two Plenque rulers one mythicl nd one historicl seems stronger thn tht of either to GI s inugurtion in the more distnt nd universl pst. The most remrkle prt of this pssge is the curious glyph tht follows the ccession ver nd precedes the king s nme, written o-ki-i, evidently for oki. On the west side, s we shll see, similr word ppers s possessed noun (yo-ko-i-li, y-ok(i)-il), proly in reference to monument or construction of some type. It would e tempting to see the oki fter the ccession ver s mrker of loction, ut s it hppens we find the sme word (unmrked for possession) in connection with other personl nmes. On the west side of the pltform, to nticipte somewht, it ppers in the nme cption of the centrl figure, nolemn nmed Slj Bolon. Oki is lso found with the nme of Upkl K inich in the horizontl glyph nd from Temple XXI s pltform. All of these uses suggest tht it is title of some sort, perhps ssocited with future kings. More of this will e discussed in Chpter 3 in connection with the centrl figure of the pltform s west tlet. The pssge ends with the nme nd Emlem Glyph of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. The form of the nme glyph shows the sme distinctive rrngement of signs s found t the very end of the text on Temple XIX s stone pnel, where turtleshell (AHK) nd mcw s hed (MO ) spell the two core elements of the nme. Here the king s Emlem Glyph is the stndrd Bkl term, providing n importnt contrst with the Mtwil emlem used for the Trid Progenitor in the previous pssge. Pssge S-8 (Figure 61) Summry: From the ccession of the ruler we move forwrd to the record of his first mjor Period Ending ceremony on Ajw 8 Keh. This is descried s his first stone-inding, s well s time when the ruler took certin ojects of unknown significnce. The Period Ending ritul took plce in the presence of the Trid deities nd, in the closing pssge, efore the spring of Lkmh. A Distnce Numer of is recorded t N8 nd O1, which when dded to the king s inugurtion dte reches the Period Ending Ajw 8 Keh. 29 This Clendr Round ppers t P1 nd O2, with record of thirteen stones (13-TUUN-ni) t P2. A descriptive gloss in the next lock notes tht this ws the first stone inding. The end of thirteen Tuns is known to hve een significnt sudivision of the K tun, nd here it is singled out s the first importnt clendr rite of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh s reign, flling under three yers fter his ccession. The fetured event phrse comes in the next glyph, possily red U-K AM?-w-OOB?, 29 The Period Ending Ajw 8 Keh occurs lso on frgment of stone incensrio stnd found in excvtions of Temple XVIII nd pulished y Schele nd Mthews (1979:No. 119). In tht inscription it seems to e n nticiptory dte. No historicl informtion pprently survives in the remining glyphs.

46 88 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform O 8 N Figure 61. Temple XIX pltform, Pssge S-8. P u-k m-w-oo, he tkes them The ver is clerly trnsitive construction (ergtive pronoun CVC root Vw), nd the reding of the min sign s K AM or CH AM seems well estlished from other exmples. 30 The only questionle feture of this ver is the suffix representing three smll circles, which I tenttively nlyze s morphemic sign for the third person solutive plurl suffix -oo, used to mrk the direct oject of the ver. 31 It remins very possile, however, tht this sign is simply the syllic ending -m (see Grue 1987), used s complement to the K AM or CH AM logogrm. The things or thing tken in this episode should e given immeditely fter this ver t O4 nd P4, ut these re very difficult to understnd. The first of these is the Strry Deer Crocodile hed sign prefixed y y-, suggesting perhps fuller reding y- AHIN, his/her/its crocodile. However, s discussed in considertion of Pssges S-1 nd S-2, the AHIN reding seems more fitting for nother crocodile hed showing crossed-nds in its eye; there is cler iconogrphic distinction etween the two cretures. The Strry Deer Crocodile is otherwise hed vrint for EK, str, ut here this vlue seems doutful given the prefix. The second glyph, t P4, is new exmple of glyph tht is generl reference to litters or plnquin-like structures depicted in the wooden lintels of Tikl (Mrtin 1996). It is often quite strct looking, yet in severl exmples, including this one from Plenque, the glyph is clerly depiction of msonry throne topped y n element resemling the AJAW superfix. I do not elieve this upper element is AJAW, however, for it hs distinctive form in erly exmples, efore it cme to e grphiclly lended with T168. The upper left portion of this superfix resemles the po sign, which we often find s pillows in throne representtions in My rt (Lounsury 1989). The glyph t P4 my therefore e completely iconic representtion of ench-throne topped with such po 30 My reding of this ver s K AM or CH AM hs not een completely presented in pulished form. It ws first proposed in letter to Stephen Houston dted Septemer 2, My nlysis of this three-circle element s plurl suffix OOB ws presented during the 1999 My Meetings t Texs, s prt of lrger presenttion on Clssic Myn ver morphology y Stephen Houston, John Roerston, nd the uthor. Other possile exmples re given in the workook, ut it is importnt to stress tht the plurl interprettion remins unproved nd is in need of further testing. pillow nd ck-cushion (the element t upper right). The reding of this complex sign is uncertin, ut it is unlikely to e logogrm for tem, word for throne or ench tht is lredy ttested in syllic forms te-mu nd te-m (Houston, personl communiction 1990). However one is to red the throne logogrm, its finl consonnt is certinly -t, s indicted y the customry -t suffix found in numerous other exmples. Using this clue, Wgner (1995) hs proposed vlue PAT for the plnquin glyph, ut I think nother vlue is more likely. The reference to crocodile in the preceding glyph lock is curious, ut it seems possile tht these two glyphs t O4 nd P4 might together refer to the cosmologicl imgery found with thrones nd scffolds in some exmples of My rt, including the niche stele t Piedrs Negrs, mong others (Figure 62). As we hve seen, these imges consistently depict ruler on pillow set within scffold tht is decorted in prt with the Strry Deer Crocodile, lwys shown just elow the ruler s set. Moreover, the niche stele t Piedrs Negrs were erected to celerte the first mjor Period Ending in the reigns of the locl rulers (Proskourikoff 1960), nd this is precisely the temporl setting of this receiving event t Plenque. It is tempting to suppose further tht glyphs P3 through P4 provide verl counterprt to those Piedrs Negrs scenes, where the rulers tke the crocodile throne on the occsion of their first Period Ending ceremony. I should stress, however, tht such trnsltion is tenttive, nd tht the y- prefix my well indicte tht this sttement includes n emedded possessive sttement ( the x of the throne? ). The following three glyphs of this pssge, from O5 through P6, comprise dependent phrse introduced y the fmilir glyph yi-chi-nal-l, proly reding y-ich- (V)n-l, together with or in the presence of (D. Sturt 1997:10). We then find the three Figure 62. Crocodile throne from Piedrs Negrs, Stel 6 (drwing y Dvid Sturt from Sturt nd Grhm 2003:36).

47 90 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform 91 The plcement of Temple XIX t the Otolum spring ws clerly intentionl. From wht we understnd of cves nd springs in My religion nd cosmology, it is likely tht the spring ws nturl feture of considerle ritul importnce within the ncient community tht derived its nme from the strem emnting from it (Vogt nd Sturt 2000). I elieve the entire complex of uildings constructed to the north of Temple XIX, including the three Cross Group temples, ws oriented ner tht spring for such resons. A detiled discussion of this interprettion will e given in Chpter 4, s we plce the Temple XIX inscription in it lrger mythologicl nd ceremonil context. e Figure 63. Prllel phrses comining thn-ch een, efore the cve, well, with locl toponymic glyph: () T. XIX pltform, () Tikl, Temple I, Lintel 3, D6 (fter Jones nd Stterthwite 1982:Fig. 70), (c) Dos Pils, Stel 8 (drwing y In Grhm), (d) Piedrs Negrs, Throne 1, O1-O2, (e) Crcol, Stel 3, D11. nmes of the individul Trid memers, GI, GII, nd GIII, the gods who were present for the ceremony just descried in the previous few glyphs. This comintion of tking event with references to gods eing present, either in figurtive or effigy form, is found in gret mny texts t Plenque nd eyond. In the inscription of the Plce Tlet, the youthful K inich K n Joy Chitm receives the snke-rope in the presence of the Trid gods (see Figure 33). Pnel 2 from Piedrs Negrs holds similr reference to the tking of helmet in the presence of set of deities (Fitzsimmons 1998). It would seem tht the ritul tking or receiving of ritul ojects often involves the presence of gods, who could in fct e the givers of these importnt ceremonil ccoutrements. I suspect tht the Temple XIX pltform tells us tht K inich Ahkl Mo Nh received his crocodile-throne from the Trid gods, or t lest with their holy snction. The very lst glyphs of Pssge S-8 nd the entire south pnel hold simple sttement, ut its implictions for understnding Temple XIX nd its significnce re fr reching. The glyphs, eginning t O7, red u-ti-y TAHN-n CH EEN-n LAKAM-HA, for ut-iiy thn ch een Lkmh, it hppened efore the spring of Lkmh. The nme Lkmh seems to hve een the ncient toponym for Plenque proper, cited in numerous texts throughout the site (Sturt nd Houston 1994:30-31). Its literl mening is lrge wters or wide wters, nd it is likely in reference to the Río Otolum tht psses through the very center of Plenque efore spreding mong extensive cscdes on the hillside elow. Immeditely efore this plce nme in the text is the so-clled impinged one sign, which I hve suggested recently hs the reding CH EEN, cve, well, or spring (Vogt nd Sturt 2000). In this setting, in comintion with the preposition thn-, within or efore, the ch een surely refers to the spring which is the source of the Otolum, locted immeditely ehind Temple XIX. In inscriptions t other sites, similr phrse with different plce nmes proly refers to importnt ritul loctions or even odies of wter (Figure 63-d). Thus the full phrse thn-ch een Lkmh is n explicit sttement of Temple XIX s loction: efore the Lkmh spring. In its wider context, this closing phrse perhps descries the setting of the Period Ending ritul descried in Pssge S-8, or, lterntively, it my serve to orient the lrger religious nrrtive of the pltform towrd this scred locle within the ncient city. c d II. The West Pnel The shorter west side of the Temple XIX pltform lso ers sculpted pnel, with simpler figurl scene in relief nd n ccompnying hieroglyphic text. There is no direct continution etween the south nd west inscriptions; rther, the sides stnd s two self-contined monuments tht were nonetheless conceived nd designed together. The scene on the west side is in some wys complementry to tht of the south, with focus on the Plenque Trid ut in more historicl nd ritul setting. Here the concern with mythicl history gives wy to more direct dedictory sttements out the pltform itself nd lso certin rchitecturl spces ssocited with ech of the Trid memers, plcing these events within the historicl frmework of Plenque s more contemporry dynstic history. With its three simply dressed figures, the scene on the west side is fr less usy imge. Agin symmetry is key component, showing the three figures rrnged in such wy s to vguely resemle the tri-figure composition found on mny Plenque tlets. The centrl portrit is perhps the oddest of the group, if not of the entire temple. The mn is seted efore throne cushion nd crdles in his rm mssive undle of coiled rope. He gestures with his other hnd to his left, towrds nother seted figure who fces him, while the third figure in the scene inexplicly fces wy. The inscription consists of sixty-four glyph locks, evenly divided into flnking sections of thirty-two ech. Six discrete pssges mke up the min text, lelled here s Pssges W-1, W-2, etc., through W-6. Once gin the people of the scene re nmed with cptions, rnging in length from three to four nd five locks, respectively. Pssge W-1 (Figure 64) Summry: The pltform s west pnel opens with n erly Period Ending dte , on which occurred the uilding or fshioning of monument (oki) ssocited with one Yx Itzm At, the possile gret-grndfther of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. The monument s dediction ws consecrted y the csting nd urning of incense y the then-ruler, K n Joy Chitm. The west inscription opens with the Clendr Round nottion 7 Ajw 8 K y t A1 nd B1. The plcement of this dte in the Long Count would e it uncertin were it not for the next glyph (A2) written 7-ku-lu-TUUN-ni, vrint of well known Period Ending phrse in the inscriptions of Plenque tht refers to the numer of stones (tuun, corresponding to single 360-dy period) mrked within K tun (tht is, twenty tuuns, or 7,200 dys). According to the fmilir pttern, the specified numer should correspond to the third position of the Long Count, the remining two (the Winl nd K in) set t zero. The only Long Count dte tht would gree with the informtion provided in the first three glyphs is Ajw

48 92 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform A Figure 64. Temple XIX pltform, Pssge W-1. B 8 K y, which we will see is confirmed through the clendricl clcultions specified lter in the text. A curious feture of the seven stones reference t A2 is the sign inserted etween the numer prefix nd the TUUN-ni. This is confltion of the syllles ku nd lu, nd its plcement there would suggest its role s numericl clssifier. We find in Morn s Ch olti grmmr the cittion of the clssifier -kul, used for counting eggs, which my e relted to the Clssicl Yuctec -kul clssifier, used for counting montones de piedr o tierr (Brrer Vázquez et l. 1980:348). Here the sense seems to e reckoning of seven individul stones, however, which would e more in keeping with the Ch olti usge (eggs nd stones re conceptully relted in numerous Myn lnguges, s shown y Ch ol tun, egg ). The glyph t A2 would therefore red in full wuk-kul-tuun, (it is) seven stones, referring to the ritul stones gthered in some mnner to symolize the seventh yer of the current K tun ( ). Together with the opening dte we cn red the sttement s (it is) 7 Ajw 8 K y, (it is) the seven stones. The event for this pssge is PAT-w-ni, written t B2. This is for pt-wn-ø, it is shped, uilt, nd the suject comes in the following glyph. In prllel exmples from other texts t Plenque nd elsewhere the suject of this ver is often y-otot, his/her house, y-eh, his/her steps, or some other rchitecturl term (D. Sturt 1998), nd indeed the glyph t A3 looks to e possessed noun of some sort: yo-ko-i-li, possily for y-ok(i)-il, or his oki. Presumly this refers to sort of monument or construction, nd there is good possiility tht it refers to the pltform itself (such self-referentil spects of dedictory texts re commonplce). The precise mening of oki is difficult to scertin, ut the noun looks to e n instrumentl, with the suffix -i or -V deriving noun of instrument from trnsitive or intrnsitive ver root. If so, the noun would in effect e the instrument for doing the ct of ok. Curiously, no such ver root exists in Ch oln lnguges, nor in Greter Tzeltln. The only rel possiility is the Yuctecn intrnsitive root ok, enter, descended from proto-myn *oq. The instrumentl noun oki is not n ttested form in Yuctecn to my knowledge, ut we do find the possily relted form in Greter Tzeltln ochi, mening entrnce, Figure 65. Mention of y-ok(i)-il oject on the pltform of Temple XXI, from the upper horizontl text. doorwy (or more literlly, thing used for entering ). The vexing prolem, however, is tht och is repetedly given s the Clssic Myn form of enter, nd two cler exmples will soon come up lter in this text (in Pssges W-3 nd W-5). The expected instrumentl noun would therefore e ochi, ut this is not wht we find spelled t A2. As we hve seen, other glyphs in the Temple XIX texts exhiit similr unexpected use of /k/ or /k / in plce of /ch/ or /ch /. In few exmples, the ver for tke or receive is spelled k -m (k m) (see Figure 18), wheres we find ch m t nery Piedrs Negrs nd Yxchiln. Similrly, Plenque scries regulrly chose to spell the word for erth s k- for k, in lieu of the Ch oln pronuncition ch. Enough evidence is now t hnd to suggest tht the regulr nd expected phonologicl shift from /k/ nd /k / to /ch/ nd /ch / ws not consistently indicted in hieroglyphic spellings. This my reflect locl Plenque resistnce to this sound chnge due to its proximity to Yuctecn spekers, much the wy modern Chontl retins k for erth (see Kufmn nd Normn 1984). One could surmise tht oki, if mening entrnce, is nother such exmple, which for some reson ws resistnt to the phonologicl shift seen in its originl root och. The other possile etymology of oki derives from the noun for foot, ok. This is wellttested lexeme in Clssic inscriptions, ut it my seem somewht odd to hve n instrumentl noun like oki derived from nother noun. One slightly different usge of -V suffixes in Myn lnguges is on nouns of plce (s in Tzotzil oche h, plce where wter enters ), suggesting tht ok-v might e etter nlyzed s plce for the foot, or pedestl. There is strong likelihood tht the possessed noun y-ok(i)-il mentioned in this pssge refers to smll pltform-like construction like tht within Temple XIX nd lso Temple XXI, where, s it hppens, the sme y-ok(i)-il term ppers in prole dedictory setting (Figure 65). We will find in discussions to come tht the ultimte dte of this text, pprently its dedictory dte, lso fetures the sme oject type clled n oki, in ssocition with different ver. If y-ok(i)-il there refers to the pltform itself, then this reference in Pssge W-1 must e to nother erlier pltform of similr type, given the dte. The personl nme phrse fter y-ok(i)-il occupies the next two glyph locks t A3 nd B4. It is not the nme of Plenque king, ut rther of nother erly personge in Plenque history. The first of the nme glyphs is YAX-ITZAM?-AAT nd lstly the title TUUN-ni- AJAW. 32 A very similr nme ppers on the north snctury jm pnel of the Temple of the Sun, where it follows prentge sttement for the ruler K inich Kn Bhlm (Figure 66). There, fter the record of the mother s nme (Ix Tz k Ajw, 33 the spouse of K inich Jn Pkl), we encounter the reltionship glyph I hve red s U-MAM-m, for u-mm, his 32 The puttive ITZAM vlue for the hirnet commonly found with God N is sed on severl lines of evidence, s outlined in correspondence with Lind Schele in It is not thoroughly secure reding ut still seems promising led. 33 The mother is nmed Ldy Ahpo Hel in mny erlier studies. The reding here Ix Tz k Ajw is sed upon more cceptle vlues for the constituent signs of the nme.

49 94 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform 95 Figure 66. Cption text from the north snctury pnel, Temple of the Sun, Plenque (drwing y Luci Henderson). mternl grndfther. After this comes the nme YAX-ITZAM?-ti TUUN-AJAW-w, lmost certinly referring to the sme individul we find in the Temple XIX inscription. Only the penis sign (AAT) seems to e omitted here, lthough its presence, perhps conflted in some wy with the God N hed, is indicted y the -ti suffix. Two glyphs ccompnying the grndfther s nme re o-ki-i nd AJ-3-K UH, which lso occur together in the pltform text of Temple XIX, in the nme cption of the centrl figure on the west side (glyphs L nd M). In the text from the Temple of the Sun, u-mm serves to extend the record of K inich Kn Bhlm s kin reltions eyond the simpler nd more common cittions of the fther nd mother. If the mm reding is correct, the impliction is tht Yx Itzm At is tht ruler s mternl grndfther, or Ix Tz k Ajw s fther. This identifiction of the grndfther would just fit with the opening dte of Episode W-1, or Ajw 8 K y. We lck precise dtes for the lifespn of Ix Tz k Ajw, ut we know she ws t lest young dult when K inich Kn Bhlm ws orn on If for rgument s ske we tke twenty to hve een close to her minimum ge t giving irth, then her own irth would hve fllen K tun erlier, round or so. The opening dte of Pssge W-1 is in turn some four decdes prior to this, ut it is conceivle tht her fther would hve een old enough to officite t tht time. If I m correct in linking the nme in Pssge W-1 to the grndfther of K inich Kn Bhlm (nd therefore perhps the gret-grndfther of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh), then we re still left to consider his historicl identity nd connections to the Plenque polity. The title ccompnying oth cittions of the nme is Tuun Ajw, Stone Lord, nd it possily serves s n Emlem Glyph for this individul, even if lcking the usul holy prefix. However, I do not know of ny other nmes from Plenque or ny other site tht crry such n emlem it seems unique to this individul. It is lso curious tht his dughter Ix Tz k Ajw seems to hve n Emlem Glyph of her own (Tz k Ajw) tht is ltogether different. 34 We cn t lest surmise from his title tht, wherever he cme from, he ws not Holy Lord. Presumly he ws politicl suordinte within Plenque itself or perhps within Plenque s greter domin. 34 Most spellings of her emlem nme re simply IX-TZ AK-AJAW, yet we find on the Dumrton Oks tlet from the Plenque region the ddition of the sign -u, in IX-TZ AK-u-AJAW. The comintion TZ AK-u is fmilir from numered successor titles found t mny sites (Riese 1984), nd it is possile tht here nd in other settings the -u serves s custive derivtionl ending on positionl root. However, I m t loss to explin how such derived ver stem would work s n Emlem Glyph. Figure 67. Portrit of K n Joy Chitm, from the srcophgus of the Temple of the Inscriptions, Plenque (drwing y Merle Greene Roertson). Pssge W-1 continues t lock B4 with new ver introducing secondry or dependent sttement. Such constructions re common in My texts, nd they elorte on some spect of the preceding sentence y introducing new ut closely relted event nd ctor. On the other side of the pltform, in Pssge S-1, we sw the use of the ver u-k-j-iiy in similr type of role, there specifying the ctor who oversw the ccession of GI. Here the event is the scttering ritul, trnsitive ver perhps sed on the root chok, to throw. The min sign of the ver is the fmilir csting hnd, followed y the element ch, used to spell the direct oject of the ver, ch j, incense. A question concerning this glyph, however, concerns the role of the finl -ji sign. In mny exmples of the scttering glyph the -ji suffix hs een thought to complete the syllic spelling of ch j (ch -ji), ut the -ji sign is lso well estlished s common suffix on trnsitive vers in such secondry positions (such s U-KAB-ji). The -ji element here occupies lrge spce underneth the grouping of the csting hnd nd the ch signs, suggesting, if only slightly, tht it is more thn simple spelling of ch -ji (were this the cse, the -ji would proly e reduced in size nd plced only elow the ch ). For the moment I prefer to see ch j s incorported into ver with the sense of incense-sctters or censes, nd to see this scttering ver s memer of the forementioned clss of secondry trnsitives, where the direct oject is understood s hving een previously stted. The precise role of -ji on certin trnsitive vers is currently eing deted, yet it my e relted to the suffix -ej found in Tojoll s mrker for derived trnsitive vers. Historicl linguistics will resolve this issue in time, ut I would hzrd to guess tht the sense of the text here is tht he incense-sctters (upon) it or he censes it, the oject eing the oki of the min cluse or else the fshioning (pt-w-n) event itself. Whtever the nture of this scttering ritul, the min performer is nmed s the erly Plenque ruler K n Joy Chitm, whose nme glyph ppers t A5. This king is known from

50 96 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform A C D Figure 68. Temple XIX pltform, Pssge W-2. B other references in the Temples of the Cross nd Inscriptions, including n ncestrl portrit on the srcophgus of Pkl (Figure 67). The Tlet of the Cross records his ccession dte on K n 12 K y, nd the Temple of the Inscriptions srcophgus notes his deth on Ki 4 K y. The rite recorded on the Temple XIX pltform therefore occurred very lte in his reign, only few yers efore his pssing. I tke this finl sentence within Pssge W-1 s record of the king s snctioning or consecrtion of the oki s n ctive prticipnt in its dediction, even though the monument is sid to e owned y nother individul. To nticipte our lter findings, we will see tht the finl pssge of the west side replictes these first sttements in mny wys, discussing nother ritul concerning n oki nd the involvement once gin of royl scttering rite. Pssge W-2 (Figure 68) Summry: The nrrtive rrives t contemporry history y citing the Period Ending Ajw 13 Yx, celerted y the stone inding ritul of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. A secondry pssge is enigmtic, referring to the first occurrence of n event involving the god GI nd nother prticipnt with the nme Slj Bolon. Blocks A6 through A7 hold Distnce Numer of , which when dded to the preceding leds to the K tun ending Ajw 13 Yx. This Clendr Round is written next t B7 nd A8, ringing us into the contemporry history of Lte Clssic Plenque nd its ruler, K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. The common K tun-ending phrse CHUM-TUUN-ni, or chum-tuun, (it is) the stone seting, comes t B8, followed in turn t C1 y U-15-WINIKHAAB?, (it is) the fifteenth K tun. Period Ending records often contin strings of similr descriptive sttements, ut more personl event is recorded in the next glyph (D1): U-K AL-TUUN-ni, u- k l-tuun, (it is) his stone-inding, reference to uiquitous clendr ritul conducted y My lords on mjor Period Endings nd very likely relted in its concepts to the well known Mexic Aztec ceremony known s the xiuhmohpilli, or inding of the yers (or precious stones) (D. Sturt 1996). The ctor in this cse is the reigning king of Plenque, K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, nmed t C2. His royl title t D2 is K UHUL-MAT-l-AJAW, K uhul Mtwil Ajw, the Holy Mtwil Lord. This isolted use of the Mtwil Emlem Glyph for the king is significnt, for it provides n interesting contrst with the more conventionl Bkl emlem title crried y K n Joy Chitm in the preceding pssge, s well s y himself ner the end of the inscription on the south fce of the pltform. The record of the K tun ending Ajw 13 Yx is the third known mention of tht dte t Plenque, the erliest ppering on the Tlet of the Slves t M3-N3. Tht reference is nticiptory, however, since the tlet ws dedicted on n erlier dte, Lmt 6 Wo. The other mention of the K tun ending is on the prtilly preserved lfrd tlet of Temple XIX, which is only implied y Distnce Numer linking to lter dte (one tht is repeted, in fct, in Pssge W-3 of this inscription). The two records of from Temple XIX stnd s the only contemporry ccounts of the Period Ending nd the rituls tht celerted it. The remining three glyphs of Pssge W-2 re highly unusul ut my offer more detiled informtion out the rites ssocited with the K tun ending. Glyph C3 hs two prts: U-NAAH nd U-?-tu. The first of these is redily understood s n ordinl construction u-nh..., its first..., yet the spelling here is unusul compred to others found t Plenque nd elsewhere. 35 This dveril modifier precedes the curious spelling U-?-tu, the centrl unknown sign eing T174, whose reding hs proved difficult to determine, with vried proposls offered over the pst decde or so. One possile vlue is KUCH, crry, which ws considered independently y Mcleod (personl communiction 1993) nd the uthor in Another reding I hve more recently entertined is HACH, to rise, lift. 36 The -tu suffix would e difficult to explin in comintion with such ver roots, however. We will see very similr construction further long in this text on the western side of the pltform. In comintion with u-nh, the first, the glyph U-HACH?-tu is most likely nominlized form of ver found in severl inscriptions eyond Plenque, spelled HACH?-t-j. The clerest nd most reveling cses of this glyph pper on Lintel 3 of Temple I t Tikl (Figure 69), where it ppers to refer to the prding of rulers nd effigies in elorte plnquins (Mrtin 1996). Other cses re ttested t Nrnjo nd Crcol. The spelling HACH?-t-j might e interpreted s hch-t-j, he/she/it is lifted, n pproprite description of the plnquin event. 37 Returning to the Temple XIX text, we find in D3 glyph with the preposition TA- preceding the portrit hed of the deity GI. The t- my well e relted to the preposition found on deity nmes following the similr verl expression t Tikl, just discussed. Although GI is nmed t D3, the presenttion is notly different from the cittions of GI we hve lredy seen on the south pnel nd in other Plenque inscriptions. Both individully nd s memer of the Plenque Trid, GI s nme is customrily written with the portrit hed prefixed y 35 Other exmples of this dveril phrse often re spelled U-NAAH-hi, s we hve seen in the stucco text from Temple XIX (see lso stucco glyph from Temple XVIII [no. 430 in Schele nd Mthews 1979]). The lrge U- min sign in the Temple XIX exmple lends it very different look, ut structurlly it is identicl. 36 Lcden (personl communiction 1999) considers MAY or K ECH s possiilities. I will discuss the evidence ehind the HACH, rise, lift, reding of T174 in seprte study now under preprtion. 37 One my wonder wht role the -t- morpheme plys in the possile reding hch-t-j. Most vers with the -j suffix re derived s pssives from CVC trnsitive roots, ut here hch-t- my e rre exmple of trnsitive stem derived from positionl root, hch. The -t ending is common trnsitivizing morpheme in Myn lnguges, proly relted historiclly to the loctive preposition ti- or t-. A close prllel exists in modern Ch ol (Tuml dilect) where -tä (sixth vowel) derives trnsitive stems from positionl roots, for exmple uch, seted > uch-tä, to sit upon (Feldmn 1986). I therefore nlyze the pssive form hch-t-j-ø (here with the person mrker indicted) s he is lifted upon.

51 98 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform 99 A B C D E F HACH?-t-j tu-?-bahlam-m-nal Figure 69. The ver hch-t-j or kuch-t-j ssocited with plnquin, on Tikl, Temple I, Lintel 3 (from Jones nd Stterthwite 1982:Fig. 70) the numerl 1 nd two other unredle signs. Here on the west pnel, nd more thn once s we shll see, the initil glyph efore the portrit hed is not present. Why it is different here I cnnot sy, except to speculte tht this is n spect of GI more specific thn his generl proper nme. The next lock t C4 is curious grouping of signs with numericl suffix: s-j-l-9. It is in ll likelihood personl nme for historicl figure previously unseen in Plenque s inscriptions, for we find it cited in the figure cption for the centrl portrit depicted in the ccompnying scene on the west side (locks J1 nd K1). We will find the sme nme lso mentioned it lter in Pssge W-4 t E4, s well s on the pltform of Temple XXI. Curiously in ll three of these other cses, the nme ppers s s-l-j-9, strongly suggesting tht the proper reding of the nme is Slj Bolon. His identity will e discussed t more length in Chpter 3, ut suffice it to sy here tht he is likely to e close kin reltion of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. When considered with the verl expression t C3, the finl three glyphs of Pssge W-2 my descrie specific ritul occsion ssocited with the K tun ending, nmely the first lifting or rising of the god GI, or some spect of tht deity, proly s n effigy figure. The reltionship of the s-j-l-9 portion of the nme phrse to the centrl figure of the scene my suggest tht the god ws impersonted y humn ctor, perhps even the ruler himself, scenrio tht would e in keeping with the more explicit theme of god-impersontion s presented in the scene nd inscription of the south pnel. Pssge W-3 (Figure 70) Summry: The third pssge records fire-entering (uilding dediction) ritul two yers lter, on Ki 19 K y. This dte is fetured in other texts of Temple XIX nd concerns structure or shrine ssocited with GI, proly Temple XIX itself. A short intervl of reckons forwrd from the K tun ending to Ki 19 K y, recorded s clendr round t D6 nd C7. Before we discuss the events ssocited with this dy, we should first puse to consider the unusul form of the Distnce Numer Introducing Glyph ck t D4. This shows unique replcement for the customry TZ AK min sign ( reding discussed in Reise 1984), piring of the color signs green/lue (YAX) with yellow (K AN). Clerly this juxtposition of colors is relted to the use of two contrsting elements s n ideogrphic conveynce of the term TZ AK, which is sed on the mening of whole or complete (Reise 1984; D. Sturt 2003). Other exmples of pired TZ AK vrints occur in the texts of mny sites (Figure 71), nd severl pper in the Tlet of the 96 Glyphs t Plenque, n inscription tht in size, style nd presenttion is descended from the rtistry ehind the Temple XIX pltform. There we find such pirings s wind-wter, moon-str, nd dynight. Other My inscriptions include pirings such s food-drink or cloud-wter. Often we hve considered these unusul glyphs to e prime exmples of pired opposites in the Levi-Struss vein, ut I elieve it is more correct to interpret them s complementry pirings tht convey whole ide or concept. Hence they serve to represent the notion of tz k, whole. In the Distnce Numer Introducing Glyph, tz k presumly refers to the entirety of time tht elpses from one dte to nother. Thus wind-wter conveys the chrcteristics of storms (perhps etter red s wind-rin ), moon-str the mjor spects of the night sky, nd dy-night the dul conditions of the whole sky. In Temple XIX s inscription, the grouping green-yellow lmost certinly refers to the life cycle of edile plnts, with the more direct mening of unripe-ripe. Yx cn men unripe in severl Myn lnguges, just s the color green does in numerous other tongues, E C D Figure 70. Temple XIX pltform, Pssge W-3. F

52 100 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform 101 c d Figure 72. A comprison of rchitecturl nmes ssocited with GI t Plenque: () T. XIX, () Tlet of the Cross (drwing y Lind Schele). e f i j k Figure 71. Assorted exmples of pired opposites used s composite logogrms of TZ AK, in the Distnce Numer Introducing Glyph: () T.XIX pltform, west, D4, () Plenque, Bodeg no. 208, (c) Copn, Temple XI, est door, south pnel, B4, (d) Copn, HS1, Step 53, (e) Copn, Temple XI, est door, north pnel, C1, (f) Copn, HS1, Step 42, (g) Tonin, M.20, D1, (h) Plenque, 96 Glyphs, D8 (drwing y Lind Schele), (i) Copn, Temple XI, est door, south pnel, A1, (j) Plenque, 96 Glyphs, E7 (drwing y Lind Schele), (k) Zcpeten, Altr 1, A1. nd k n, yellow, is specific term for ripe. In modern Q eq chi, the comined term rxlk nl signifies undnce (Heserijn 1979:282). It is importnt to emphsize, however, tht this nd other sign pirings re not to e red phoneticlly s two constituent prts (yx k n, etc.) ut rther s ideogrphic representtions of the concept of wholeness nd completion. They re ll therefore TZ AK forms. Returning to the pssge ssocited with the dy 9 Ki 19 K y, we find the ver t D7 written OCH-chi-K AHK, for och k hk, the fire enters. I hve suggested elsewhere tht this is n importnt wy of descriing the dediction or ctivtion of n rchitecturl spce, relted to some modern My urning rites ssocited with the dediction of houses (D. Sturt 1998). In such hieroglyphic expressions the following glyph is very often proper nme for the rchitecturl spce eing dedicted, which here ppers in lock C8. The first of these egins with the preposition TA-, here for t- into, signling the direction of the fire-entering ritul. The reminder of the glyph t C8 is the odd comintion of 8-NAAH- K INICH-EL?, where nh presumly mens house or structure. Although seemingly plced in the middle of the sequence, there is mple precedent to suggest tht -nh is to e red in finl position, due to the grphicl superimposition of signs. The full ver phrse och-k hk t-wxk-k inich-el-nh refers to the entering of fire into uilding (or uildings) with the possile nme Eight Gret Sun Emergence House(s). The term is very reminiscent of nother house nme cited in the min inscription of the Tlet of the Cross, spelled 8- NAAH- GI, possily mening the eight GI houses (Figure 72). I dout these re the sme rchitecturl nmes, ut they proly er close connection to one nother. g h The glyph t D8 lso is proper nme for uilding, ut it is not continution of the nme mentioned in the preceding glyph. Between C8 nd D8 we hve discursive rek, fter generl record of the fire-entering ritul, where new sentence egins, once more nming specific uilding nd its reltionship to the deity GI. D8 nmes this uilding or spce, written s K AHK -?-NAAH, the Fire..?.. House. It is very hrd to discern the middle sign (or signs), ut the upper nd lower portions of the intervening element resemle certin kwk forms; I m not sure how they should est e nlyzed. The opening glyph of the right section, t E1, continues the dediction sttement of Pssge W-2, linking the structure nme t D8 to the god. The glyph is possessed noun phrse U-CHAK-?-NAAH-li, u-chk-..?..-nh-il, his/its red(?)..?.. structure. We will find this glyph cited gin in this text, in ech cse efore the nme of one of the Trid deities (Figure 73). We hve lredy found it written in the incomplete text of the Temple XIX lfrd (see Chpter 1), where it followed dediction event flling on the sme dte of this pssge, Ki 19 K y. In the lfrd inscription the red? house glyph ws not possessed noun, ut simply CHAK-?- NAAH-hi. The undeciphered middle sign of this noun resemles tri-loed fin element with crossed nds in its interior. The crossed-nds nd fringe-like design recll certin fish-relted or t lest qutic iconogrphy, ut they do little to suggest n exct reding for the sign. The position of the red? house glyphs in these two inscriptions suggests tht it refers to clss or type of uilding, possily n enclosed, interior spce of structure. As noted in Chpter 1, if we compre these pssges to similr sttements from elsewhere in the Cross Group we find tht CHAK-?-NAAH occupies the sme position s nother importnt Dte och k hk uilding nmes u-chk-?-nh-il Trid deity Figure 73. A comprison of the Red? House references in Temple XIX s inscriptions.

53 102 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform E Figure 74. Temple XIX pltform, Pssge W-4. F rchitecturl term, pi nh, used in the texts of the Temples of the Cross, Folited Cross, nd Sun. Pi nh, or pit-oven structure, is term for the interior sncturies of those three temples nd perhps originlly term for swet th (D. Sturt 1987; Houston 1996). Considering the evident prllels etween pi nh nd chk..?.. nh, it stnds to reson tht the Temple XIX term in some wy nmes n re or spce within the superstructure, if not the uilding s whole. We will revisit this question in the conclusions of this study, when we consider the overll inscription in its historicl nd rchitecturl context. The owner or protgonist of this spce is the god GI, nmed t F1 with his portrit hed only, gin lcking the common introductory glyph with the one numericl prefix. A similr simplified reference to GI occurred in the erlier pssge, where it my hve referred to n effigy figure of the deity, nd one nturlly wonders if the form of the glyphic nme here indictes something similr tht the house ws tht of GI effigy whose hieroglyphic nme ws in some wy distinguished from the GI ctor nmed so prominently in the mythicl nrrtive from the south side of the pltform. At the very lest we cn sfely sy tht Pssge W-3 records the dediction of uilding or spce ttriuted to GI in some wy. We will soon find tht other pssges in this inscription descrie similr structures ssocited with the other two memers of the Plenque Trid. Pssge W-4 (Figure 74) Summry: Twenty-four dys fter GI s house ritul, nd on the dy Ajw 3 Wye, is rope-tking event ssocited with hlf-hotun periods. This my descrie the figurl scene on the west pnel. Pssge W-4 egins in the second hlf of lock F1, directly fter the portrit nme of GI, with Distnce Numer of 24 dys. This is expressed in somewht unusul fshion y the use of moon sign for the single Winl (twenty dys), to which is superfixed the numer four. Although the reding K AL twenty is often given to this moon element, its vlue remins uncertin; UJ moon, month is perhps nother possiility well worth considering (Bricker 1986: ). The short spn rings the chronology forwrd to Ajw 3 Wye, recorded t E2 nd F2. We hve lredy encountered this dte in the lfrd of Temple XIX, where in similr wy it followed the dediction record on Ki 19 K y. The sme dte my lso hve ppered on the stone pnel, in now-missing section. From the recurring ssocition of the dtes, we might surmise tht the temple s dediction ws somehow closely connected with this fetured event occurring mere twenty-four dys lter. The nture of the event ws impossile to know from the ttered remins of the lfrd text, ut here t F2 we find complete verl sttement, even if somewht difficult to red. The ver is simple in its form, consisting of the signs k -m for k m, tke receive, nd twisted rope element elow. The sme comintion occurs on the stone nd stucco pnels from the interior pier of Temple XIX (see Figure 18), nd it seems to e direct description of ritul tht involved the tking of some importnt oject. The wider significnce of the ceremony is difficult to know, ut, s mentioned in Chpter 2, it my well e relted to the importnce of the dte s the mid-point of Hotun, or period. E3 is clerly possessed noun with the -il suffix, ut I know of no other exmples of this unusul grouping of signs. The upper, horizontlly oriented element is unique, nd elow this to the left we see looping sign lmost resemling portion of folded or twisted cloth. The penultimte sign, efore the noun ending, is more recognizle s the syllle mu, perhps serving s phonetic complement on the unusul sign preceding it. The comintion leds me to speculte tht the glyph my contin the word sum or suum, rope, cord, elorting in some wy the simple rope-tking reference in the preceding glyph ( it is the rope-tking, his..?.. rope ). Just who or wht is ment to e the intended suject is not cler; he my e nmed somewht lter in E4 or my e understood s the protgonist of the previous pssge, the god GI. F3 repets somewht troulesome glyph found erlier in the inscription, in Pssge W-2. This is U-HACH?-chi-tu, now with chi sign inserted fter the T174 sign nd -tu suffix. I feel tht -chi is likely phonetic complement to the vlue of T174, lredy discussed s possile positionl root HACH, lift, rise, ut now s derived stem with n indiction of complex internl vowel (hch or h-h-ch). The -tu suffix I find very difficult to explin, ut it my e used here to represent, t lest in prt, the trnsitivizing suffix -t. These re tenttive ssessments, to e sure, ut it seems t lest resonle to suppose this glyph specifies some ver ( lifting?) tht gives some context to the rope-tking mentioned t the outset. E4 is most likely personl nme, spelled s-j-l-9 nd repeting glyph encountered erlier in Pssge W-2. There the glyph ws in direct ssocition with the god GI, nd it is proly significnt tht here in Pssge W-4 the ritul descried tkes plce only dys fter GI s house dediction. Evidently Slj Bolon ws someone with strong connection to GI. The nme is found lso s the nme or designtion of the centrl figure on the west side, who holds the lrge nd unusul coil of rope. From the questions rised y nerly every glyph in this pssge, even loose prphrse comes with difficulty. Rope-tking is the generl event, nd the three glyphs from E3 through E4 my simply provide more specific informtion out this generl ritul ct or occsion. Given the pprent reference to rope nd to the nme Slj Bolon, it is likely tht this pssge is linked more thn ny other to the scene on the west side of the throne.

54 104 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform E G Figure 75. Temple XIX pltform, Pssge W-5. F H Pssge W-5 (Figure 75) Summry: After spn of two yers, on Kn 5 Yxk in, the red? houses of GII nd GIII of the Trid re dedicted in n och-k hk, fire-entering, rite. As with GI s similr rite recorded in Pssge W-3, ech of these houses or spces hs its own proper nme. The next pssge crries the nrrtive forwrd over two yers in time, opening with Distnce Numer of t F4 nd E5. This tkes us to the dte Kn 5 Yxk in, recorded s Clendr Round in the susequent two locks. The event is once more OCH-K AHK, fire-entering, here spelled somewht differently from wht we hve lredy encountered in Pssge W-3 (OCH-chi-K AHK ). Here the chi hnd hs een omitted nd the K AHK logogrph hs een expnded into its well known hed vrint form, ut the ver phrse is essentilly identicl, referring to the dediction of some sort of rchitecturl spce. In oth pssges the structure is och-k hk - PROPER NAME - u-chk-..?..-nh-il - GOD S NAME, or fire enters the [uilding nme], (it is) the red..?.. house of [god nme]. Pssge W-5 in this wy expnds upon the erlier sttement, referring to the dediction of two other houses ssocited with the remining memers of the Plenque Trid, GII nd GIII. Two glyphs t E7 nd F7 mke up the proper nme of the house or some type of rchitecturl spce gin we cnnot e sure wht tht ws dedicted on 6 Kn 5 Yxk in. The nme is structurlly similr to the other uilding nme given t D8. The signs together cn e red 3-2 jo-lo BAAK-?-KAB. As with mny proper nmes of structures, this is extremely difficult to trnslte with ny ssurnce. The two smll circles t the upper left of the jo look to e douling mrker indicting jojol or just possily jolol (the sign ment to e red twice cn t times e sptilly removed from the two dots). Interestingly, the root *joj in proto-ch oln is heron (Kufmn nd Normn 1984), ird tht we hve seen hs close connections to Temple XIX s inscriptions nd symolism. Here joj might possily e derived s n djectivl form joj-ol (Houston, Roertson, nd Sturt 2001), modifying the terms in the following glyph lock, including the initil BAAK, one, logogrm. An lterntive nlysis would see the jo-lo sequence without douler, spelling the word jol, hed, skull, nd suggesting connection to the frequent compounded term k jolil, ones-nd-skull, found in severl other settings in connection with the ritul use of skeletl remins (Figure 76). The sign following BAAK t F7 is very rre element, mking the nme ll the more prolemtic for decipherment. A strong prllel cn e found on n Erly Clssic cche vessel from the centrl Peten region (Figure 77), where it seems to e comined lso with KAB. Although the upper element is very strnge, it does shre internl fetures with the kn or erth motif, nd the drkened or htched re t its lower left corner lends it strong resemlnce, for exmple, to the imge of suterrnen cvity depicted on the lower hlf of Stel 40 of Piedrs Negrs. This is proly representtion of n ncestrl uril (Hmmond 1981). It seems possile tht the sign represents similr kind of uril pit; if so, it my er themtic connection to the possile skull-one grouping cited erlier in the sme nme. Continuing on to the next glyph, we red t E8 tht this spce or structure is gin chk-..?..-nh, the term used to descrie GI s house, dedicted two yers previously. In this pssge, however, the owner is the god GII, nmed t the very ottom of column F. A second prt of Pssge W-5 commences with yet nother proper nme of house t lock G1 (not to e confused with the god GI!). This is written K INICH-?-NAAH, the centrl element eing n owl-like ird s hed known from severl other contexts. The initil term K inich, Gret Sun, is of course common titulr prefix on rulers nmes t Plenque, ut it need not e restricted to the proper nmes of people; it ppers s prefix on uilding nmes t oth Plenque nd Yxchiln (Sturt nd Houston 1994). Once more we hve the suffix -nh, house, which leves only the centrl ird sign to e explined. This element is most commonly found in the Emlem Glyph of Tonin, where it serves s the hed vrint of the o syllle in the grouping po-o, for Po, n ethnic term which survived in Chips into historicl times (Ayl Flcón 1997). In the Plenque text the ird is logogrm of some sort, mking its reding it prolemtic The ird sign nd its possile logogrphic reding deserve few more comments. Its identifiction s n owl seems prole sed on iconogrphic representtions of n identicl vin creture on pottery. The hieroglyphic nme of this ird fetures its own hed the sme sign we hve t Plenque ut with the seprte suffix -o. Given the estlished syllic vlue of the sign s o lso, I hve wondered whether this fntstic owl my e relted to the oo ird mentioned in The Ritul of the Bcs nd discussed riefly y Roys (1965). Arzplo-Mrín (1987), in his edition, lso notes tht oo refers to n especie de pjro, lthough the species is unknown. If so, the logogrphic vlue might well e O (likely n onomtopoeic nme), with the proper nme reding K inich O Nh, the Gret Sun Owl House. Figure 76. Possile distinct comintions of the terms jol ( hed, skull ) nd k ( one ): () T. XIX pltform, () incised turtle crpce, privte collection. Figure 77. Exmples of n unusul logogrm or sign comintion incorporting erth : () T. XIX pltform, () cche vessel from the Tikl region.

55 106 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Pltform G H Figure 78.Temple XIX pltform, Pssge W-6. As we could hve esily nticipted y this point, the owner of this third house of the chk-..?..-nh type is the deity GIII, nmed in lock G2. The text is cler in stting tht the dedictions of GII s nd GIII s houses occurred on the sme dy, significnt mount of time fter GI s own house ws fire-entered. The reson is unknown, ut there cn e little dout tht the discrepncy in time reflects GI s seniority mong the three Trid memers, t lest in terms of the nrrtive of the Temple XIX pltform. Temple XIX seems, fter ll, to e the red? house of GI. Where then re the houses of the other two gods? There my in fct hve een just one uilding encompssing the shrines to GII nd GIII, nd given its strong similrity to Temple XIX, Temple XXI is very likely to e the compnion structure. Pssge W-6 (Figure 78) Summry: Forty-three dys lter, on the Period Ending Ajw 8 Ch en, nother event occurs concerning n oki oject or monument. Its owner is not cler, nor is the nture of the event, ut it my possily e in reference to the dediction of the pltform monument over two yers fter Temple XIX s ctivtion. The divine witnesses of the event include GI, nd it is snctioned through the scttering or csting rite of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, ruler of Plenque. We re now t the close of the West Pnel s inscription nd, s we shll see, proly lso t the finl pssge of the entire textul progrm of the monument. The fetured dte is written t G3 nd H3 s 10 Ajw 8 Ch en, which flls 2.3 (forty-three dys) fter the dedictory events recorded in Pssge W-5. This Distnce Numer is t H2, nd the Long Count plcement corresponds to the Period Ending , with the pproprite NAAH-5-TUUNni, Nhho tuun, First Five Stones, noted t G4. This dte is the ltest recorded on either pnel of the Temple XIX pltform, nd I suspect it is the dediction dte of the monument itself. The principl ver of this pssge is t H4, ut it is dly dmged (ls, the sem etween the two fcing stones of the pltform runs directly through ll the glyphs of column H). The only visile portion of the glyph is ent rm prefix sign, which is very clerly relted to mny similr exmples in the lter codices ut otherwise unknown in the Clssic sources, to my knowledge (Figure 79). Its reding remins uncertin, ut in the Dresden Codex it is routinely prefixed to the signs nd l in Figure 79. Exmples of the ent rm sign t Plenque nd in the Dresden Codex: () T. XIX pltform, () Dresden, p. 10c, (c) Dresden, p. 3. c glyph which Thompson (1972:35) once trnslted s ffliction, noting its ssocition with negtive uguries. The remining two signs look to e hi (the kwk with the T60 hir knot) nd li, comintion we hve lredy seen on the stucco pnel of Temple XIX. In tht inscription it spells hil, n intrnsitive root for to rest, remin, end. Here the surrounding glyphs re very different. Given the poor preservtion, it would e foolhrdy to nlyze the ver glyph too much further. The suject of the ver is written t lock G5. This is the fmilir sequence yo-ko-i-li, glyph lredy encountered ner the eginning of this inscription t position A3 (the use of hed vrint i in the second exmple ccounts for their slightly different look). There we sw tht it likely spells the possessed noun y-ok(i)-il, or his/her oki, possily in reference to pedestl, or the pltform itself. Pssge W-1 stted tht n oki ws uilt or mde on nd tht its owner ws one Yx Itzm At, n oscure historicl figure who my hve een the gret-grndfther of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. Here the owner nmed t H6 looks to e different person ltogether, ut the poor preservtion mkes it impossile to red. Only the prefix AJ- is legile, plced efore two other signs. The symmetricl position of the oki references t the eginning nd end of the west inscription cnnot e coincidentl. In some wy this finl pssge ws ment to juxtpose with the erlier fshioning of the oki. Might the lter of the two events, with its cler ssocitions with end, deth, nd negtive uguries, logiclly signl completion of n oki, or the ending of sequence of such monuments? The spelling hi-li for end in the min ver of the pssge is suggestive of this, nd we hve lredy seen how hil ws used in the stucco inscription of Temple XIX to mrk the end-point of series of relted events or ctions. The lck of firm reding for the ent rm prefix sign hinders ny full decipherment, ut the context seems to offer strong suggestion of n ending for the oki or relted series of such monuments. At ny rte, the presence of the oki noun offers good indiction tht the inscription of the pltform here closes with dedictory sttement of some sort. According to the remining glyphs in the pssge, the event surrounding the oki, or perhps the pltform, occurred in the presence of t lest one deity. The phrse y-ich-n-l, (it is) in front of him/her/it, ppers t G6 efore n effced nme or title t H6 (AJ-CHIT?-...) nd then the clerly written nme of GI, who gin seems to e singled out mong the memers of the Trid. Whether H6 nd G7 constitute two seprte nmes or n extended nominl sequence for GI is difficult to determine, ut I know of no GI title tht resemles the glyph here efore his personl nme; two entities might therefore e specified here s supernturl witnesses for the ritul event. H7 is clerly scttering glyph, continuing the close prllels etween this pssge nd the opening sttement of the west side. Just enough of this glyph is visile to see -ji suffix eneth the hnd sign, nd I ssume tht its form ws identicl to tht seen t B4 (sve the lternte forms of the U- prefix). Here the suject is nmed in the finl two locks of the inscription, s K INICH AHK(-l)-MO -NAHB, closing with the royl title K UHUL-

56 108 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter Nme 109 BAAK-l-AJAW. As efore, I elieve tht this closing sttement signifies tht the king ws direct prticipnt in the event nd scttered incense upon the oki oject. This finl pssge of the west fce rings up one lst point out the sequence of dedictions nd monumentl constructions within the uilding. As we hve seen recorded in severl plces, the dediction dte of Temple XIX ws Ki 19 Ky, when the structure ws pprently ctivted s ritul spce through the och k hk ceremony. This dy flls over two yers efore the finl Period Ending dte recorded in Pssge W-6, , when it seems the pltform itself my hve een fshioned. There is little choice ut to think tht the pltform ws dded to pre-existing uilding t this time. Detil of glyphs from the Temple XIX pltform, south fce.

57 110 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter Nme 111 Detil of glyphs from the Temple XIX pltform, west fce. Detil of glyphs from the Temple XIX pltform, south fce.

58 112 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter 4. The People The pltform s fces re most unusul for the numer of people they portry seven on the south side nd three on the west. No other scene in the extnt Plenque corpus of sculpture is s populted, lthough some poorly preserved remins might once hve een. Wll pnels t Plenque re well known for their tri-figurl rrngement, s seen for exmple on the Tlet of the Slves or on the Plce Tlet (Schele 1976). The unique setting nd seemingly rolled-out dimensions of the Temple XIX pltform sculptures help to ccount for their unusul look within the Plenque cnon, ut on further considertion their design does indeed fit well within locl conventions of figurl representtion. If we consider the south pnel s scene, for instnce, we immeditely see the lnced rrngement of people on either side of the seted king. Wheres tri-figure pnels show one figure on either side of the centrl royl personge, the south pltform fce shows three on ech side. Aprt from the numers involved, the composition of the scene flls squrely in the Plenque mode, plcing the king t the center with flnking secondry figures. In showing three figures on ech side of the king, the rtist hs retined the tri-figure convention nd my hve done so to evoke once more the tridic themes in the ccompnying text, with its references to the Plenque Trid memers nd the three relted dedictory events recorded in the text of the west fce. In the tri-figure scenes found elsewhere t Plenque, the flnking pir re portrits of the king s prents, with the fther to the ruler s own right nd the mother to the ruler s left (the king lwys fces to the right, towrd the fther). We cn therefore discern regulr sptil hierrchy in these figurl compositions. Similrly, the set of figures to the right of the king on the Temple XIX pltform (tht is, our left) re the focus of his ttention, nd, not surprisingly, should therefore e considered of higher sttus thn the figures to his left, or ehind him. It is interesting lso tht on the south fce the three men to the left ll wer lrge jde erspools, wheres the others t right hve simpler dngling er ornments. Aprt from the issues of figurl composition, the sic question yet to e ddressed is, Who re they? Luckily for us every figure hs its own hieroglyphic lel or cption, lthough, s might well e predicted, mny of the individuls re unknown from Plenque s historicl record, nd their roles nd reltionships pose numerous new questions. Here I will consider ech portrit in turn, designting them from left to right s Portrit A, Portrit B, etc. Detil of Portrit I from the Temple XIX pltform, west fce.

59 114 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The People 115 Portrit A Figure 80. Temple XIX pltform, Portrit A nd nme cption. See lrger photogrph t end of chpter. Figure 81. Snctury jm pnel, Temple of the Cross, Plenque (drwing y Lind Schele). The visul reltionship etween the portrits nd their glyphic cptions is somewht confusing t first glnce. To the left nd ehind the set of three seted men who fce the ruler we find two cptions, one ner floor level nd nother directly t the ck of the leftmost figure. I cn only guess for the present tht the leftmost cption nmes the leftmost figure Portrit A nd tht the next cption to the right nmes the middle of the three figures. The design is somewht cumersome in this regrd, ut for now this seems resonle ssessment. The cption (Figure 80) holds three glyphs, the first two of which re the proper nme yo-ohl-l-m-t i-chi-baak?, the finl unknown portion eing ird s hed title soon to e discussed elow. The nme Yohl Mt Ich Bk is somewht difficult to trnslte, ut it seems in its first prt to include possessive construction y-ohl mt, possily the center (or hert) of the mt ird. The notion of eing somehow within the mt ird immeditely reclls the iconogrphic depictions of the king nd his successor Upkl K inich on the pier of Temple XIX, where they ech re shown stnding in the mouths of immense ird heds. Ich (i-chi) seems lso relted to wter irds. Turning to the snctury jm pnel from the Temple of the Cross (Figure 81), we find the spelling i-chi-w in the cption ccompnying the portrit of K inich Kn Bhlm, where it is prt of n extended nme phrse tht lludes to his costume elements in direct wy. The full nme phrse is -ku-l i-chi-w U-K IX?-CHAN K INICH-KAN- BAHLAM, etc., where the nme of the Plenque ncestor Uk ix Chn fuses directly with tht of the living ruler. The portrit likewise emphsizes fusion of identities, for in his heddress K inich Kn Bhlm clerly wers the emlemtic nme of Uk ix Chn, s n impersontor of his distnt ncestor. In ddition to the emlemtic nme of the very ncient ruler, we lso see in the heddress heron or egret clutching fish in its ek nd wering turtle shell. This must e relted to the glyphs -ku-l i-chi-w which spell hkl ichiw. Ahk-l is n djectivl derivtion of turtle (s seen lso in the nme K inich Ahkl Mo Nh), nd ichiw seems likely to e relted to one ttested mening of ichil s grz (Pined 1986:393; see lso Hunn 1977:140). The spelling i-chi in the nme from Temple XIX just might lso men heron, though certinly other redings re open (Hunn [1977:140], for exmple, explicitly links this Tzeltl word for heron to the widespred mening of the root ich, pepper, though he lcks n explntion of the usge). Like most other nmes on the pltform, Yohl Mt Ich Bk is otherwise unknown in the extnt records of Plenque. Only the third nd lst glyph remins phoneticlly uncertin. The single sign of the lock depicts the hed of screeching ird wering distinctive cloth hedscrf, identifying it s n importnt ut enigmtic title found in mny other inscriptions of the Lte Clssic period. In fct we will come to find the sme nded ird title pplied to severl other people in the scene of the south pnel. This title remins undeciphered, ut it will e discussed in more detil ner the end of the present chpter. Portrit B The next figure hs three glyphs in his nme cption (Figure 82), opening with 4 Ajw or Chn Ajw. This is not dte, ut rther rre instnce of My clendr nme using sttion in the 260-dy cycle. Similr clendr nmes re commonplce Figure 82. Temple XIX pltform, Portrit B nd nme cption. See lrger photogrph t end of chpter.

60 116 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The People 117 Figure 83. The Yomop pnel: () detil of sculptor s signture, () overll view (drwing y Nikoli Grue from Myer 1995:Pl. 141). elsewhere in Mesomeric, ut only hndful of comprle exmples re known from the My region. At Plenque, sculptor of the Deth s Hed monument from the Cross Group ore the nme 5 K n. Interestingly, 4 Ajw ppers s sculptor s nme recorded on the so-clled Yomop Stel, possily from the region of Pomon (Figure 83). One wonders if this could e the sme individul depicted t Plenque, ut the lck of firm dte for the Yomop monument mkes this identifiction impossile to confirm; for now we cn only ssume they re different people. I suspect clendr nmes were more common thn the epigrphic evidence reflects, especilly in the western lowlnds, where ll the known Lte Clssic exmples hve een found. Clendr nmes with distinctive squre crtouches re common in the very ltest texts of Seil, Ucnl, nd other sites in the centrl Peten, shown with Terminl Clssic iconogrphy tht hs long een ssocited with migrtions from wht is now Tsco nd neighoring costl regions (J. Grhm 1973). The second glyph in the nme cption is -?-ji, the min sign of which seems to represent mize plnt sprouting from the cleft erth. A few other exmples of this sign re known, ut its phonetic vlue is still mystery (Figure 84). There is every reson to think it logogrph, sed upon its usge in severl different contexts. 39 It occurs in other personl nmes or titles, nd the -ji suffix is known on few other exmples. Lstly we encounter the sme ird title found with his compnion in Portrit A. c d Figure 84. Exmples of the sprouting erth sign in My inscriptions: () Plenque, House C terrce, cptive nme, () Plenque, Temple of the Inscriptions, middle pnel, B4-A6 (drwing y Lind Schele), (c) Yxh, Stel 13, A1-A7 (drwing y In Grhm), (d) min cption on K1609 (re-drwn from photogrph y Justin Kerr). Portrit C The third figure on the south side fces nd engges the ruler, nd on the sis of his key role in the scene nd his importnt titles, he should e considered the most importnt of the royl ttendnts. In his 39 For exmple, we find the sprout-erth sign used twice in the centrl pnel of the Temple of the Inscriptions t Plenque, where it seems to spell ver root of some sort. The ending -l-j suggests it might e clssifile s positionl ver. The sujects of the two vers re types of supernturl or cosmologiclly importnt trees (with the suffix -TE, plnt, tree ), nd I would suppose the pssge records some type of sprouting of these plnts. Figure 85. Temple XIX pltform, Portrit C nd nme cption. See lrger photogrph t end of chpter.

61 118 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The People 119 costume he resemles the two lords t his ck, except for the elorte heddress. He wers the conicl cloth ht nd tied fethers shred y ll, ut the mn in Portrit C hs in ddition to this n ornte heddress depicting the hed of the Principl Bird Deity, well known nd esily recognizle chrcter in My religious iconogrphy. The lrge eye with its squre pupil nd the elongted ek re importnt visul mrkers for this supernturl ird, who served s n vin spect of God D or Itzmnj. The cption (Figure 85) is unlike the other two ddressed so fr in tht it is introduced y specil possessive construction composed of u-h-il nd the numer tree element (AHN?), here conflted s they often re. The comintion is known from other inscriptions t Plenque nd elsewhere s specilized phrse tht introduces the nme of god or some other supernturl entity tht is impersonted y historicl person (Houston nd Sturt 1996). The nme of the god or supernturl follows directly fter this introductory sttement, nd this in turn is lwys followed y the personl nme of the humn impersontor. Phonetic evidence in other inscriptions suggests tht the opening phrse of the cption, in the initil lock, hs full reding like u-h-il hn, where u-h is surely the common cption opener, (it is) the person, imge of (Houston nd Sturt 1998). The ddition of the -il suffix is difficult to explin, ut it lwys occurs when found with the numer tree element. Unfortuntely, its reding AHN (sed on the occsionl sustitution y the sequence -nu) remins oscure semnticlly. In this cption, therefore, we should expect two nmes to follow: first the nme of n impersonted entity, followed y the personl nme of historicl personge. This is in fct confirmed once we move to the second lock of the cption, where we come upon fmilir deity nme: YAX-NAAH-ITZAMNAAJ. This nme ppers in the min text of the south side t locks C7-D7, in reference to the god who oversw the erly ccession rite of GI on Ik 5 Mol. (There, the nme took slightly different form YAX-NAAHhi ITZAMNAAJ-ji eing divided etween two glyph locks.) The second nme of the cption lwys follows directly fter the first, nd in the third lock we find the true nme of the figure seted efore the ruler, spelled JANAB-AJAW. The fourth nd finl glyph of the cption, s we shll soon see, is his title. If other exmples of this u-h-il hn impersontion phrse re ny indiction, we would expect the portrit of Jn Ajw to show him in some sort of deity msk or costume. Sometimes the deity regli worn y person is more sutle, however, nd here it seems tht the mn s heddress shows enough to identify him s n vtr or representtive of Itzmnj. As we hve seen, the hedger of Jn Ajw is the hed of the Principl Bird Deity, one of the most importnt figures of My mythology, who seems to hve een Clssic-er counterprt to the upstrt solr ird Vuqu Cquix of the Popol Vuh. 40 When we soon discuss the ruler s own interesting portrit nd ttire, we will see tht this impersontion of Itzmnj y Jn Ajw is closely tied to the opening pssge of the mythologicl nrrtive presented in the pltform s text. 40 The connection etween the Principl Bird Deity nd Vuqu Cquix of the Popol Vuh hs een known for mny yers, nd ws estlished primrily through rtistic scenes with cler connections to the lter K iche epic. A fmous Clssic period vessel (K1226) now in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, depicts n ovious scene from the Popol Vuh nrrtive, with the Principl Bird Deity flling from tree, shot y the young lowgunner Jun Ajw (Hunhpu) (M. Coe 1990). The ird ppers to hve lost its lower ek or mndile, suggesting gin connection to the description of the wounded Vuqu Cquix. The imge of descending Principl Bird Deity without its lower ek is proly the sis for mny royl heddresses seen in Clssic My rt. The finl glyph in the nme cption seems vrint of the nded ird title ccompnying the other two individuls in Portrits A nd B, ut here it is qulified y the ddition of AJAW, proly indicting tht he ws the highest rnking of this clss or ctegory of individul. The ird is not visile here, ut the distinctive heddress sign is clerly given in comintion with -t, common suffix on the ird s hed. The very sme Jn Ajw is nmed on the frgmented hieroglyphic pnel recovered from Structure 16 nd now dued the K n Tok Pnel (Bernl Romero 1999) (Figure 86). Tht importnt nd lte inscription provides list of ccessions of individuls into wht my e the suordinte nded ird office. Severl Plenque rulers oversw these inugurtions over centuries of locl history, nd during the reign of K inich K n Joy Chitm, the immedite predecessor of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, we red of the fstening of the hednd onto Jn Ajw on the dy Men 13 K nk in. This dte comes just over three yers efore the ccession of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, the depiction of which we hve on the pltform. Jn Ajw is nmed on the K n Tok pnel with the fscinting title phrse U-MAM K INICH- JANAB-PAKAL, or u-mm K inich Jn Pkl, (he is) the grndson of K inich Jn Pkl. If this is so, Jn Ajw must e the offspring of one of the two sons of Pkl who ruled efore K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, or else some other child of Pkl ( dughter?) now lost from the historicl record. K inich Ahkl Mo Nh ws himself likely grndchild of Pkl, directly descended through Tiwol Chn Mt. Jn Ajw ws thus t lest cousin of the newly instlled king. Portrit D The fourth nd centrl figure of the south side is the ruler K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, shown lening forwrd to receive the hednd held forth y Jn Ajw (Figure 87). As noted t the eginning of this chpter, these two figures t the center of this scene re shown in stndrd presenttion rrngement known elsewhere in Plenque rt. Their centrl role in the scene is lso reflected in the shred use of the u h-il hn impersontion phrse to introduce their respective nmes. Both Jn Ajw nd the king, it seems, re in Figure 86. Pssge from the K n Tok pnel (G6-H8), recording the officetking y Jn Ajw.

62 120 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The People 121 Figure 88. The Heron-with-fish in GI iconogrphy: () T. XIX pltform, (-c) Tikl region, Erly Clssic cche vessels (from Hellmuth 1987:A. 76, 81), (d) shell crving (iid.:a. 361). Figure 87. Temple XIX pltform, Portrit D nd nme cption. c d the guise of deities. We hve seen in our discussion of the previous portrit nd nme cption tht Jn Ajw here ssumes the role of Yx Nh Itzmnj, the overseer of GI s mythicl ccession to office on 9 Ik 5 Mol. It should not come s too much of surprise, then, to red in this royl nme phrse reference to GI, immeditely fter the impersontion phrse nd efore the king s personl nme. The scene of the south side is, we recll, re-cretion or reenctment of GI s ccession nerly four millenni erlier, nd of course we hve lredy seen in Chpter 3 tht this connection ws mde cler through numerous textul, clendricl, stronomicl, nd numerologicl prllels. Given wht we red in the cption, the heddress in the king s portrit ought to present some visul connection to GI, nd despite some missing portions we do clerly see tht the forehed emellishments of the hedger include the hed of wter ird holding fish in its ek (Figure 88). The neck of the ird, perhps cormornt or heron, emerges from the top of n jw medllion tht looks to hve een prt of eded jde hednd. This wter ird imge is in fct key element in the iconogrphic progrm tht ccompnies GI throughout the Clssic period. In numerous GI portrits on Erly Clssic Cche vessels, for exmple, the ird nd the fish frequently emerge from the god s heddress (Figure 88-c). A lte exmple of the sme reltionship is found on Stel 2 from Seil, where the ird rests top the full stnding portrit of GI (Figure 89). The jw medllion with its order of dots is lso clerly ssocited with GI, s seen in Erly Clssic nme phrses where it is routinely comined with the NAAH sign nd hnd (K AB?) (Figure 90). K inich Ahkl Mo Nh therefore is shown s humn version or emodiment of the deity GI. The third glyph of the king s cption is unusul ut my e nlyzed s vrint of the title y-ajaw-te -K INICH, or Yjwte K inich, comintion found t Plenque nd other sites, sometimes even s royl nme. Becuse of its plcement here, Yjwte K inich ppers to e some type of elortion on the simple term K INICH tht is so consistently prt of the royl nme, for in the next lock we find the proper nme AHK-l-MO -NAHB without this customry prefix. In other Plenque inscriptions such s the Tlet of the 96 Glyphs, we find slightly different spellings of Yjwte K inich efore kings nmes, providing still further exmples of this curious ssocition of titles (Figure 91). The ruler crries two other royl titles with his nme, Figure 89. Seil, Stel 2 (drwing y In Grhm from Grhm 1996:15).

63 122 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The People 123 c d e Figure 90. Expnded nme phrses of GI, showing ssocition with the dotted jw sign: () Uxctun, cche vessel (drwn fter Smith 1955, II:Fig. 7), () Collections, Erly Clssic celt (drwing y Dorie Reents-Budet), (c) Tikl, Stel 31, A24-B24 (from Jones nd Stterthwite 1982:Fig. 52). Figure 91. The title Yjwte K inich in royl nmes t Plenque: () T. XXI pltform, () Tlet of the Ortor, C1-D2 (drwing y Lind Schele), (c) Tlet of the 96 Glyphs, E4-E5, (d) Plce sl, pi-pj (from Schele nd Mthews 1979:No. 37), (e) Tlet of the 96 Glyphs, I3-J3 (drwing y Lind Schele). c Holy Lord of Bkl (the Emlem Glyph) nd, most importntly, the xe-wielding Chk imge in the lst glyph, proly red KALOM-TE. This ws one of the most importnt titles for supreme rulers, found prominently t Tikl, Copn, Clkmul, nd Yxchiln, s well s Plenque. No other exmple is known to exist, however, with the nme of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. Portrit E Seted ehind K inich Ahkl Mo Nh we find mn with the fmilir nme yo-ko-?-tal (Figure 92). This is his third ppernce so fr in our overview of the Temple XIX texts, s he ppered lso in the text of the lfrd nd in nother portrit on the lrge stone pnel, s the kneeling figure t lower right. This mn, lwys ering the yjw k hk title, is clerly mjor protgonist ssocited with Temple XIX, nd I think he proly served s ritul specilist or officil for this specific uilding. The spelling of the title, y-j-w-k AHK, once more differs slightly (see Figure 7). As noted erlier, these spellings vry in sutle wys, differing minly in their use of full or truncted forms of the K AHK logogrph nd in the lterntion of the AJAW hed logogrph with syllic spelling. All versions spell the sme title Yjw K hk, Lord of Fire. To understnd this person s role s court functionry nd ttendnt to the king, we must step ck somewht nd discern wht we cn of the specil Lord of Fire title, for it ppers with other nmes t Plenque nd other sites. During the reign of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh there ws t lest one other nole with this title, ering the fmilir nme Chk Suutz, fetured in the text of the Tlet of the Slves. The centrl figure of this tlet hs long een thought to e Chk Suutz, since he is the protgonist of the text ove, ut there is good evidence now to identify him s the king K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, flnked y his mother nd fther (Wld 1997). In ddition to eing yjw k hk, Chk Suutz is nmed s sjl, nother suordinte title ssocited with militry figures nd outlying governors in the western My re. Figure 92.Temple XIX pltform, Portrit E nd nme cption. See lrger photogrph t end of chpter.

64 124 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The People 125 Figure 93. Accession of yjw k hk nole, from the Group IV censer stnd (drwing y Lind Schele). Figure 94. Goggles in the heddresses of yjw k hk lords: () Plenque Group IV censer stnd, () Temple XIX stone pnel (drwings y Mrk Vn Stone.) it is of specil importnce with certin nmes there. The hieroglyphic forms of the title vry only slightly, usully either y-j-w-k AHK or y-ajaw-k AHK, with AJAW sometimes tking vried forms. The K AHK reding of the finl smoke element is confirmed y the occsionl ddition of k complement. Like other suordinte titles, yjw k hk ppers s possessed noun, prefixed y U-, on Piedrs Negrs, Stel 12. Here it interposes etween two nmes, the first pprently of cptive (following the ver chuhk-()j-iiy, he ws cptured ) nd the second of foreign ruler. The cptured individul ws therefore the yjw k hk of higher-rnking lord, suggesting tht the title crries certin connottion of politicl or socil sttus. It is possile tht Yok? Tl is portryed gin on the smll tlet frgment from Group XVI (Figure 95). A portion of his nme (yo-ok-? ) is perhps just discernile t the lower left of the frgment, where it identifies the mn who stnds ehind the king nd looks off to the left. It seems likely tht yjw k hk ws yet nother office held y certin elites of Plenque s royl court. An importnt inscription on stone censer stnd excvted in Group IV cites n erlier ccession of nole nmed Aj Sul (AJ-su-lu) into this sttus, on , under the uspices of Jn Pkl (Figure 93). 41 It is hrd to know if more thn one individul could occupy the yjw k hk position t ny one time, ut it remins possile tht this junior office ws reserved for one lord, s seems likely for the nded ird jw position. Chk Suutz ws lso yjw k hk under the reign of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, ut his known dtes fll slightly efore those of the Temple XIX protgonist. They my hve een successive office holders, or else rough contemporries of the sme sttus. The portrit of Aj Sul on the Group IV incensrio shows distinctive heddress with two lrge goggles, very similr to the devices shown on wrrior portrits in My rt ut with likely origins in Teotihucn militry costume (Figure 94). Yok? Tl, the yjw k hk of Temple XIX, likewise displys lrge goggles on his forehed in oth of his portrits, suggesting tht these re distinctive ccoutrements of the office. Yjw k hk ppers in the inscriptions of severl sites of the western nd northern lowlnds (see Figure 7). Most exmples outside of Plenque come from Chichen Itz, where 41 The Jn Pkl cited on the Group IV censer stnd is not the fmous king K inich Jn Pkl ut rther the enigmtic figure sometimes clled Pcl I nd portryed s n ncestor on the srcophgus lid. The dte cme nerly five yers efore the ccession of the noted twelve-yer-old king, nd out two yers efore the inugurtion of the historicl? Muwn Mt, who, s we will discuss lter in this work, riefly ruled in the wke of Plenque s defet y Clkmul on Jn Pkl ws never Plenque ruler ut must hve held some sort of uthorittive position somewhere during the reign of Aj Neh Yohl Mt, who ws Plenque s Holy Lord t the time. It is importnt to rememer tht K inich Jn Pkl ws not the son of Plenque ruler, nd tht his ppernce t Plenque my hve een something of n outside intrusion resulting from mjor disruption of the locl dynsty t the time of the Clkmul conflict. Jn Pkl ws evidently his direct ncestor, possily fther of K n Hix Mo or Ix Sk K uk (Schele 1992), ut there is no reson to ssume he lived t Plenque proper s memer of Aj Neh Yohl Mt s court or close fmily. As for the mn nmed Aj Sul, he ssumed the office of yjw k hk during this unstle time in Plenque s history nd soon efore the inugurtion of K inich Jn Pkl. He evidently lived to ecome n importnt figure in Plenque s politicl nd militry scene s lte s , when he prticipted in n event recorded on the suterrneos throne support. He is lso nmed on reused lock from the North Group, prt of lrger frieze tht once depicted militristic episode in the reign of K inich Jn Pkl. Figure 95. Miniture tlet from Group XVI.

65 126 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The People 127 Figure 96. Temple XIX pltform, Portrit F nd nme cption. See lrger photogrph t end of chpter. Figure 97. Comprison of two nmes: () Srcophgus of Pkl (drwing y Merle Greene Roertson), () Group IV censer stnd (drwing y Mrk Vn Stone). Portrit F Continuing long the south side of the pltform, we encounter the second of three seted figures shown to the right, or ehind, the enthroned ruler. This mn s nme is written with two glyphs plced to the upper left of the scene, ner the right pnel of the min inscription: y- YAX-s-j-l m-k --j-te (Figure 96). The nme is semnticlly very oscure, lthough the initil spelling y-yax- proly indictes the reduplicted color djective yyx, green or very green. The term sjl my e the suordinte title, ut the ddition of the djective here mkes it n unusul form, if so. The second glyph displys n interesting visul rrngement of signs, where m nd k re conflted nd is reduced within the rounded prt of TE. I hve no trnsltion to offer for the comintion (*mäk is proto-ch oln root for et soft things ), ut it is reminiscent of nother nme known from erlier Plenque history. During the reign of K inich Jn Pkl, n importnt suordinte lord incorported the sme sequence in his nme, written in full s yuku m-k --TE on the srcophgus lid of the Temple of the Inscriptions, nd lso cited on the stone censer found in Group IV (Figure 97). In the censer text (Figure 97) the nme is slightly different in hving the dditionl element -j efore the finl -TE suffix, mking further connection to the nme of Portrit F on the pltform. Perhps the phrse is n emedded verl form (mk -()-j te?) used s nme, ut it is difficult to nlyze morphologiclly if so. In ny event, the nme on the pltform is certinly different enough in its full form to distinguish it from the nme of this erlier figure from Pkl s time, though it is perfectly conceivle tht they were kin reltions. The lck of ny discernile title with this individul is likely due to his more junior rnk within the depicted gthering of nolemen. Portrit G The lst figure on the south fce of the pltform (Figure 98) ers nme written in three locks: MUWAAN-ni ch-nu-l -AHN?, likely red s Muwn Chnul Ahn(?). Only the reding of the finl element (the numer tree ) presents question, due to the lck of ny relile semntic gloss for the term n or hn (see the cption of Portrit C for nother exmple of its use). As for the other components of the nme, muwn is hwk, in ddition to eing month nme. 42 Chnul is complex lexeme with menings tht include niml in Tzeltl nd Tzotzil, nd it is proly cognte of knul, Yuctecn term for gurdin. Muwn Chnul Ahn seems to constitute his full nme, for none of the terms re known to serve s ny sort of title. Like the person in front of him, he is seted ehind the ruler nd ppers to occupy the most suordinte position within the gthering of noles. The lck of title with his nme presumly reflects this lower socil position. The unusul hnds of Muwn Chnul Ahn my indicte physicl deformity, perhps condition s severe s cromegly, first recognized y Roertson, Scndizzo, nd Scndizzo (1976) in the nturlistic portrits of Ix Sk K uk from the sides of K inich Jn Pkl s srcophgus (Figure 99). This syndrome is indicted y severl dignostic criteri, including n enlrged hed with n elongted jw nd enlrged spde-like hnds. If we recll our discussion of the stone tlet from Temple XIX, there is the intriguing possiility tht the left kneeling figure there is the sme mn, shown in fr more elegnt light (see Figure 23). His fcil 42 The species identifiction of the MUWAAN ird is very likely hwk. In Yuctec mon is screech owl (Thompson 1950:114), ut hwk is more directly indicted y the entry muhn, giln, milno, in Morn s Ch olti word list (Morn 1935:32) nd in Wisdom s (1950) Ch orti lexicon. Despite the linguistic miguity, the imge of the glyph is tht of rptoril ird possily consuming nother, smller vin within its ek (or is it n imge of young htchling feeding from the gullet of its prent?). Figure 98. Temple XIX pltform, Portrit G nd nme cption. See lrger photogrph t end of chpter.

66 128 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The People 129 Figure 101. Exmples of Wterlily Pd sign from vrious inscriptions: () T. XIX pltform, () nme of royl womn on lintel from the Yxchiln re (drwing y John Montgomery), (c) prole plce nme, Yxchiln, Lnt. 41 (from Grhm 1979:91). c fetures re vguely similr to the mn shown on the pltform nd, most remrkly, his fingers seem short nd lcking nils. Portrit H Figure 99. Portrit of Ix Sk K uk from the srcophgus of the Temple of the Inscriptions, Plenque (drwing y Merle Greene Roertson). Moving on to the west side of the pltform, the left-hnd figure, fcing wy from his two compnions, is nmed with three hieroglyphs reding AJ-?-HA -l ch o-ko? (Figure 100). I m uncertin if true personl nme is to e found mong ny of these three locks. The first glyph ers the gentive prefix AJ- efore possile toponym tht includes the term h, wter. The intervening element resemling wterlily pd hs no secure vlue, lthough few exmples re known from other texts (Figure 101). The middle glyph of the nme phrse spells ch ok, youth, emergent one, which in other contexts often serves s title for junior memers of the royl fmily. Finlly, nd most perplexingly, the third glyph is single sign representing heron eting fish identicl in ll respects to its three ppernces in the stucco text of Temple XIX s pier. In tht text, the heron-with-fish sign seems to serve s logogrm, perhps with role s ver root; its presence here s prt of personl nme or s title is strnge indeed. The connection etween this lord nd the scene on the pier, if one exists, is unknown. Portrit I Figure 100. Temple XIX pltform, Portrit H nd nme cption. See lrger photogrph t end of chpter. The centrl nd min figure of the west side holds lrge undle of coiled rope nd gestures towrd the seted mn t his left (Figure 102). His imge surely must correspond to the ritul nmed rope-tking cited throughout the Temple XIX inscriptions, including the nery Pssge W-4. The cption ove his fce reds: s-j-l 9-n o-ki-i AJ-3-TE -K UH, Slj Bolon Oki Aj Uxte k uh, nd the personl nme within this phrse, Slj Bolon, is lso recorded twice in the min inscription on the west side. As we hve seen, the nme is written t C4 nd E4 of the west side using slightly different spellings: s-j-l-9 in one cse nd s-l-j-9 in nother. The form of the nme in the cption strongly indictes tht Slj Bolon is the preferred reding, which is now perhps confirmed y yet nother cittion s s-l-j-9 on the Temple XXI pltform. The cption nme is somewht expnded y using -n hed s suffix to the numer 9, surely s phonetic complement to olon. Slj Bolon key plyer in the story of this uilding, it seems ws involved in three different rituls cited in the Temple XIX nd XXI texts: (1) on the K tun ending , he prticipted in some ceremony involving GI of the Trid; (2) on , he prticipted in rope-tking rite, proly corresponding to the scene of the west side, nd (3) he hd some

67 130 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The People 131 Figure 102. Temple XIX pltform, Portrit I nd nme cption. oscure role in the celertions of the Period Ending , s cited in n incomplete record on Temple XXI s pltform. His connection to the king nd his court remins oscure, ut clues to his identity my come from the lst two glyphs of the cption, o-ki-i (oki) nd AJ-3-TE -K UH (Aj Uxte k uh). Oki is term we hve come cross mny times, of course, s prole term for pedestl, in reference to the pltforms of Temples XIX nd XXI. As discussed erlier, however, oki in ssocition with personl nmes my indicte different word ltogether, s confusing s this my t first seem. The spellings of the two glyphs (yo-ko-i-li nd o-ki-i) re slightly different in their use ko nd ki, which is possily more of distinction thn would e expected if one word were simply the possessed form of the other. I hesitte to suggest tht the words re unrelted, ut for now I prefer to tret them s seprte terms. Oki occurs, s we hve seen, s possile title for K inich Ahkl Mo Nh in the ccession record in Pssge S-7. Likewise we find the term in connection with Upkl K inich in one of the texts newly discovered in Temple XXI, ssocited with n erly event in his life tht occurred during the reign of K inich K n Joy Chitm. Tken together with the two cses of Slj Bolon hving this oki designtion (the other eing from Temple XXI lso), we hve totl of three erers of the title, none eing estlished s rulers when they hold it. As Bernl Romero hs pointed out, the new pltform from Temple XXI hs key piece of evidence in understnding the nture of the oki title. There, the cption to the portrit of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh sys Oki u ch ok k K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, or Oki is the youth nme of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. If the pttern of its ppernce with pre-rulers wsn t cler enough, this single exmple estlishes tht Oki ws considered pre-ccession designtion for this future king, shown in ritul tht occurred fr efore his own inugurtion. (The scene on the Temple XXI pltform tlet surely corresponds to the opening Long Count dte, Ajw 3 Yx, the first in the series of three dtes recorded on the stucco pier.) One must wonder then if Slj Bolon, eing the oki t the time of the dediction of Temples XIX nd XXI, ws in line to ssume the throne fter K inich Ahkl Mo Nh nd his son or rother Upkl K inich. He my in fct e the young K inich K uk Bhlm (who ssumed power on Mnik 15 Wo), ut this is fr too rsh specultion to sustin until further evidence comes to light. The other importnt title crried y Slj Bolon in this cption is Aj Uxte k uh, He of Three Gods. This sme term occurs t Plenque with the nme of Ldy Ix Kinuw Mt, the mother of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, nd lso in the nme of Yx Itzm At, the ncestrl figure nmed in the opening pssge of the pltform s west side. Interestingly, oth the Oki nd Aj Uxte k uh titles pper together with Yx Itzm At. Beyond Plenque, we find Aj Uxte k uh lso cited t Tortuguero nd on the Yomop stel (Figure 103). Although it is tempting to relte this title to the Plenque Trid, it seems Three Gods my well hve een plce nme of some loclity in the generl Plenque region, ut its identity remins elusive. Portrit J c d Figure 103. The title Aj Uxte k uh t Tortuguero nd vicinity: () Tortuguero, M.6 (drwing y In Grhm), () lrge stone erspool proly of Tortuguero origin (drwing y Berthold Riese), (c) sculptor s nme from the Yomop pnel (drwing y Nikoli Grue), (d) T. XXI pltform. The third nd right-most figure on the west side hs nother fscinting nme phrse, nd gin it is without known prllels in other Plenque inscriptions (Figure 104). The four glyphs tht comprise the cption re YAX-?-n 2 o-l-ajaw ch o-ko SUUTZ -AJAW. I suspect tht the first two re the personl nme, nd tht he is then nmed s the ch ok jw, or junior lord, of plce or polity designted simply with the t logogrm (SUUTZ ). The nme itself presents some difficulties: following YAX- the min element of the first lock resemles the sign I hve suggested reds TAK (often plurlizing suffix), ut here the use seems quite different, nd the drkened htching inside the sign my suggest seprte sign ltogether. The -n suffix seems lso indictive of different logogrm, so s yet the nme remins incompletely red. In the second lock we see the rre use of the douler, or the two smll dots tht scries used s mrker to repet certin signs in the locks to which they re ttched (see

68 132 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The People 133 Sturt nd Houston 1994:Fig. 57). Here it is next to the syllle o nd efore l with the intended results o-o-l (o ol?) or o-l-l (oll). I hve no preference to propose etween these, given tht no similr forms of this nme or title pper in inscriptions elsewhere. In ll, the identity of this fellow remins mystery. e Figure 104. Temple XIX pltform, Portrit J nd nme cption. f c d Figure 105. Vrints of the nded ird title from Plenque nd other sites: () T. XIX pltform, () Plenque, Tlet of the Folited Cross, M11, (c) Tortuguero, Monument 8, (d) Nj Tunich, Drwing 52, A8 (drwing y Brr McLeod from Stone 1995:Fig. 7-2), (e) wooden ox from Tortuguero region (drwing y Dvid Sturt fter M. Coe 1974), (f) Plenque, Group XVI stucco glyph (drwing y Mrk Vn Stone). Figure 106. The seting of Tortuguero nole nmed Aj K x Bhlm into the nded ird sttus, from n inscried wooden ox of unknown provennce (drwing y Dvid Sturt fter M. Coe 1974). The Bnded Bird Title The sme nded ird glyph we find with severl of the nmes in Temple XIX hppens to pper in numer of other texts oth in nd wy from Plenque (Figure 105). According to severl writers (Freidel, Schele, nd Prker 1993:94-95; M. Coe nd Kerr 1997:135), it is vrint of the ITZ AT glyph used s designtion for scries nd rtisns (D. Sturt 1989), which otherwise depicts the supernturl monkey-scrie ptron first identified y Michel Coe (1977). The resemlence etween the two is slight, however. Both glyphs routinely tke the suffixes -ti or -t, ut the hed signs never truly sustitute in ny known setting. I therefore prefer to see the nded ird t Plenque nd elsewhere s distinct term, stnding for some undeciphered title pplied to importnt priests or memers of the royl court. This unknown title hs certin vgue ut interesting structurl similrities to jw, the generic term for lord or nole. For exmple, it is in some cses the office into which nolemen cn sometimes e seted, s recorded on the fmed wooden ox from the re of Tortuguero (Figure 106). There the inscription sttes tht one yer fter the ccession of the locl Tortuguero king Ik Muy Muwn, mn nmed Aj K x Bhlm ssumed the nded ird office, presumly s suordinte. At Seil, for exmple, the ird occurs with the prefix K UHUL- in glyph tht structurlly, t lest, resemles n Emlem Glyph (Figure 107). It nmes the ssocited nolemn s holy memer of some lrger sttus or sttion, much s in the uiquitous term k uhul jw. The sme comintion of k uhul with the nded ird is found in much erlier texts from Crcol nd Copn. In ddition, the pired deities known s the Pddlers lso tke the ird title in inscriptions from the neighoring sites of Ixtutz nd Scul, where they re clled the NAAH-5-CHAN Bird - ti in plce of the fr more common plce nme title Nhho chn Ajw, Lord(s) of Nhho chn ( the First Five Hevens?) (Sturt nd Houston 1994:71) (Figure 108). Evidently, t certin sites nd t certin times, the nded ird cme to e used in wy similr to jw, lthough it must hve held some importnt distinction from such very generl term for elites. Even though I dout erlier suggestions tht this title is n lternte spelling of itz t, I dmit to hving no lterntive reding. The common suffixes -ti or -t clerly serve s phonetic complements for Figure 107. The nded ird title t Seil with the prefix Ch uhul, Holy : () Stel 7, A1-A4 (drwing y In Grhm from Grhm 1996:25), () Stel 6, B6 (iid.:23).

69 134 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The People 135 c Figure 108. A prllel use of the nded ird nd jw from titles for the Pddler Gods: () Scul, Stel 1, B6-C6 (inked from field drwing y In Grhm, CMHI), () Ixkun, St. 2, C12, D12 (from Grhm 1980:141), (c) Tonin, M.42, pd, pe (from Grhm nd Mthews 1996:90). the logogrm, ut no other clues to the nded ird sign s vlue re pprent. Two exmples cited t Tortuguero represent the distinctive hedscrf lone, without the ird s hed, nd suffixed y -t (Figure 105c, e). This distinctive hedscrf is sometimes found on humn portrits, lthough it seems more common in Erly Clssic representtions such s the Uxctun murls, where it my e dignostic costume element for holders of this title (Figure 109). Returning to Plenque, there re numer of possile nded ird titles cited on the tlet known s the K n Tok Pnel. Uncovered in excvtions in Group XVI, ehind nd to the north of the Temple of the Cross (González Cruz nd Bernl Romero 2000), this lte tlet records series of consecutive ccessions into the sttus represented y the nded ird title. The first occurred in the remote eginnings of Plenque s dynsty, during the fifth-century reign of K uk Bhlm I, nd t lest nine successive holders of this title re nmed, leding up to the time of the pnel s dediction. In ech instnce Plenque king oversees (u-kj-iiy) the ccession event. 43 The term for the office in ll of these ccession records is unusul, ut I elieve it to e relted, perhps even grphic vrint, of the nded ird. The hedscrf element is 43 The dtes on the K n Tok pnel hve een reconstructed y Mthews s: Ajw 18 Muwn Muluk 7 Muwn Chuwen 19 Sk Mnik 15 Ch en Lmt 1 Keh K n 17 Sek Men 3 Yxk in Ben 16 Kumk u Muluk 2 K y K n 12 Px I suggest slightly different (nd less complete) reconstruction of the dtes s:? Chuwen 19 Sk? Mnik 15 Ch en?? Lmt 1 Yx? Kn 7 Mk Men 13 K nk in Ben 16 Kumk u Muluk 2 K y Figure 109. Exmples of the rimmed hedscrf in Erly Clssic My rt: () incised drwing on vessel from Río Azul (drwing y Dvid Sturt, sed on photogrph y George Sturt; see Adms 1999:Fig 3-26), () Uxctun murls from Structure B-XIII (from Morley 1946:Pl. 50). redily discernile s superfix. Moreover, the min element elow the superfix is known elsewhere to lternte with the very sme ird hed from the title. The connection seems further strengthened y the ffixtion shred y oth glyphs (Figure 110), including the very unusully preposed term jw (Figure 110c). The equivlence is lso strongly supported y the cittion in the K n Tok inscription of Jn Ajw s the nole who cceded into this position on Men 13 Knkin, under the uspices of K inich K n Joy Chitm. He ws, it will e reclled, the principl figure who ers vrint of the nded ird title on the Temple XIX pltform, nd there gin in comintion with AJAW. Unfortuntely, the complex vrints nd ffixtion ptterns (oth -t nd -w re common) leve little room to suggest good phonetic reding for the nded ird. c Figure 110. Comprison of the office cited on the K n Tok pnel with the nded ird title: () K n Tok pnel (C9-D9), () T. XVIII stucco glyph (drwing y Lind Schele), (c) T. XVI stucco glyph (drwing y Mrk Vn Stone).

70 136 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The People 137 The precise role of this office remins oscure, yet we find possile vrint of the nded ird t oth Plenque nd Yxchiln in ssocition with ttendnt lords nd noles, much s we find in Temple XIX (Figure 111). One sculpture from Dos Pils my lso provide telling clue. Pnel 19 (Figure 112) depicts loodletting ceremony y child, evidently the son of the locl ruler we cll Ruler 3 (Houston 1993:115). Kneeling efore the child nd holding stingry spine is mn nmed Skjl Hix, who crries in his nme phrse the nded ird title. He thus holds the ritul implement t the center of the ceremony, much s Jn Ajw t Plenque holds the royl hednd efore the seted king. In this light, perhps it is significnt tht Group XVI, where the tlet ws discovered, lies djcent to the Tlet of the Cross, s if it were n ncillry uilding of some sort. With its mny rooms nd pprently specilized spces, one wonders if the Group XVI complex served s plce for the storge nd keeping of ritul ojects nd implements used in the ceremonil ctivities of the Cross Group. 1-3 J K L M 1 A B C D E F G H Figure 111. A possily relted office term from Plenque nd Yxchiln: () glyphs from n inscried osidin lde, Temple of the Folited Cross, Plenque (drwing y Luci Henderson, fter Ruz Lhuillier 1958:Lm. LII), () womn s nme (Ix Ajpyk ) with title, from Plenque censer stnd (from Schele nd Mthews 1979), (c) kneeling lord with title in cption ove, from Yxchiln, Stel 7 (drwing y In Grhm). c The Historicl Chrcters The numerous individuls depicted on the two sides of the Temple XIX pltform present the most detiled view known of Plenque s royl court. Curiously most of them re still mysterious chrcters, nd their specific roles within the court society re difficult if not impossile to discern. Oviously there is n importnt hierrchy indicted mong the prticipnts in the ccession scene, in prticulr, where Jn Ajw seems to e singled out s the most prominent officil of ll. He ctively instlls K inich Ahkl Mo Nh s ruler rre nd importnt clue out the role of politicl suordintes in the ctul ceremony of inugurtion. Also of key importnce is the protgonist of mny of Temple XIX s inscriptions, Yok? Tl, lthough his reltionship with the king s his yjw k hk remins s mysterious s ever. N Figure 112. Dos Pils, Pnel 19 (drwing y Dvid Sturt, from Houston 1993:Fig. 4-19) Perhps most intriguing of ll is Slj Bolon, the junior nole who prticipted in severl of the house dediction ceremonies, nd who is depicted on the west side receiving the rope. I suspect Slj Bolon will emerge s mjor historicl figure in the future history of the kingdom, perhps even s successor to Upkl K inich. This rings up the finl question of why Upkl K inich is not depicted mong the ttendnts on the throne, given his pprent proximity to K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, his portrit on the stucco pnel, nd lso his prominence in nery Temple XXI. No good explntion comes to mind, except perhps tht of the two temples dedicted t this time, Temples XIX nd XXI, Upkl K inich ws more closely ffilited with the ltter. These ll re difficult issues tht hopefully will e sorted out through discoveries of new texts nd historicl rt. 1 O

71 138 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter Nme 139 Portrit A from the Temple XIX pltform, south fce. Portrit B from the Temple XIX pltform, south fce.

72 Portrit C from the Temple XIX pltform, south fce. Portrit D from the Temple XIX pltform, south fce.

73 142 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter Nme 143 Portrit E from the Temple XIX pltform, south fce. Portrit F from the Temple XIX pltform, south fce.

74 144 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter Nme 145 Portrit G from the Temple XIX pltform, south fce. Portrit H from the Temple XIX pltform, west fce.

75 146 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Chpter Nme 147 Portrit I from the Temple XIX pltform, west fce. Portrit J from the Temple XIX pltform, west fce.

76 K inich Ahkl Mo Nh: His Nme Glyphs nd Historicl Setting 149 Chpter 5. K inich Ahkl Mo Nh: His Nme Glyphs nd Historicl Setting The royl protgonist of the Temple XIX inscriptions is K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, who reigned from Ik 5 Ky (Decemer 30, A.D. 721) to some time fter Ajw 8 Ch en (July 22, 736), the finl dte recorded on the pltform nd the ltest ssocited with him. He ws significnt Plenque ruler, yet thus fr hs seemed somewht less prominent thn his predecessors who uilt mny of the mjor well-preserved uildings of the site s center. The excvtions of Temples XIX nd XXI now ring K inich Ahkl Mo Nh into more prominent light, nd there is good reson to elieve tht future excvtions in stillnonymous structures round Plenque will revel more out this king nd the poorly understood time in which he lived nd reigned. Before the discoveries in Temple XIX our principle sources of informtion out this ruler were hndful of texts found in the Plce, including the Tlet of the 96 Glyphs, in ddition to two inscriptions from Temple XVIII. His ccession dte ws identified long go y Berlin (1968). Previously, his only known portrit ws the Tlet of the Slves (Wld 1997), where he is shown flnked y his mother nd fther (Figure 113). As we hve seen, his fther Tiwol Chn Mt ws not himself king, ut proly son of K inich Jn Pkl nonetheless. This of course rises numer of questions out the fmily connections etween K inich Ahkl Mo Nh nd the previous three rulers who, if we re correct in our reconstruction of kin reltions, were his grndfther (K inich Jn Pkl) nd two uncles (K inich Kn Bhlm nd K inich K n Joy Chitm). K inich Ahkl Mo Nh is therefore n enigmtic king in mny wys, nd the new texts from Temple XIX hve helped to resolve t lest few of the puzzling issues surrounding him. One of the more importnt new developments is refined reding of his nme glyph, which s presented here is slightly modified from previous decipherments. The Royl Nme Heinrich Berlin clled this ruler Suject C when he estlished the essentil outline of Figure 113. The Tlet of the Slves (drwing y Merle Greene Roertson). Plenque s Lte Clssic dynsty in three rillint studies (Berlin 1959, 1965, 1968). 44 Berlin lso correctly mintined tht he ws the sme lord or ruler ffilited with Temple XVIII, who cceded to office on Ik 5 K y. In their lter study of the Plenque dynsty, Mthews nd Schele (1974) used the nme Lord Chcl for this sme king, sed upon the min cuc element (red here s ku) nd its supposed reltionships to the deity Chk. Susequent studies reveled tht two Erly Clssic Plenque rulers lso hd the sme 44 Mthews nd Schele (1974) summrized the rulers of Plenque s Lte Clssic nd gve them working nmes in Ch ol Myn, ut Berlin should receive fir credit for hving previously set forth the essentils of the dynstic history, which he pulished in three importnt ppers spnning decde (Berlin 1959, 1965, 1968). It is difficult to explin why Berlin hs received so little cknowledgment for these seminl contriutions, except to point out tht he ws customrily dry nd understted in his presenttion. He nevertheless ws very explicit in identifying nme glyphs of the mjor Erly nd Lte Clssic rulers s well s their likely ccession dtes. It is lso worth noting, perhps, tht Proskourikoff s personl copy of Berlin s 1968 pper on the Tlet of the 96 Glyphs (now in the offices of the Corpus of My Hieroglyphic Inscriptions Project t the Peody Museum) revels her own greement with Berlin. Among her hndwritten nnottions she wrote ccession y the three inugurl dtes of tht inscription.

77 150 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque K inich Ahkl Mo Nh: His Nme Glyphs nd Historicl Setting 151 c Figure 114. Principl vrints of the royl nme K inich Ahkl Mo Nh: () Tlet of the Ortor, D1-D2 (drwing y Lind Schele), () T. XXI pltform, cption, (c) Tlet of the 96 Glyphs, F4-E5 (drwing y Lind Schele), (d) T. XIX stone pnel, right cption, (e) T. XIX stone pnel, O7. royl nme (sns the K inich honorific prefix), resulting in threesome of Plencno rulers often cited in the literture s Chcl I, Chcl II, nd Chcl III. The Lte Clssic king s nme hs four essentil components, ech of which my hve few vrints (Figure 114): (1) The initil K inich honorific prefix used y ll Lte Clssic Plenque kings fter K inich Jn Pkl. This my tke the form of simple prefix or, t times, hed of the sun god with the K INICH ffix ttched to its ck side. As we hve seen, this cn e slightly elorted s Yjwte K inich. (2) Customrily the sign sequence -ku-l, which cn e replced y AHK-l using the turtle hed logogrm or, s in the newer exmples, turtle crpce for AHK. The lternte logogrms serve s wonderful confirmtion of the -ku decipherment s turtle, which I first proposed some yers go (D. Sturt 1987), replcing the syllic spelling for hk, turtle, s shown in severl other royl nmes of the Clssic period. The dishrmonic spelling -ku is perhps used to indicte the unusul nture of the internl vowel of the root hk (Houston, Roertson, nd Sturt 1998). In the Plenque nme, the presence of the -l suffix proly points to the pronuncition hk-l, rther thn hk-ul, since the ku syllle seems intrinsic to the spelling of the turtle root (lthough it should e sid tht this point is now eing deted mong severl epigrphers). We cn therefore trnscrie this portion of the nme s AHK-l, with the -l sign reversed to represent one of the common -Vl derivtionl suffixes. (3) In the mjority of exmples the next sign represents prrot s ek, shown sometimes s suffix to AHK-l. This hooked ek element hs long een red s, sed on few similr exmples of the fmilir T229, ut there re now strong indictions tht it is distinct element. As we hve seen, T229 is common in the nme of this ruler in spellings of -ku, ut its form is consistently differentited from the hook-like form. Interestingly, in the inscriptions of Copn, the hooked ek sign is used s shorthnd form of MO, mcw, s in the plce nme Mo Witz, Mcw Mountin. I hd considered tht perhps MO ws the true reding of this ek in the Plenque nme, yet confirmtion did not pper until the discovery of the Temple XIX texts, where n ovious mcw s hed ppers s fuller version of the ek. We cn therefore red Ahkl nd Mo s the first two prts of the nme. d e Figure 115. The irth of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, from the snctury jm tlets of Temple XVIII (drwing y Luci Henderson). (4) Lstly we find the common grouping n-i, usully directly fter the MO ek. This is replced in other contexts y logogrm red NAHB, for pool, lke. The logogrphic forms of NAHB ll emphsize the wterlily imge, usully s prt of lrger spotted winl form, the superfixed lossom of which (lwys red in finl position) cn lone serve s NAHB. In the Temple XIX exmples exhiiting the AHK in turtle shell form, we find the mcw hed drped y tendrils of wter lily pd, providing more iconogrphic imge of the sign. Tken s whole, then, we hve the resonly ccurte nme K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, possily with the literl nd utterly confounding mening of Gret Sun Turtle-Mcw Pool. Historicl Notes on K inich Ahkl Mo Nh Figure 116. The pre-ccession nme of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh from Plenque, Temple XVIII: () snctury jm, () stucco text (drwings y Luci Henderson). The irth dte of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh ppers prominently in Temple XVIII, where it opens the inscription of the snctury jm tlets, on the northern side (Figure 115). This is Lmt 6 Sk, dte first identified y Mthews nd Schele (1974). The nme of the ruler is in its pre-ccession form, written in tht inscription simply s the hed of crested lizrd (Figure 116). This nme lso occurs mong the jumled glyphs of the Temple XVIII stucco text (Schele nd Mthews 1979) with the interesting ddition of the prefixed syllles chu-lu-ku (Figure 116), seemingly for chuluk. In Ch orti, the sme word (churuk) is noun or djective for wrinkle(d). Both this nd the glyphic spelling re perhps relted to the Yuctec word tolok, mening lizrd. While tolok nd chuluk my seem quite dissimilr, they do disply well-ttested sound correspondences etween Yuctecn nd Ch oln phonologies (t/ch nd o/u). I would stress tht this nlysis remins tenttive, ut for the present I would like to entertin the possiility tht the young future king s nme ws in prt Chuluk, (Wrinkled) Lizrd. The irth pssge from the Temple XVIII jms includes n importnt reference to the fther of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh (Ringle 1996), Tiwol Chn Mt (or some slight vrition on this), who we hve lredy discussed somewht in Chpter 2 in connection with the pper-

78 152 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque K inich Ahkl Mo Nh: His Nme Glyphs nd Historicl Setting 153 Figure 117. The prentge sttement from the Temple XXI pltform. nce of his nme on the stone pnel of the Temple XIX pier. The mother of the king is not nmed in this irth pssge of the Temple XVIII jms (she does pper lter), ut her nme glyph ws included in the stucco inscription of the uilding. She lso ppers in full prentge sttement for K inich Ahkl Mo Nh recently discovered in the inscription of the Temple XXI pltform (Bernl Romero 2002) (Figure 117). She is lso nmed s the right-hnd figure portryed on the Tlet of the Slves, in the compny of her son, in the center of the composition, nd Tiwol Chn Mt, t left (Wld 1997). Tiwol Chn Mt ws never ruler of Plenque, ut there is strong circumstntil evidence tht he ws the third son of K inich Jn Pkl, nd thus the younger rother of the two noted silings who ruled in the wke of Pkl (Ringle 1996). Tiwol Chn Mt died on Etz n 6 Muwn, efore K inich Jn Pkl died, nd when the young K inich Ahkl Mo Nh ws only two yers of ge (or exctly ). Support for the three-rothers scenrio comes from the meger remins of the stucco scene from Temple XVIII, originlly decorting the wll elow the lengthy fllen text (Figure 118). Blom (1982:Fig. 81; Blom nd L Frge : ) first recorded the portions still dhering to the ck wll of the temple, nd virtully nothing ws left of the scene except for the crossed legs of seted lord nd the hed of nother figure to the left. The glyphic cptions surrounding these nd other figures were etter preserved, fortuntely, nd using them we cn redily identify few of the prticipnts in the scene. Moving from center to right (nd using Ringle s [1996:Fig. 9] designtions) the cptions re: J1, K1: AJ-pi-tzi- 2 l-ohl ch o-ko L1-3: [3]-?N-m-t ch o-ko M1-2: [?] CHAN-m-t ch o-ko Note tht ll nmes re ccompnied y the designtion ch ok, used for lords who hve yet to rech their potentil sttus s kings or, more like its use in modern lnguges, in reference to children. The first of the cptions is n unusul spelling of the common youth nme used for K inich Kn Bhlm, seen for exmple in the cptions of the smller of Figure 118. Remins of the scene from the rer wll of Temple XVIII, elow the originl hieroglyphic text (from Ruz Lhuillier 1958:Fig. 18). the two figures on the Cross tlets. The second nme ws recognized y Ringle (1996:56) s the youth nme of K inich K n Joy Chitm, nd the third s the nme of Tiwol Chn Mt. The order of the cptions indictes tht portrits of these three rothers were included in the scene, running left to right from the eldest to the youngest. The seted figure in the center my well hve een K inich Jn Pkl, ut no cption survived to confirm this. The evidence is indirect, yet I elieve the grouping of the nmes strongly supports Ringle s interprettion tht Tiwol Chn Mt ws the youngest son of Pkl, who died premturely. The dte within the scene is 5 Ajw 18 K y, which must correspond This comes only two yers efore the deth of Tiwol Chn Mt nd ner the close of the long reign of K inich Jn Pkl. All three rothers were dults t this time, nd Tiwol Chn Mt s own son the future K inich Ahkl Mo Nh hd only een orn scnt few months efore. Unfortuntely the ver fter the dte is missing, ut the suject in the next glyph is m-t-l- AJAW-w, the Mt(wi)l lord(s). Evidently some of the cptions in the scene record spoken words, rther like we find in some throne scenes on My vessels. The three surviving glyphs of column G, plced directly etween the seted lord nd the figure to his left, re: G1: ti-m-j G2: -wo-l G3: -TZ AK-u-ji The expression is relted to others found in inscriptions t Plenque nd elsewhere, nd is elorted from tim ohl, to stisfy someone. The Yuctecn counterprt is tem ol, mening literlly to stisfy one s hert. Here the glyphs spell the pssive form tihm-j -wohl, you re plesed, stisfied. The next glyph is somewht more opque, ut likely gives the derived trnsitive form -tz k-u-ji, you put them in order. I interpret the lrger sttement s tihm-j -wohl -tz k-u-ji, you re plesed (tht) you order them, nd suggest tht this utternce pertins directly to the three rothers shown lined up within the scene. It is not too fr-fetched to consider tht the scene represents the forml ordering of the succession of the three sons of K inich Jn Pkl, five or so yers short of his demise. The Temple XVIII jm inscription continues fter the record of the king s irth with mention of two pre-ccession events in the ruler s life, including n importnt ceremony he underwent on Ajw 8 Ch en, t the ge of out fourteen. The deer hoof verl

79 154 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque K inich Ahkl Mo Nh: His Nme Glyphs nd Historicl Setting 155 Figure 119. The deer hoof (k l my?) event in Plenque s texts: () Tlet of the Cross, C3, () T. XVIII jm (drwing y Luci Henderson), (c) Plce Tlet, E8 (drwing y Lind Schele). glyph tht mrks this ritul is known in other Plenque inscriptions, where it consistently ppers with young rulers-to-e well efore their setings in office (Figure 119) (see Joyce [2000:126] for recent discussion of such events). There is now specific evidence tht my led to reding of the event glyph. The ver usully shows K AL ( inding ) hnd (see D. Sturt 1996) with the deer hoof sign, which is lmost certinly red s MAY. 45 These two elements provide the essentil components of the expression, ut here nd in other spellings we find sign ffixes tht suggest fuller reding of k l myij, inding of the scrifice. The ritul term k l myij is one of few expressions from the Clssic sources tht record youthful inititions into the complex of royl ritul. Binding is highly importnt term in this context, for it would seem to imply significnt cyclicl or repetitious chrcter to the ceremony, much s in terms like k l-tuun, stone-inding, or k l-huun, hednd-inding. The term myij offering, scrifice, seems to hve een n ncient term for certin types of loodletting, including the pssing of cords through the tongue. 46 Another significnt youth ceremony is yx ch, the first pennce or the first cretion, recorded t Crcol nd Tikl, mong few other sites. The extrordinry scene from Pnel 19 t Dos Pils (see Figure 112), showing young oy letting lood from his genitls, my depict just such ceremony. The yers leding up to K inich Ahkl Mo Nh s inugurtion t the ge of forty-three re poorly understood, ut they were evidently time of some instility in the dynstic history of Plenque. A key event of this period ws the cpture of K inich K n Joy Chitm t the hnds of the Tonin ruler, s commemorted y Monument 122 t the victor s site (Figure 120). The dte is somewht difficult to determine from the surviving clendricl record on this Tonin pnel (see Schele 1992:97), nd none of the possile Long Count plcements fits nicely within the months efore K inich Ahkl Mo Nh s own ccession. However, Schele nd others hve opted for Ak l 16 Yx s the most likely plcement. Curiously, this precedes y nine yers the ltest dte we cn ssocite with the nme of K inich K n Joy Chitm, Men 3 Yx, which corresponds to the dediction of House AD, gllery on the north side of the Plce. Strnger still, the Plce Tlet records 45 The MAY vlue for the deerhoof ws suggested mny yers go y Schele (personl communiction 1979). I do not elieve she ever pulished the resoning for it, ut it ws sed minly on the mening of my s deer or horse s hoof in Yuctecn lnguges. Since then evidence sed on vrint spellings of myij, offering, scrifice, hs confirmed the MAY reding in my view. Moreover, the deerhoof ppers in the possessed noun U-MAY-y, for u-my, his tocco snuff. This glyph mrked t lest one smll cermic flsk ( so-clled poison ottle ) tht clerly served s snuff ottle. 46 This ssocition is confirmed y Yxchiln Stel 35, where the phrse u-h ti-myij, or (It is) her imge in the ct of myij, descries the loodletting depicted in the ccompnying scene elow. The references to myij scrifices t Plenque my refer to this specific method of loodletting, ut this is difficult to confirm. At ny rte, it should e rememered tht the rope-nd-tongue method ws not the exclusive prctice of femles, for young men re shown engged in the scrifice on polychrome vessel now t Dumrton Oks (K2783). Myij lso seems to serve s noun referring to instruments used in such scrifices. At Yxchiln, one wl from the uril of Ldy K l Xook is clled myijil k, scrifice one (spelled MAY-ji-li ki). And perhps relted to this is the wooden ox from the Tortuguero region, leled s y-otot u-myij (yo- OTOT-ti U-m-yi-ji). Interestingly, the spelling from Stel 35 t Yxchiln is MAY-yi-hi, where the distinction etween hi nd ji seems clouded, s in severl other spellings from the lter prt of the Lte Clssic. c B 1-3 Figure 120. Tonin, Monument 122 (drwing y In Grhm from Grhm nd Mthews 1999:153). tht the uilding is the house of figure or entity nmed Ux Yop Huun, Three Leves Hednd (Schele [1979, 1992] refers to him s 3 Jester God or Xoc ), with the event in some wy snctioned or overseen y K inich K n Joy Chitm. Lounsury (cited in Schele 1992:97) first suggested tht this ws n oscure Plenque ruler who followed K inich K n Joy Chitm, nd it is true tht his ownership of uilding in the Plce would indicte such high sttus (ll other houses of the Plce re owned y Pkl or other rulers). 47 However, nothing more is known of this chrcter prt from the rief mentions on the Plce Tlet. He my hve een n interim ruler of some sort, s Schele hs suggested, ut ny closer understnding of his true role hinges on knowing more detils of K inich K n Joy Chitm s demise. At present, I feel tht there is enough evidence to suggest tht K inich K n Joy Chitm ws live t the time of the House AD dediction, nd tht he indeed ruled for severl yers fter his cpture nd disply y Tonin, perhps for time s vssl of tht neighoring kingdom (D. Sturt 2003c). The reign of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh spnned t lest fifteen yers ut pprently no more thn twenty. The ltest dte we cn link with him is , cited t the end of the south pnel text on the pltform of Temple XIX. Although we lck records of his deth, it is cler tht his successor, Upkl K inich Jn Pkl, reigned s erly s This dte is cited on the K n Tok Pnel in connection with the ccession of nded ird 47 Alterntively, Bssie-Sweet (personl communiction 1999) hs suggested tht the 3 Jester God nme which I red s Ux Yop Huun refers not to person ut to heddress. She specificlly links this to the drum mjor crown depicted on the Plce Tlet, the Tlet of the Slves, the Ovl Plce Tlet, nd now the Temple XIX pltform. A 1 2 3

80 156 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque K inich Ahkl Mo Nh: His Nme Glyphs nd Historicl Setting 157 Figure 121. Stucco glyphs with the nme of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, from Plenque s North Group (drwings y Lind Schele from Schele nd Mthews 1979). titleholder under the uspices of Upkl K inich Jn Pkl. A reign of fifteen to twenty yers for K inich Ahkl Mo Nh therefore seems inescple. During this time he left widespred evidence of monuments, construction, nd rchitecturl modifiction throughout the ncient city. The southern sector of the Group of the Cross seems to hold concentrtion of his uildings, including Temples XVIII nd XIX. The miniture tlet frgment excvted from Group XVI, locted directly ehind the Temple of the Cross, ers his portrit (see Figure 95), ut there is no indiction tht the uilding complex ws dedicted y him. The Initil Series dte on this frgment is reconstructile s Kn 10 Zip, nd thus slightly predtes the K tun ending nd the lter dediction of Temples XIX nd XXI. In the North Group, stucco glyphs recovered from Temple III nd IV include portions of his nme (Schele nd Mthews 1979:No. 575) (Figure 121). A tom glyph lso excvted from Temple III (iid.:no. 598) strongly indictes this uilding ws funerry structure. The stucco is fr too incomplete to suggest tht the uilding holds the tom of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh himself, ut the possiility remins intriguing. 48 Within the Plce, oth House E nd the courtyrd in front of it sw modifictions y K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. An extremely importnt hieroglyphic text citing his ccession nd importnt mythologicl informtion ws pinted long the upper ck wll of House E, ove the Ovl Plce Tlet nd the principl ccession throne (see Figure 59). In the courtyrd outside, t the se of the tower, were lso found the Tlets of the Ortor nd Scrie, oth of which cite K inich Ahkl Mo Nh s nme. I dout either of the kneeling portrits on the tlets is of him, however, for oth seem to e posed s suppli- 48 The three temples of the North Group my relte to the Trid deities, ut the lck of textul evidence mkes this no more thn supposition t this stge. Nevertheless, the temples re ll oriented directly nd purposefully towrd the Cross Group nd the Otulum spring ehind Temple XIX. cnts gzing upwrd t more uthorittive figure. The glyphs on these tlets, linked y speech scrolls to the portrits, seem ctully to record quottions ddressed to K inich Ahkl Mo Nh (i.e., it is your cretion, your drkness ). Aprt from rchitecturl credits, K inich Ahkl Mo Nh seems to hve een quite ctive militrily. The Tlet of the Slves is the key document in this regrd, recording three victories ginst neighoring centers, ll conducted y the Plencno sjl nmed Chk Suutz. One of the trgeted sites is nmed K in (K IN-ni-), which Zender (2002) hs suggested corresponds to site ffilited with Piedrs Negrs. As Zender further notes, the elligerent reltions with Piedrs Negrs re strongly indicted y the mention on the Tlet of the Ortor of scrifice or cptive disply event involving sjl of the Piedrs Negrs king Yopnl Ahk (Proskourikoff s Ruler 3). Chk Suutz is gin nmed in connection with this episode. K inich Ahkl Mo Nh ws the fther of K inich K uk Bhlm, connection mde explicit in the inscription on the Tlet of the 96 Glyphs (Figure 122). The mother of this lter king, the presumed spouse of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, is nmed s well, ut her nme is somewht difficult to red: IX-?-? IX-s-j-l- 2 ju. Perhps the second of the two nmes is Ix Sjl Juj. She is not nmed in ny other inscription, to my knowledge. The inscriptions of this ruler s time nme severl other key individuls. Not the lest mong these is Chk Suutz, who is celerted s sjl or wr cptin in the inscription of the Tlet of the Slves (see Schele 1991). Curiously, however, Chk Suutz, importnt s he evidently ws, is not mong those shown in ttendnce t the crowning ceremony for the king on the Temple XIX pltform. Figure 122. Prentge sttement from the Tlet of the 96 Glyphs, citing the spouse nd son of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh (drwing y Lind Schele).

81 A New Look t Plenque s Mythology 159 Figure 123. The Plenque Trid, from the Temple XIX pltform, P5-P6. Chpter 6. A New Look t Plenque s Mythology It is difficult to overstte the importnce of the religious nd cosmologicl informtion glened from the inscriptions of Temple XIX. The pltform text in prticulr reltes mythic episodes not found in other inscriptions from Plenque or elsewhere in the My world. Even the mentions of fmilir gods nd cretion events contin new its of informtion nd force revisions of wht we long thought we knew out Plenque s mythology nd My cosmogony in generl. This chpter touches on mny of these new strnds of evidence, lthough it must e sid tht mny spects of these new discoveries will e expnded nd revisited y others for mny yers to come. The opening sttement of GI s ccession to rulership is perhps the most importnt new portion of the mythic nrrtive s now reconstructed, for it considerly predtes the deep time history relted in the three temples of the Cross Group, ech devoted to one of the memers of the Plenque Trid. In order to plce this new event in some meningful context, let us first review the story of the Trid s it grdully emerged over the lst few decdes through the pioneering works of Berlin, Kelley, Lounsury, Schele, nd others. The study of Plenque s cretion texts (I think good wy to chrcterize them s whole) egn in ernest with Berlin s (1963) identifiction of the three gods of the so-clled Plenque Trid (Figure 123), whom he leled simply s GI, GII, nd GIII (their hieroglyphic nmes hving een impossile to red t the time). Kelley (1965) soon therefter discussed the irths of these deities s recorded in the three temples of the Group of the Cross nd helped to estlish tht ech memer of the Trid ws ssocited with one of these temples. The Temple of the Cross nd its tlet fetured the god GI, the Temple of the Folited Cross nd its tlet the god GII, nd the Temple of the Sun nd its tlet the god GIII. Their respective irth dtes, lso recorded on the Temple XIX pltform, re of course: Ik 15 Keh GI irth Kimi 19 Keh GIII irth Ajw 13 Mk GII irth Kelley lso noted tht these irth dtes pointed to likely connections etween the memers of the Trid nd other mythicl figures recorded in nrrtives from Centrl Mexico nd Oxc. The most conspicuous of these is of course 9 Ik or Nine Wind, clendr nme ttested in Postclssic centrl Mexico for the Venus deity Ehectl-Quetzlcotl. These connections to other Mesomericn trditions re difficult to confirm, ut they nonetheless deserve fr more ttention thn they hve received in the pst, nd they will e riefly revisited throughout this chpter. In series of importnt ppers, Lounsury (1974, 1976, 1980, 1985) uilt on these works nd egn to reconstruct nrrtive concerning these gods. He noted tht the three irth events, spced only dys prt, indicted prole siling reltionship mong the threesome, nd the prominent nme of long-lived womn in the texts of the Cross Group, Ldy Bestie or Ldy Methuselh, ws interpreted s their mother-cretor (this deity is clled the Trid Progenitor in the present study). Mentions of n erlier irth of GI led Lounsury to lso propose the existence of two GI gods, indistinguishle y nme, with the first perhps eing the fther of the supernturl triplets. Lounsury (1985) lso posited tht the gods GI nd GIII were Clssic My counterprts to the Hero Twins of the Popol Vuh, Hunhpu nd Xlnque. Schele (1979) expnded on Lounsury s work y connecting the individul Trid gods to wider iconogrphic ptterns in My rt t Plenque nd elsewhere. She viewed the Plenque Trid s fundmentl plyers in Clssic religion throughout the lowlnds, n interprettion tht cme to e highly influentil in mny of her lter works (e.g., Schele nd Freidel 1988, 1990). In these reconstructions, GI nd GIII whom Lounsury hd ssocited with the Hero Twins were seen s Clssic My spects of Venus nd the Sun, respectively, nd mjor components of royl symolism from Preclssic times. The Venus identifiction of GI stems minly from his irth dte 9 Ik (Nine Wind), mentioned lredy s the clendr nme of Ehectl-Quetzlcotl, mjor Venus god in Centrl Mexicn mythology (Kelley 1965). This sttion of the 260-dy cycle ws of gret symolic importnce nd is used repetedly in the Temple XIX pltform inscription to drw historicl prllels etween GI, the Trid Progenitor, nd the ruler K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. Lounsury s view tht GI ws lso Clssic counterprt of Hunhpu, with his own strong ssocitions with Venus, would seem in keeping with this interprettion. However, it should e sid tht other conflicting evidence surrounds the stronomicl identities of the Hero Twins, who re t times nmed s counterprts of the Sun nd the Moon, rther thn Venus nd the Sun (M. Coe 1989; Milrth 1999). GIII, s we shll see, is clerly n spect of K inich Ajw, the sun god. Despite its significnt influence in My religious studies during the lst two decdes (e.g., Tedlock 1985, 1996), the interprettion of GI nd GIII s simple counterprts of Hunhpu nd Xlnque tody is difficult to sustin. Michel Coe (1989) mde simple yet definitive rgument ginst Lounsury s ssertion y pointing out tht Hunhpu nd Xlnque re commonly nd explicitly depicted on Clssic period vses s the so-clled Hednd Twins, young mythicl chrcters who hve no iconogrphic ssocitions or overlps with GI or GIII. The complex stronomicl ssocitions of oth the Hero Twins nd the Trid Gods my well llow us to drw some generl structurl prllels etween these sets of silings, ut in my view the miguities involved in such interprettions prevent ny direct

82 160 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque A New Look t Plenque s Mythology 161 Figure 124. Tridic deities t Crcol, Tikl, nd Nrnjo: () Crcol, Stel 16 (drwing y Lind Schele), () Tikl, Stel 26 (from Jones nd Stterthwite 1982:Fig. 44), (c) Nrnjo, Hieroglyhic Stirwy 1, Step II, C2-D2 (drwing y In Grhm from Grhm 1978:108). correltion etween the Popol Vuh nd the mythologicl nrrtive s presented in Plenque s inscriptions. One simple nd insurmountle difficulty in efforts to link the Plenque Trid to the Popol Vuh stems from their ner-exclusive focus on Plenque. This is understndle given the mount of sources t hnd nd the importnce of Plenque in the epigrphic rekthroughs of the 1970s nd 80s. Nonetheless, we cnnot forget tht other My sites hd their own tridic groupings of deities whose identities seem very different from those t Plenque (Figure 124). At Crcol, for exmple, set of three gods is mentioned on t lest three different stele, nd Tikl mentions yet nother set of three deities. All presumly held similr roles s supernturl ptrons of the locl dynsties, ut none llow for connections to lter nrrtives of My mythology. To lrge degree, nrrtives from Clssic My mythology were firly loclized constructs, nd Plenque ws no different in this respect. Of the three Trid gods, GI seems the most importnt, nd he is clerly the deity fetured most prominently in the texts of Temple XIX. Beyond the simple fct tht GI is nmed gret mny times in these inscriptions, perhps the clerest indiction of GI s importnce to Temple XIX is the dediction dte of the uilding itself ( Ki 19 K y), recorded on the lfrd, the stone pier tlet, nd on the pltform. In the pltform s inscription the sme dte is cited s the dediction dy for GI s prticulr house or structure (chk..?.. nh), with his silings temples dedicted short time lter. By impliction, then, we cn posit tht Temple XIX ws principlly temple oriented towrd GI nd the rituls tht surrounded him fitting ssocition given the wy Temple XIX fces onto the Temple of the Cross, fr more imposing GI temple constructed y K inich Kn Bhlm over forty yers erlier. The other two Trid gods, GII nd GIII, hd their own new temple (or temples) dedicted together two yers lter, on Kn 5 Yxk in. There is now good reson to elieve tht this my e Temple XXI, Temple XIX s twin recently excvted in full y Arnoldo González nd his collegues from INAH. At lest the 6 Kn dte is fetured in tht temple, in the text of the pltform tht is so similr in design to tht of Temple XIX. The Temple XIX pltform s explicit messge of shred identity etween K inich Ahkl Mo Nh nd GI stnds s one of the most compelling presenttions of divine rulership ever encountered in Clssic My rt. On the dy of his seting in office the ruler is shown wering elements of GI s dignostic heddress, nd the history recorded in the ccompnying inscription estlishes the connection etween cretor deity nd ruler. Most striking is c Figure 125. Nmes of GI t Plenque: () simple portrit version from the Tlet of the Folited Cross, O9, () extended version from the Tlet of the Cross, C8-D8 (drwings y Lind Schele). how oth of them took office on the importnt dy 9 Ik, s hd the Trid Progenitor in the intervening time. The emphsis on GI therefore ecomes more understndle if we relize tht K inich Ahkl Mo Nh relied on the story of tht god to construct his own progrm of religious legitimtion, proly fter time of considerle unesiness in Plenque s dynstic history. GI ws very much K inich Ahkl Mo Nh s own god. Who Ws GI? The inscription on the Temple XIX pltform mkes constnt reference to the deity GI, nd rguly he is the protgonist of the monument s nrrtive. GI is impersonted y the Plenque ruler in the min scene, his ccession opens the min text on the south side, nd the dediction of his house is fetured event in the west side s supplementry text. Clerly, then, deep understnding of the Temple XIX inscriptions will rely in lrge prt on knowing GI s generl role in Clssic My cosmology nd religion. Yet GI remins highly enigmtic chrcter in My iconogrphy. One reson ehind this mystery is GI s pprent disppernce t the end of the Clssic period, for he cnnot e connected to ny of the mjor Postclssic gods identified y Schellhs (1904) nd lter discussed y Tue (1992). It therefore seems very doutful tht GI cn ever e understood in the context of ethnogrphic survivls or counterprts, in the wy we re le to gin knowledge of K inich Ajw, Chk, or K wil (God K). Wht we cn sy out GI comes minly from scttered iconogrphic depictions nd occsionl textul references. GI s hieroglyphic nme hs two min vrints (Figure 125) ut they remin undeciphered. The portrit hed is the more simple of the two, nd this is commonly elorted with preceding glyph crrying the numericl coefficient one. Curiously, the second of these forms presumly the full nme occurs only t Plenque, evidently s specilized, locl spect of the deity. Elsewhere GI hs more complex nme with different surrounding elements, including curious comintion of hnd, NAAH (T4), nd the jw fce (see Figure 90). This distinct ctegory or type of GI is cited most often in the Erly Clssic texts of Tikl nd environs nd remins very poorly understood. Freidel, Schele, nd Prker (1993) link the fuller nme of GI s it ppers t Plenque to the Clssic mize god discussed y Tue (1985), oth of whom they clled Hun-Nl- Ye, which they trnslte s One Mize Reveled. However, this reding is sed on flwed understnding of the constituent signs. Their mize element does resemle the young-mize superfix red NAL, ut it is different in its internl detils nd presumly hs different vlue. 49 Likewise, the reding of the min sign with its centrl dot s ye is very un- 49 The reltionship etween this sign (T84) nd NAL is visully very close, nd the two signs re esily confused (Schele, Mthews, nd Lounsury 1990). However, they re in mutully exclusive settings nd to my knowledge were crefully kept seprte y My scries (Thompson [1962] indeed gve them seprte numers in his ctlog). Another notle context for the prticulr vrint found in GI s nme is the God K or K wil designtion found in records of the 819-dy count (see for exmple lock C3 on the south fce of the pltform).

83 162 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque A New Look t Plenque s Mythology 163 Figure 126. The Huerg Stel (drwing y Lind Schele from Schele 1985). likely, since this is syllic vlue only nd here the sign is lmost surely logogrphic. Moreover, the common ye sign in the Clssic script is the downwrd-pointing hnd ( vrint of T220 or T710) tht never ppers in the GI nme glyph. For the present, I feel the two signs following the one coefficient cnnot e red confidently. Hun Nl Ye is therefore proly misnomer. The opening pssge of the south tlet on the pltform records the distnt ccession of GI to the rulership (ti jwlel), ut wht or where did he rule? It is difficult to know for certin. The principl ctor here is Itzmnj, or more specificlly Yx Nh Itzmnj, nme tht perhps indictes tht this is some sort of new or first spect of the deity during the er of My cretion. Itzmnj in some wy oversees the ccession itself s if he were high ruler, or t lest of much higher stnding thn GI. This grees well with gret mny iconogrphic representtions of the Clssic Itzmnj or God D, who is routinely portryed on polychrome cermics s seted top sky-nd throne. This is the visul indictor of Itzmnj s plce in the hevens, perhps even in the cpcity of celestil ruler. The sttement in Pssge S-1 tht the event occurred in the (center of?) the sky (t wut(?)chn) would seemingly e textul reference to the sme sky loction for Itzmnj. Unfortuntely, I know of no scene where Itzmnj ppers together with GI, despite the close connection etween these gods recorded on the Plenque pltform. Clssic inscriptions from eyond Plenque indicte tht Itzmnj ws mjor plyer in the estlishment of the new er it lter on The fmous description of the three stones on Quirigu Stel C, for exmple, includes mention of Itzmnj s the deity who completes the inding of the three stones of cretion. For mny yers GI hs een understood s Venus god, n interprettion tht is prt of lrger view tht identifies the Plenque Trid s stronomicl entities (Kelley 1965; Lounsury 1985; Schlk 1996; Milrth 1999). Severl points of evidence hve een used to support this Venus connection, perhps the first nd most influentil eing the Nine Wind irth dte of the god with its suggestive connections to Ehectl-Quetzlcotl, Venus deity in centrl Mexico. Also relted to this plnetry interprettion for GI is the commonly held view tht GI nd GIII form pir of deities who correspond to Hunhpu nd Xlnque of the Popol Vuh, who in turn re often seen s mythicl representtions of Venus nd the Sun, respectively (Lounsury 1985; Schele nd Miller 1986:48-51). As noted erlier, GI is nmed on the Tlet of the Cross nd in the Temple XIX pltform text s key plyer in Plenque s mythologicl history long efore he ws orn s memer of the Trid. Lounsury considered the existence of pre-trid GI s evidence for the existence of two seprte gods, one fther nd presumed spouse of Ldy Egret (the Trid Progenitor) nd the other the Trid memer. Perhps for this reson Dennis Tedlock (1992:252) is explicit in giving the nme Hun Hunhpu to this pre-trid GI, whom Lounsury considered to e the fther of the Trid nmeske. The initil one sign on GI s nme seems to hve een influentil in choosing this prllel, lthough it must e sid tht this prticulr nme glyph is widely pplied lso to the stndrd Trid memer. Despite hving een first recognized in Plenque s texts, susequent studies reveled tht GI is y no mens locl Plenque chrcter. He is depicted nd mentioned in numerous inscriptions nd iconogrphy throughout the My region from the eginnings of the Clssic period, nd he seems to hve een figure of mjor cosmologicl importnce. Perhps the erliest known portrit ppers on the so-clled Huerg Stel, dting stylisticlly to the Erly Clssic (Figure 126). 50 His visge is frequent decortion on Erly Clssic cche vessels from the centrl lowlnds (Hellmuth 1987) (Figure 127), nd notle full-length portrit 50 This monument is sid to e Lte Preclssic stel (Schele 1985; Schele, Mthews, nd Lounsury 1990), ut I feel on stylistic grounds tht it ws crved much lter nd dtes no erlier thn in the Long Count. Lcden (1995) hs presented similr opinion sed on the orthogrphic conventions pprent in its inscription. Figure 127. GI portrit on n Erly Clssic cche vessel (from Hellmuth 1987:Fig. 71).

84 164 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque A New Look t Plenque s Mythology 165 Figure 129. The k in owl motif: () drwing y Lind Schele, () from Hellmuth 1987:Fig ppers on Stel I of Copn (Figure 128). In these nd other representtions, GI s min fetures include Romn nose (his profile superficilly resemles tht of the solr god, K inich Ajw), prominent round eye with (usully) n upper curl, lrge fish fin or rel on the cheek, nd lrge shell er or er ornment (Schele 1976). 51 Frequently more elorte representtions of the god show helmet or emlemtic heddress consisting of the k in owl topped y three-prt grouping of centrl stingry spine flnked y spondylus shell nd crossed-nds florl motif (Figure 129). This is the importnt iconogrphic motif nmed the Qudriprtite Bdge y Roertson (1974), nd in mny instnces it stnds lone s depiction of type of urner or scrificil owl (Tue 1998; D. Sturt 1998), s well s the point of emergence for the world tree, s depicted in the center of the Tlet of the Cross (not coincidentlly, this is the tlet of GI s principl temple). GI pprently plyed significnt role in the er event on Ajw 8 Kumk u, s relted in one of the mny importnt pssges in the Tlet of the Cross (Figure 130). Here we find the stndrd er phrse in connection with the Bk tun ending, eginning with Figure 131. GI t the 4 Ajw cretion event, from n Erly Clssic greenstone msk, provennce unknown. Figure 128. Copn, Stel I, front (drwing y Anne Dowd from Budez 1994:Fig. 2). 51 Schele (1976) offered n extensive discussion of the iconogrphy of GI t Plenque nd other sites, suggesting tht GI hd zoomorphic form with reptilin fetures. This zoomorphic GI ws lter recognized s the Clssic-period representtion of God B, or Chk (Schele nd Miller 1986:49, 60; Tue 1992:17-26), lthough it ws still considered vrint form of GI ccording to Schele nd others. Presently I dout there ws ny common identity etween GI nd Chk, for they pper in very different iconogrphic contexts. They should est e considered seprte deities. Figure 130. The er record from the Tlet of the Cross (D3-C13), recording GI s possile descent from the sky nd the susequent dediction of temple in the north (drwing y Lind Schele). Figure 132. Pssges from the middle tlet of the Temple of the Inscriptions, descriing the presenttion of hedger nd jewels to GI (left: C5-D7, right: I4-L2) (drwing y Lind Schele).

85 166 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque A New Look t Plenque s Mythology 167 Figure 133. The Solr identity of GI, from n Erly Clssic cche vessel, provennce unknown. Note the k in element on the deity s cheek. (From Hellmuth 1987:A. 635.) Figure 134. GI nd K inich Ajw on n Erly Clssic cche vessel (K773) (from Hellmuth 1987:A. 636). Figure 135. Jde erspool with Strry Deer Crocodile, perhps from Río Azul, Guteml (drwing y Dvid Sturt fter Townsend 1983:No. 56). ver displying sign with n X-like form nd perhps reding JEL, to chnge-over. The loction, s is customry in such records, is ti chn Yx..?.. Nl, (t) the sky s edge, the First Herth Plce. An importnt glyph then follows, possily reding EM-TA-CHAN-n, for descends from the sky, nd then the nme of GI. The pssge goes on to record the dediction of GI temple in the north on the dy Ik End of Mol, just over yer fter the dy of cretion itself. Another ssocition etween GI nd cretion mythology comes from the Vse of the Seven Gods (Kerr no. 2796; Coe 1973:109), which depicts GI mong severl other deities who re ligned (tz hk-j) on this origin dte. His involvement is lso recorded in n importnt erly inscription on the ck of greenstone msk (Figure 131), where his portrit nme glyph ppers in direct connection with the cretion dy 4 Ajw nd n event occurring once more t the sky s edge, the First Herth Plce. The ver glyph in this text is quite unusul, ut its single ppernce otherwise s Glyph D in the Lunr Series leds me to think tht the occsion is GI s rrivl (hul) t this mythic loction. Some importnt symolic ssocitions of GI re indicted in the text on the centrl tlet of the Temple of the Inscriptions (Figure 132). In lengthy section descriing the rituls surrounding the K tun endings in the reign of K inich Jn Pkl, we red of the presenttion of jewels nd clothing to effigies of GI nd the other Trid gods (Mcri 1988: , 1997:91-92). The gifts to the gods re sometimes simply written U-PIK, which I tke to e u-pik, its skirt, dressings. 52 For the Period Ending , the inscription (C5-D7) sttes tht the king gives the k in owl; it is his 52 The min logogrm hs een red s pi(h), undle, y Schele nd Grue (1992), ut I prefer PIK in ll of the contexts they mention. The vrints used in this Plenque inscription re identicl to signs for the Bk tun period, which re in turn replced y the signs pi-ki in spellings t Crcol nd Copn. I therefore tke the Bk tun sign to e logogrphic PIK or syllic pi. Pik is the widespred Myn term for counting units of 8,000, nd on undles it serves just this role. A glyphic lel 3-PIK, for exmple, records the totl of 24,000 cco ens held within the undle. Figure 136. The sun within the wom or stomch of the Strry Deer Crocodile, on Yxchiln HS3, Step III (drwing y In Grhm from Grhm 1982:169). helmet; mny re the dressings of GI. For the following K tun (I4-J9), Pkl gives the??; mny re the wrppings of his white pper necklce; the Green Fire? re his erspools; the Green k in owl is the helmet of GI. All of the Trid gods dornments here hve similr specific nmes or designtions, providing wht mounts to descriptions of the proper iconogrphic progrm for ech. Here the ccoutrements of GI pper the sme s those found especilly in his Erly Clssic portrits. GI s k in owl helmet indictes his importnt solr connections, ut we cn cite certin other ssocitions he hs with K inich Ajw. Significntly, the fcil profile of GI ers strong resemlence to the stndrd sun god, s mny writers hve noticed. Detils of the eye nd other fcil fetures mrk GI s seprte entity in some fundmentl wy, yet he must hve hd some conceptul link to the sun, for he is portryed on n Erly Clssic cche vessel with smll k in sign on his cheek (Figure 133), s Hellmuth (1987:284) points out. Another cche vessel shows piring of GI nd K inich Ajw in composition clerly designed to suggest some intimte connection etween them (Figure 134). The k in owl motif is of course found lso s the ck end of the Strry Deer Crocodile nd other representtions of the Cosmic Serpent (see Figure 45). From its inverted form spills divine liquid, incorporting symols of lood nd wter tht sustin the cosmos. In these representtions the k in owl often hs skull eneth it, precisely s we see shown en fce on the Tlet of the Cross nd the Srcophgus lid t Plenque. This does not form second rer hed for the creture, ut rther ttches to the ckside of the crocodile s some sort of emlemtic device. In one reveling exmple (Figure 135), the k in owl represents the nus or vgin of the Strry Deer Crocodile, nd thus seems to serve s symol for the rer orifice of the creture. How GI is connected to this iconogrphic pttern is uncler, yet some hieroglyphic evidence my help unrvel prt of the mystery. The k in owl is common hieroglyphic sign for

86 168 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque A New Look t Plenque s Mythology 169 Figure 137. Pssge from the west tlet of the Temple of the Inscriptions, O9-P12 (drwing y Lind Schele). EL, used in the spelling of the est glyph, EL-K IN. The word el mens rise, come out. One cn nturlly wonder, therefore, if perhps the k in owl itself ws somehow considered vessel for the rising sun in the est. As Tte (1992:66) notes, representtions of the crocodile regulrly orient the rer end with the k in owl towrd the est. As mentioned in Chpter 3, the Strry Deer Crocodile likely served s symol for the night or underworld sky, nd I elieve n rgument cn e mde tht the k in owl ws its nus, whence the sun would dily rise in the est. Representtions of the solr crtouche within the crocodile s ody (Figure 136) strongly suggest tht the sun ws consumed y the crocodile during its nightly course eneth the erth nd defected or reorn ech morning. GI is lso clerly deity of the wter. Visully his fce seems to e strongly relted to fish, nd perhps the so-clled xok fish in prticulr. The fin-like protrusions from his cheeks nd the round eye with its upper curl seem to hve visul prllels with the xok entity, which itself remins highly enigmtic s sort of stylized shrk or mythicl fish. 53 Kelly s originl recognition of GI s irth on the dy Nine Wind nd the connection this suggests to Ehectl-Quetzlcotl (Kelley 1965) my offer dditionl support for GI s ssocitions with n qutic environment. Among the Mexic Aztec, Ehectl-Quetzlcotl ws wind deity with strong visul ssocitions with ducks nd perhps other wterfowl (O Mck 1991). GI ws lso wter ird cormornt, perhps in t lest one of his importnt visul spects, nd this stnds s the deity s defining chrcteristic in the impersontion heddress worn y the king on the south fce of the pltform. Such prllels, while intriguing, hold little explntory power y themselves. As we hve seen, it is difficult to drw close prllels etween specific deities or supernturl chrcters in the My nd Centrl Mexicn religions, yet it seems entirely possile tht GI nd Ehectl-Quetzlcotl could oth e reflections of n old ide or chrcter from Preclssic mythology, nd therey shre common culturl origin. The wter ssocitions of GI re cited lso in fscinting pssge from the west tlet of the Temple of the Inscriptions (Figure 137) tht records n erly event 53 For more in-depth, so to spek, discussions of the xok fish, see the studies y Jones (1985, 1991) nd especilly the importnt pper on resurrection iconogrphy y Quenon nd Le Fort (1997). lrgely ignored efore now in the study of Plenque s mythology. The dte of the pssge is Kimi 19 Px, flling some nine decdes fter the er event on 4 Ajw 8 Kumk u. The inscription first cites dte in historicl time, Kimi 19 Keh, ssocited with some sort of rrivl (hul), nd quickly shifts the nrrtive ck in time with Distnce Numer of , or pproximtely 3,700 yers. (The juxtposition of 1 Kimi nd 7 Kimi suggests the relted clendr nmes of the two importnt Underworld gods of the Popol Vuh, One Deth nd Seven Deth. ) The erly event concerns the deth god, nd the ver is?-ji-y yo-ohl-l,..?..-()j-iiy y-ohl, x -ed is his hert. The sme text erlier cites severl events redle s tim-ohl, to stisfy, nd it is possile tht this event concerning the deth god employs logogrphic form of TIM, to swell, inflte (cf. Yuctec tem-ol). At ny rte, the most interesting nd redle pssge sttes y-yal-ji-y tu-u-k - GI TA-?-K AHK -NAHB, yhl-()j-iiy t-u-k GI t-?-k hk nh, he/it ws thrown from the hnd of GI into the center(?) of the se. The nture of the event is difficult to understnd eyond this evoctive description, ut it gin points to the intimte connection of GI with primordil wters nd the ocen. Even the mythologicl plce of Mtwil, the stted locle of the GI s supernturl irth, seems to hve close ssocitions with wter nd the se in prticulr. The etymology of the nme is proly derived ultimtely from the noun mt, mening cormornt, mergnser, or some other type of wter ird. In the iconogrphy of the Temple of the Folited Cross, the Mtwil plce glyph cn e seen to dorn t lest three imges of lrge conch shells (Figure 138), rguly serving s explicit toponymic lels for the shells, which seem to serve s plces of divine origin nd emergence. The seshell would e fitting plce for the irth of GI nd his divine silings. There lso seem to e importnt connections etween GI nd women in the rt of the Clssic period, lthough the nture of these ssocitions is difficult to understnd. Women s portrits often show prominent Qudriprtite Bdge in the hedger, much s GI wers in severl of his representtions. Mny writers hve lso remrked on the prominence of Figure 138. Mtwil lels on conch shells from the Temple of the Folited Cross: () min tlet (drwing y Lind Schele), (-c) stucco ornments from the fçde (drwings y Dvid Sturt, fter Schele nd Mthews 1979:Nos ). c

87 170 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque A New Look t Plenque s Mythology C D Figure 139. Tlet of the Cross, D1- C5 (drwing y Lind Schele). xok cretures in the decortions of femle ritul costumes (e.g., J. Miller 1974). These, in turn, hve strong ssocitions with xok symolism found on some representtions of the tonsured mize god (Tue 1985), ut gin it is hrd to know in wht wy GI reltes to those entities. Perhps the ppernce of the k in owl in women s costume derives from its importnce in the iconogrphy of the Strry Deer Crocodile nd its reltives, descried ove, where the k in owl my symolize in some wy the point of solr reirth nd emergence. Given GI s connections to the sun nd his pprent ssocitions with the estern point of solr reirth (the k in owl), we might speculte tht he ws considered wtery spect of the sun efore its emergence from the underworld. As protgonist in cretion mythology, it is possile tht GI ws kind of proto-sun tht existed efore the ordering of the world nd the ppernce of K inich Ajw in more current cosmologicl order. I offer this interprettion only very tenttively, however. Are There One or Two GIs? The chronology of the Cross Tlet hs long presented prolems for epigrphers. The interprettions hve een discussed in severl venues for over century, ut new evidence from the Temple XIX texts offers some indirect evidence tht might move us towrd finl resolution of the long posed nd much deted questions. The discussions y Lounsury (1980) nd others hve centered on one prticulrly trouling pssge ner the eginning of the tlet (Figure 139). A Distnce Numer t D1 nd C2 records the intervl nd precedes irth event t D2 mrked in the pst tense (sih-j-iiy). The tense mrker on the irth ver would suggest it is the erlier of two linked events, or the eginning point of the temporl reckoning. A second ver or event comes t C3, pprently version of n event found in other Plenque inscriptions showing deer hoof sign proly red MAY ove humn hnd. This in turn precedes nottion of the dte 4 Ajw 8 Kumk u, or , which Lounsury nd others hve tken to e the end-point of the clcultion. The question surrounding this pssge centers on the Distnce Numer. The Cross Tlet opens in the immeditely preceding glyphs with record of the irth of the mythicl figure I cll the Trid Progenitor, nd it seems nturl to see the irth t D2 to e repetition of this event ( it ws so much time from the irth ). However, if we dd the Distnce Numer to the estlished irth dte, we do not rech 4 Ajw 8 Kumk u. Insted, the clcultion gives: Ajw 18 Tzek ( Ajw 18 Mol) The resulting dte is not recorded in the Cross text. Lounsury, however, followed erlier nlysts (e.g., Goodmn 1897) in stressing tht 4 Ajw 8 Kumk u ws the end point of the clcultion, resulting in n unexpressed erlier dte: ( Ajw 8 Muwn) Ajw 8 Kumk u This scheme necessittes the existence of two irth episodes, egging the question sked y Lounsury (1980:103), Whose irth? Becuse the next cited protgonist on the Cross inscription is GI (t C8 nd D8), Lounsury surmised tht the implied irth event pertined to n erlier GI, or GI, who shred the nme of the more fmilir Trid memer. He suggested tht the first GI, seemingly orn on , ws the spouse of Ldy Bestie, whom I here cll the Trid Progenitor. It seemed nturl to propose tht this couple were the mythic prents of the Plenque Trid. As Schele nd Freidel (1990: ) summrize this widely ccepted interprettion, The First Mother ws Ldy Bestie [who ws] the mother of the gods nd the Cretrix in the My version of the cosmos. [T]he Plencnos sw her operte in their lives through her spirit counterprt, the moon. Her husnd nd the fther of her children is clled GI (G-one-prime) y modern scholrs. He estlished the order of time nd spce just fter the fourth version of the cosmos ws creted on 4 Ahu 8 Cumku. Both the Cretrix nd her husnd were orn during the previous mnifesttion of cretion, ut their children were orn 754 yers into this one. Despite stnding tody s the stndrd version of Plenque mythology, this story is eset with questionle redings. We must look more crefully t the Tlet of the Cross inscription nd its trouling pssge to egin to see where the prolemtic issues lie. Lounsury s suggestion tht we hve two seprte irth events nd therefore two deities nmed GI seems n excessively complex reding of the pssge. The dte 4 Ajw 8 Kumk u, t D3 nd C4, need not e linked with the deer hoof event, s Lounsury nd others long ssumed must e the cse. It is eqully plusile tht the dte for the deer hoof episode ws left unexpressed, nd tht the Distnce Numer is in fct reckoned from the opening irth event of the inscription. This, fter ll, seems the nturl wy to pproch the irth glyph t D2 if one were unwre of the supposed miguities soon to come. The first clcultion given ove, leding to n unexpressed dte Ajw 18 Mol, my well e the correct dte for the deer hoof event. The er dte hs its own verl sttement t D4 nd C5, 13 Bk tuns re finished. Support for this revision comes from other cittions of the deer hoof (k l myij) event in Plenque s inscriptions (see Figures 30 nd 119). In the text of the Plce Tlet, we find it cited s n erly ritul event ssocited with the seven-yer-old K inich K n Joy Chitm.

88 172 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque A New Look t Plenque s Mythology E C D Figure 140. The record of GI s irth on the Tlet of the Cross, D13-F4 (drwing y Lind Schele). F On the jms of Temple XVIII, s we hve seen, it is lso youth event involving the young K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, who ws out six yers old t the time. In ech instnce these events re reckoned from irth event, precisely s we find in the Tlet of the Cross. The nturl conclusion is tht the Tlet of the Cross records similr deer hoof event for the eight-yer-old Trid Progenitor. Logiclly, then, GI, or predecessor with the sme nme, need not e prticipnt in this event. No mtter how we interpret this pssge from the Tlet of the Cross, we re still fced with the conundrum tht GI existed centuries efore his stted irth. So much is cler from reding the south fce of the Temple XIX pltform, which sttes tht the god s ccession to rulership occurred roughly two centuries efore his supposed irth. Let us review the mjor events involving him, s they re recorded t Plenque: GI ssumed rulership in the hevens on Ik 5 Mol under the uspices of Yx Nh Itzmnj. Any previous irth event of this GI remins unknown. GI seems to e mjor prticipnt in scrificil eheding or xing of the cosmologicl entity clled the Strry Deer Crocodile, or two spects of this creture, on Etz n 6 Yxk in. The Trid Progenitor ( Ldy Bestie ) ws orn significntly lter, on Ajw 18 Tzek, nd then prticipted in deer hoof ceremony when eight yers old. GI is cited s prticipnt in house dediction event in the north on Ik End of Mol. GI is the protgonist of n event descried on the west tlet of the Temple of the Inscriptions, where the deth god ws thrown into the center of the se from the hnd of GI. This occurred on Kimi 19 Px. GI, now s memer of the Plenque Trid, is orn on Ik 15 Keh, pprently s cretion of the Trid Progenitor. Tht GI s irth closes this chin of events would seem to support Lounsury s contention tht there existed two GIs. But there is no reson why we must consider the ruling GI cited in the opening pssge of the pltform nd the first-orn d Figure 141. Vried nmes nd titles for GII: () T. XIX pltform, south, J6, () Temple of the Inscriptions, est, C12 (drwing y Lind Schele), (c) Temple of the Folited Cross, snctury jm, A9-B9 (drwing y Lind Schele), (d) Tlet of the Folited Cross, A17-D2 (drwing y Lind Schele), (e) Comlclco, shell pendnt 8B (drwing y Mrc Zender), (f) Comlclco, Urn 26, Spine 2, (drwing y Mrc Zender), (g) Tlet of the Folited Cross, L3-M4 (drwing y Lind Schele). of the Trid to e seprte entities. The identicl forms of the nme nd shred importnce of the dy 9 Ik suggest tht they re the sme chrcter, or in some wy spects of single deity. The essentil smeness of the two is perhps est seen in pssge from the Tlet of the Cross, where GI s irth is recorded t C17 through F4 (Figure 140). There, we red (strting t the ottom of columns C nd D) he rrives t Mtwil (on) 9 Ik 15 Keh. He touches(?) the erth t Mtwil But throughout this pssge we do not find GI s nme. As is customry in Clssic Myn syntx especilly in this inscription the suject s nme hs een omitted ecuse is it understood from cittion of the previous episode, where GI is nmed t C16-D16. The suject of tht erlier event is the pre-orn GI, yet this god is equted syntcticlly with the deity who is orn eight centuries lter. I suggest, therefore, tht the cretion of the Trid gods entiled reirth of previously existing GI into new, more loclized order of existence. The GI who took office under Itzmnj in the sky seems deity of wide cosmologicl significnce, wheres the GI of the Plenque Trid seems fr more limited spect of the god, intimtely tied to the Plenque e c g f

89 174 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque A New Look t Plenque s Mythology 175 dynsty. Ldy Bestie or the Trid Progenitor, it will e rememered, is the first chrcter of the nrrtive to crry locl Plenque Emlem Glyph. Yet it is interesting tht the underlying messge of the Temple XIX pltform is tht the new Plenque ruler is re-emodiment of GI in his erliest phse, efore the Trid existed. 1 C D Notes on GII nd GIII GII is clerly youthful spect of K wil, or God K. The iconic nme glyph (Figure 141) is nerly lwys given in the distinctive full-figure pose reserved for infnts in My rt, nd the sense it conveys is simply the y K wil. This indeed is the direct trnsltion of his nme, s reveled y n importnt spelling from nery Comlclco (Figure 141f), where we find mention of god clled u- 2 ne K AWIL, Unen K wil, By K wil (Mrc Zender, personl communiction 2000; Mrtin 2002). On some occsions his nme is ccompnied y the ch o-ko glyph, for ch ok, child, youth (Figure 141c-e). His extended nme phrse from the Tlet of the Folited Cross (Figure 141d) provides few interesting descriptive sttements out GII, including the enigmtic phrse?-yax-mut-ti k -wi-nal?, the..?.. new ird K wil plce(?), possily toponym ssocited with his irth. A more personl description comes next with 3--h-li K UH, for Ux Ahil K uh, the third creted god, properly mrking his plce in the sequence of Trid irths. Portrits of GII dorn the four middle piers of the Temple of the Inscriptions, where he is depicted s n infnt deity crdled in the rms of stnding figures. These re proly four erly rulers of Plenque ncestors of K inich Jn Pkl s strongly suggested y the cler Kn Bhlm heddress worn y one of them (Roertson 1979, 1983:46). In pssge from the snctury jm of the Temple of the Folited Cross (Figure 141c) his title is ch o-ko NAAH-5-CHAN-n-AJAW, or ch ok Nhho chn jw, the young lord of Nhho chn. Nhho chn is n importnt supernturl loction, often ssocited with the Pddler gods, mong other deities. It is lso cited s n importnt loction in the cretion event, s recorded on Stel C t Quirigu (Freidel, Schele, nd Prker 1993:67). I elieve it is proly the specific nme of n importnt supernturl mountin from Clssic My mythology, since we find on one importnt vessel (K688) mention of Nhho chn Witz xmn, Nhho chn Mountin, in the north, seemingly plce of reirth. This genertive spect of the loction is in ll likelihood relted to GII eing the infnt spect of K wil. Also in this god s temple, the Temple of the Folited Cross, we find very importnt yet puzzling reference to GII s n infnt spect of the Jgur God of the Underworld (Figure 141g). Blocks L3-M4 of the tlet s min inscription hold slightly elorted nme phrse for GII, introduced y the Trid title. Following this we gin find u- 2 ne (unen) nd, curiously, the portrit hed of the Jgur God, or the infnt Jgur God. 54 GII s portrit nme then closes the pssge. I tke the comintion to indicte tht GII ws in some wy n spect lso of the Jgur God of the Underworld, who my hve een the Clssic My deity of fire (D. Sturt 1998). There is lso considerle evidence to suggest tht this jgur god ws 54 Stel 9 from Lmni (Reents-Budet 1988) (Figure 48) clerly lludes to the sme infnt Jgur God. A smll portrit of the jgur deity emerges from the serpent r held y the ruler; ove the god s hed is nme medllion ering the glyph u-ne, for unen. Both of these re no dout relted lso to the scrificed jgur y depicted on codex style vessels nd discussed erlier in reltion to the crocodile s hole mentioned in Pssge S-2. Mrtin (2002) hs recent importnt discussion of the jgur y chrcter in the script nd iconogrphy. Figure 142. Nme vrints for GIII: () T. XIX pltform, west, E10, () Temple of the Inscriptions, middle, E4, (c) Temple of the Inscriptions, middle, N4-M5, (d) Tlet of the Sun, C1-D6 (drwings -d y Lind Schele). c n importnt mnifesttion of the moon (Milrth 1999: ). It is tempting to relte the infnt Jgur God cited t Plenque to certin jgur y imges in Erly Clssic texts nd iconogrphy t Tikl (Mrtin 2002), lthough I m t loss to explin wht their precise connections might e. The nme of GIII, the slightly older siling of GII, tkes more consistent form. It lwys displys the title K INICH, indicting tht, like mny Plenque rulers, he ws considered some spect of the sun (Schele nd Miller 1986:50) (Figure 142). This sic identity of the god is reveled y single reference from the Temple of the Inscriptions, where his customry nme is replced simply y the generic-sounding moniker K inich Ajw, the Sun Lord (Figure 142). Otherwise his stndrd nme hs three components fter the honorific solr prefix: profile fce in crtouche, checkerord sign, nd -w. Lounsury (1985) considered tht these signs served to spell the widespred nme of the Underworld, Xil, ut this seems unlikely, since the redings of the hed nd the checkerord oth very rre signs re fr from secure. In fct the nme glyph of GIII remins undeciphered. The iconogrphic identity of GIII hs een extended to include vrious jgur deities, including the Jgur God of the Underworld (Schele nd Miller 1986:50-51), ut in point of fct we hve no deity portrit connecting directly to the hieroglyphic nme. The supposed connections of GIII to jgurs derived from severl indirect lines of evidence, including the d

90 176 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque A New Look t Plenque s Mythology A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R presumed connection etween GIII nd the centrl jgur-shield imge of the Tlet of the Sun, s well s occsionl juxtpositions of GI nd the Jgur God of the Underworld in pirings once thought to e ssocited with the Hero Twins. In one reference from the Temple of the Inscriptions (Figure 142c), GIII ers the now-fmilir title yjw k hk, Lord of Fire, which seems relevnt given the close ssocition of the Jgur God of the Underworld with fire-relted iconogrphy nd ritul urning (see D. Sturt 1998). Proly the clerest ssocition of jgur symolism with GIII comes from prt of his extended nme phrse on the Tlet of the Sun (Figure 142d), where the god is nmed with the Sun Bellied jgur of scrifice tht is depicted s wy, or niml spirit, on few codex style cermics from the Clkmul nd Nke regions (Grue nd Nhm 1994). But this striding jgur is proly not simply n spect or mnifesttion of GIII. His nme seems prt of the lrger descriptive terms for GIII tht include severl sun-relted references. The loction of the irth of the Trid god is K inich Tj Wyi, the Gret Sun Torch Shrine (t D1), nd one nme is sed on the Xiuhcotl-like squre-nosed serpent prefixed y K hk ti, Fire is its mouth. GIII thus is solr deity, ut eyond this generl identity it is hrd to pin him down s specific iconogrphic figure. Perhps GIII ws specil loclized form of the sun god, K inich Ajw, with nme tht somehow reflected Plenque s own understnding of the deity. The Axe Event T 1-4 One key to understnding the lrger nrrtive story concerning cretion nd the irths of the Trid is the second episode of the pltform s min inscription (see Figure 39), where we red of the decpittion of two crocodiles (or perhps two spects of one crocodile). GI is nmed T U 1-3 V W X Figure 143. Hieroglyphic Stirwy 2 from Yxchiln: () centrl lock (Step VII), () Step VII, A1-H6 (from Grhm 1982:160) t the end of the pssge nd seems to e principl gent in the event, if not the one who conducted the ctul scrifice. This event occurs, not coincidentlly, on the dy 1 Etz n, or wht the Mesomericns of highlnd Mexico would hve clled One Flint-Knife. I suggest tht the scrificil event reflects Clssic My understnding of fmilir episode known from lter sources of Mesomericn cretion mythology, involving the scrifice of lrge reptile, sometimes clled Cipctli in the Centrl Mexicn sources. If true, this one pssge from the pltform inscription stnds s remrkle indictor of the persistence nd ntiquity of pn-mesomericn myths nd religious nrrtives. The min ver of the pssge in question is sed on the root ch k-h, hed chop, nd in other settings this hs een interpreted s little more thn reference to wrfre nd conquest. At times this word cn indeed refer to the ritul decpittion of wr cptives (Orejel 1990), s in the cse of the scrifice of the Copn ruler Wxkljun Uh K wil (lso known s 18 Rit) y the king of neighoring Quirigu. But even there ch k-h is n event with decidedly mythologicl connottions, est understood s mtter of underworld reenctment. 55 In texts from Yxchiln nd elsewhere, ch k-h plys key role in the nrrtive of cretion mythology, much like we find in Temple XIX. The importnt text ccompnying the llgme scene on the centrl lock of Hieroglyphic Stirwy 2 t Yxchiln (Figure 143) recounts three such events, ll using chk-h ver glyphs identicl to tht from Pssge S-2, tht fll well within mythologicl time. The three scrifices recorded in this text re seprted y extremely long time periods, yet the precise plcement of ech dte in the preer Long Count is difficult to know. 56 The three scrifices re presented s cler sequence, ech ccompnied y n ordinl numer ( first, second, third ) efore sequence spelling -h-li, for h-l or h-il. This term hs een interpreted s mening conquest, sed on n ttested Ch olti term, ut Schele nd Freidel (1991) offer cretion s n lterntive. The ltter interprettion could hold more merit, sed s it is on widespred root j for wken. As Schele nd Freidel (1991:302) note, this h-l or h-il glyph hs strong ssocitions with ritul llcourts, which were themselves locles for the scrifice nd possile decpittion of prisoners (see Miller nd Houston 1987). The Yxchiln step is n importnt exmple of this ssocition etween wr, scrifice, nd the llgme, yet the mythologicl context underlying these themes could not e more explicit. Cptive scrifices in such courts of cretion were cler reenctments of cosmologicl wkenings. As we hve just seen, the irth of GII of the Plenque Trid is descried s ux hil, the third wkening, nd ppropritely he is the third-orn of the Trid. Birth, cretion, nd wkenings ll therefore seem to e interrelted concepts in these nrrtives. The first, second, nd third wkenings (hil) t Yxchiln, ech rought on y the scrifice of different individul, thus proly refer in some wy to distinct phses of world cretion, or seprte cretions in their own right. Certinly the ide of previous cretions ending through cycles of destruction is widespred one in Mesomeric (see Gossen 1986). Such ptterns of usge involving ch k-h events help us to frme the lrger significnce of the crocodile scrifice (or scrifices) recorded in Temple XIX. This too ws n ct involving world cretion, nd GI ws the principl ctor involved. It seems to e Clssic 55 The Copn king s scrifice is recorded in one Quirigu text s hving tken plce in n underworld plce, the so-clled Blck Hole, suggesting mcre role-plying y the old ruler t the time of his deth (D. Sturt 1992:176). 56 The three Clendr Round dtes on the step, with their intervls, re: 13 Mnik 5 Px = 9 Kn 12 Xul *16 = 1 Ajw 13 Xul.

91 178 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque A New Look t Plenque s Mythology 179 c d e Figure 144. Pinting from Mypn depicting the scrifice of Itzm C Ain (drwing y Krl Tue). My vrition on widespred nd surely old story, where primordil wtery creture is killed in order to crete the surfce of the world. 57 One such nrrtive is relted in the Books of Chilm Blm from Yuctn, where we red of the gret reptilin Itzm C Ain: [Ah Mesenc] turned the sky nd the Peten upside down, nd Bolon ti Ku rised up Itzm C Ain; there ws gret ctclysm, nd the ges ended with flood. The 18 Bk Ktun ws eing counted nd in its seventeenth prt. Bolon ti Ku refused to permit Itzm C Ain to tke the Peten nd to destroy the things of the world, so he cut the throt of Itzm C Ain nd with his ody formed the surfce of the Peten. (Crine nd Reindorp 1979: ) 58 Itzm C Ain is, s Tue (1989) hs shown, the Yuctec nme for the crocodile so widely depicted in Clssic rt, including its Strry Deer-Crocodile spect mentioned t Plenque. This story is of course vrition on similr nrrtive well known from Centrl Mexicn mythology, wherein Quetzlcotl nd Tezctlipoc kill the Erth Monster ( 57 I would like to cknowledge the fine work of Erik Velásquez Grcí (2002, personl communiction 2003) in ringing mny of these mythologicl sources together nd independently relting them to the scrifice event in the Temple XIX nrrtive. 58 The pssge from the Tizimin which descries the scrifice (Edmonson 1982:41) reds c ix xot i u cl Ytzm K Ain c u ch h u petenil u pch, which Edmonson trnsltes s nd then will e cut the throt of Itzm K Ain, who ers the country on his ck. In Yuctec, xot is cut, slice, nd cl (kl) is throt, neck (Bricker, Po ot Yh, nd Dzul de Po ot 1998). The Tizimin pssge could therefore just s esily descrie complete eheding s throt cutting. f g Figure 145. Nme vrints of the Trid Progenitor: () Tlet of the Cross, F8, () Tlet of the Cross, B17-C1, (c) Tlet of the Sun, C12-D13, (d) Tlet of the Folited Cross, C10-D11, (e) Plce, House E pintings, (f) Plce, House D, Pier E, (g) Plce, House A fçde (drwings -d y Lind Schele). zoomorphic spect of Tlltecuhtli) nd crete the erth from his dismemered ody prts (Tue 1993:69-70). Krl Tue (personl communiction 2003) hs recently pointed out to me cler representtion of this event in Lte Postclssic murl excvted t Mypn in Structure Q. 95 (Brrer Ruio nd Perz Lupe 2001) (Figure 144). The crocodile hs een spered rther thn decpitted, nd the humn figure ove the reptile displys the distinctive shell pectorl of Quetzlcotl. If we ssume GI is indeed the ctor ehind the crocodile scrifice recorded in Temple XIX, we cn point to nother strong prllel etween these two deities so removed from one nother in time nd spce. Severl glyphs from the Temple XIX pssge dd importnt informtion to this story, ut s we hve seen in Chpter 3 they re difficult to decipher in mny respects. The possile

92 180 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque A New Look t Plenque s Mythology 181 mention of u ch ich el, its lood (presumly tht of the crocodile) gives emphsis to the scrificil nture of the event, s does the use of ver possily signifying something like thrice flowed (t F4). Possily in this ncient version of the story it ws the lood spilled from the scrifice, rther thn the ody, tht ws the specil cretive sustnce from the reptile. The emphsis on three with this lood event lso reminds us of the tridic structure of the decpittion events recorded t Yxchiln. I would think it very likely tht here it serves to nticipte if not directly cuse the irth nd cretion (ch ) of the Trid y the Trid Progenitor, s in the next pssge of the text. The Nme nd Identity of the Trid Progenitor A key figure in the mythicl nrrtive is, of course, the Trid Progenitor, orn efore the current er nd pprently the cretor of the Plenque Trid. The vrious forms of the nme of the Trid Progenitor were first treted together y Lounsury (1976:218), who referred to this figure vriously s Ldy Best-with-the-Upturned-Snout, Ldy Methuselh, or simply s the mythologicl ncestress. In lter writings, s we hve seen, Schele opted for the musing lel Ldy Bestie. I use here the more neutrl nd functionl term Trid Progenitor, for s comments to come will clrify there is strong evidence suggesting tht this deity is not femle chrcter, ut rther n spect of the mize god. Some time hs pssed since the lst significnt discussion of this ll-importnt chrcter, nd review of its identity nd role in Plenque s mythology seems necessry. As we see in Figure 145, the form of the nme vries in some detils, yet its second prt regulrly shows the ird-with-the-upturned-snout eneth regulr superfix. In six of the nine exmples of the nme, the ird colloction follows humn profile tht, in turn, comes fter grouping tht includes the superfix depicting young mize, red NAL. It is difficult to know why this first portion of the nme, efore the ird, ws optionl, ut there is no question tht these ll refer to the sme individul. The initil portion of the full nme hs s its min element (eneth the NAL) rre sign known from only few other contexts in My inscriptions. It cn e grphiclly revited simply y showing its upper three-prt section in comintion with other signs, usully hed sign tht follows it. Schele nd Grue (1990) entertin reding of HEM (cf. Yuk. hem, vlley ) for this sign, presumly sed on the similrity of the revited form to the ttested syllle je, ut they re in fct quite different signs. The vlue of this logogrm remins unknown, ut the ppernce of the suffix -n in severl exmples suggests its eventul vlue will e CVN. We cn e resonly confident, however, tht the word corresponding to this logogrm must stnd for some type of loction or environment, for in the Dresden Codex we find it given s one of the mny possile plces for the storm god Chk. The loctionl function of the sign is known lso from its ppernce in mythicl toponym cited t Plenque nd Copn, written 5-NICH-TE -?, or Five Flower..?.., s well s some imges in the Dresden Codex (for exmple, pge 69) I hve very tenttively entertined vlue of AK or AKAN, grss, grsslnd, jo, for this sign, with dmittedly scnty evidence. The initil vowel seems to e indicted y possessed form (y-ak?-n) found on n Erly Clssic shell trumpet in the Perlmn collection (Coe 1982). More compelling, perhps, is the visul form of this logogrph with its row of verticl stripes, suggesting spred of grss s seen from the side. The Dresden representtions of Chk stnding knee-high in n identicl mteril lso re suggestive of grssiness. The -NAL my e comined with this to produce AK-n-NAL, for k()n-l, grssy (the spelling would then e structurlly similr to CHAN-n-NAL, chn-l, hevenly, of the sky ). The humn hed tht follows hs long een cited s evidence tht this is femle deity, likening it to the IX- prefix uiquitous on femle nmes hence the lels Ldy Methuselh or Ldy Bestie. But this gender identifiction is now less ovious thn it first seemed. One prolem comes from the finl position of the sign within the first portion of the nme, wheres ll femle nmes show IX s n initil element. Moreover, there is perhps n importnt visul distinction etween the profile of the Plenque nme nd the femle hed IX or IXIK: while similr in mny respects, it ers distinctive forehed tssel tht hs more resemlnce to the Clssic form of the young tonsured mize god identified y Tue (1985). The comprison of the two signs cn perhps e est seen in the text on the srcophgus of K inich Jn Pkl (Figure 146), where the profiles of the mize deity nd the feminine heds pper to e very different, with the IX- signs displying hir strnds in plce of the tssels seen on the corn deity. In stucco text from House D t Plenque (Figure 147) we see n importnt version of the Progenitor s nme, where the hed is without question Tue s tonsured mize god with the forehed tssel. The visul clues re cler enough to suggest tht previous identifictions of the Progenitor s mother goddess re incorrect, nd tht the nme in fct incorportes the word or nme for the Clssic My mize deity The stucco text from Pier 6 of House D crries only three glyphs, from n originl inscription consisting of eighteen (see Roertson 1985:Fig. 239). The initil portion of the Trid Progenitor s nme is t A3, nd I ssume tht B3 ws the second component, with the ird min sign. The initil glyph of the inscription seems to e irth glyph tht comines with K AHK nd is therefore reminiscent of the nme of n importnt chrcter in erly Tikl history, Siyj K hk (lso known s Smoking Frog ) (S. Mrtin, personl communiction 1998; see D. Sturt 2000). The text on Pier 6 ws presumly designed to ccompny the sculpted piers of House D on the west fce of the Plce nd perhps served s n orienting text for the mythicl nrrtive depicted in those figurl scenes. Interestingly, the young mize god is depicted on nerly ll of the piers, often holding hfted xe. It seems conceivle tht these re portrits of the Trid Progenitor, shown tking prt in segments of Plenque s mythicl history tht thus fr lck ny textul explntion. The common imge of the wielded xe, nd decpittion scene on Pier F, does seem themticlly relted to the xe event we red of in Episode S-2 of the pltform text. Figure 146. Comprison of the femle hed sign (IXIK) with the tonsured mize god sign, on the Srcophgus of Pkl (drwings y Merle Greene Roertson). Figure 147. Stucco inscription from Plenque, House D, Pier E.

93 182 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque As for the vlue of this mize deity hed, NAL hs een proposed in few studies (Schele, Mthews, nd Lounsury 1990; Houston, Sturt, nd Tue 1992), ut this is now highly doutful in my view. Perhps the est counter-evidence is tht we lredy hve NAL young mize sign, T87, for which the hed never sustitutes. Rther, I suggest tht we consider the reding IXIM, mize, for this hed, sed on few lines of evidence from other texts. The mize god is clerly prt of selected Primry Stndrd Sequence (PSS) texts on pottery, where it ppers s prt of the modifying terms efore kkw, cco drink. There, it is known to tke the prefix i-, seemingly s phonetic complement to IXIM. In the PSS, the hed sign my therefore e used to spell certin type of cco drink clled IXIM-TE -le k-k-w, or iximte -el kkw. Iximte or iximche is widespred florl nme in Myn lnguges, usully used to refer to fruit-ering medicinl plnt known s Cseri nitid (see Roys 1931:249). The remining portion of the deity s nme is its ever-present core, consisting of n unusul ird with superfix. The upper element remins elusive to decipherment nd little cn e sid out it, except to mention tht it is very rre sign overll. The irds re, however, fr more interesting. We recognize very clerly here the cormornt (MAT) of the Plenque Emlem Glyph, ut with the importnt difference of hving fethers stuck in its mouth. On the Temple XIX pltform, the nmes of the Trid Progenitor exhiit it more telling detil, showing ird s foot mong the fethers in the mouth. The imge seems to e one of ird eting nother smller ird, the feet nd til fethers of which re visile within the ek. Although strnge imge, perhps, it is nonetheless fmilir from the glyph for the month Muwn, where the til nd one rer leg of ird re clerly visile within the open ek of the lrger ird, proly tht of screech owl or hwk. Given the visul connection to MUWAAN, I elieve we cn confidently posit tht the ird of this nme is confltion of the MAT cormornt nd the MUWAAN ird. Most importntly, the Temple XIX text displys never-efore-seen sign on the Trid Progenitor s nme: the suffix -ni. This provides key piece of evidence in support of the confltion, for we routinely find the form MUWAAN-ni in the spelling of the fifteenth month. If confirmtion were needed, we cn turn to the two pirs of stucco glyphs from the roof of Plenque s Plce recorded y Mudsly (Figure 145g). This seems to e vrint of the sme deity s nme, showing the seprte spellings of MUWAAN nd m-t, the ltter of course eing syllic replcement of the cormornt MAT logogrm. Here, then, we hve the correct reding order of the two ird nmes: Muwn Mt. We re therefore not too fr from more complete understnding of the Trid Progenitor s nme. Of the constituent signs, two lck secure redings s yet. If we nlyze the complete nme, we hve the sequence?-n-nal-ixim??-muwaan-mat. The Trid Progenitor is nmed in the Cross Tlets nd on the Temple XIX pltform s cretor eing, s we know from the use of the importnt term ch to express his or her reltionship to the Trid deities. CH AB is now the estlished reding of the lncet element found in some loodletting expressions nd in prentge sttements (Schele, Mthews, nd Lounsury 1977). The word is often glossed s pennce in Myn lnguges, nd in Yuctec s to crete something out of nothing. In prentge sttements such s the one in Pssge S-5, the phrse u-h u-ch would seem to indicte tht the offspring is the ch of the prent. In the Ritul of the Bcs, this term is closely linked to the lnguge of irth nd cretion (Schele 1993), nd given its rnge of menings I prefer to trnslte the term simply s cretion, with the understnding tht it is type of cretion specificlly concerned with scrifice in some wy, s well s concepts surrounding rites of pennce, t lest s so descried in the colonil nd modern dictionries. The Trid Progenitor ppers to e mle cretor deity strongly ssocited with the Clssic mize god, lthough we should understnd tht gender ws plile concept mong some Mesomericn supernturl eings. The eded skirt worn y the mize god is of course lso key element in portrits of women in Clssic My rt (Tue 1998; Quenon nd Lefort 1998), s well s mle rulers who impersonte the mize deity, s shown on Stel H t Copn. The rites of loodletting nd scrifice, nd their conceptul overlps with supernturl irth, hve long een identified s running theme in such representtions (D. Sturt 1984, 1988), nd lthough some of the evidence remins indirect, I elieve the mythicl nrrtive t Plenque suggests tht the ppernce of the Plenque Trid gods ws not literl irth, ut perhps rther cretive ct performed y the ritul loodletting of the Progenitor god himself. In the cse of GI, this ct ws reirth, re-cretion of n estlished cosmologicl deity into new form nd within the three-prt structure seemingly necessry for community ptrons in the Clssic lowlnds. Hving the Emlem Glyph title (K uhul Mtwil Ajw), the Trid Progenitor tkes on the ppernce of high king, nd s the Temple XIX inscriptions seem to indicte, this ncestrl god ws considered mythologicl founder the first dynst, s explicitly stted in Pssge S-6. Yet this deity ws proly not the initil memer in mythologicl or semi-historicl line of Plenque kings, given the vst period of time etween the Trid Progenitor nd the stted inugurtion of Uk ix Chn, the first vguely historicl figure of the dynsty, who is recorded in the Tlet of the Cross. Although mny historicl Plenque rulers re clled Holy Lords of Mtwil, the Trid Progenitor seems to hve hd n intimte ssocition with this wtery plce of origin nd divine irth. The emphsis on the first ccession suggests tht the Trid Progenitor s ritul ct of irth estlished ritul chrter tht ws to e followed y lter Plenque rulers, who cted s cretkers of the Trid. The individul gods of the Trid re repetedly clled the huntn, roughly precious eing, of K inich Kn Bhlm in the texts of the Cross Group temples, using the sme term otherwise reserved for the children of mothers. He nd other Plenque rulers thus continued to fulfill the role estlished y this primordil god, role tht no dout involved concepts of reciprocity nd the continunce of socil nd politicl order. Plenque nd the Dy Nine Wind A New Look t Plenque s Mythology 183 Throughout the inscriptions of Temple XIX we hve come cross numer of mythicl nd historicl dtes intentionlly relted through their common use of the dy 9 Ik in the 260- dy clendr. To review the pttern from Temple XIX lone, we hve: 9 Ik 5 Mol seting s ruler of GI 9 Ik 15 Keh irth of GI 9 Ik Seting of Sk ccession of the Trid Progenitor 9 Ik 5 K y ccession of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh These four events were relted to one nother in order to produce series of like-inkind nlogies. The prllels re mde explicit on Temple XIX s pltform s well s on other Plenque monuments, prticulrly with regrd to K inich Ahkl Mo Nh nd his evident desire to link his ccession with tht of the Trid Progenitor. We find the 9 Ik dte ssocited with two other importnt events in Plenque s mythology

94 184 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque A New Look t Plenque s Mythology 185 Figure 148. The Temple XIV Tlet (drwing y Merle Greene Roerston). nd history. On the tlet of Temple XIV (Figure 148) the min text opens with the clendr round 9 Ik 10 Mol, which corresponds to dte in the vst deep time of My cosmology. A Distnce Numer of some 946,000 yers 61 reckons forwrd from n event on this 9 Ik dte to historicl dte Ajw 3 K nk in (see Schele 1988:308). The nture of this intriguing event fr erlier in time thn the seting of GI is simply descried s the first K wil-tking, nd it oviously stnds s primordil episode of divine origin. Another 9 Ik comes from the tlet of Temple XVII (Figure 149), with its rre scene (for Plenque) of wrrior nd cptive. Here the opening dte is gin retrospective though still historicl, flling in the Erly Clssic on Ik End of Yxk in. The episode ppers to e the estlishment of Lkmh, the ritul center of Plenque s constructed round the Río Otolum. 62 The ssocited protgonist is the Plenque ruler Butz j Sk Chiik Figure 149. The Temple XVII Tlet (ruing y Merle Greene Roerston). (clled Mnik in the erlier literture), nd fter his nme we find reference to Ahkl Mo Nh, the Erly Clssic ruler who would soon ssume the throne. Lter in the sme text (on frgments discovered redeposited in ntiquity in Temple XXI) there is mention of dte 260 dys lter, on Ik 15 Wo, lthough the ver is missing (the ccession of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh would come exctly lter). On the Temple XVII tlet we once more see how 9 Ik occupies key role s n elementl dte of history nd of origin, lthough now in rel historicl context. Evidently the locl history of the site, indeed its very founding, ws gered or mnipulted to reflect importnt temporl symmetries nd ptterns. In very rel wy ncient Plenque ws city whose religious nd politicl identity hinged on Nine Wind nd the symolism it conveyed. 61 Schele (1988:305) noted tht Lounsury reconstructed the somewht dmged Distnce Numer s , which I follow here. 62 I sy estlishment ecuse the ver glyph on the Temple XVII tlet, though undeciphered, seems to crry this generl sense in other settings. For exmple, on the Plce Tlet it serves s the ver within the 819-dy count record, replcing the more customry w, stnd-up, event. For now estlish seems resonle reding.

95 Chpter Nme 187 Chpter 7. The Weight of Time Temple XIX nd its recently investigted compnion Temple XXI were rguly the most mitious rchitecturl nd rtistic endevors during the reign of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. With new designs nd complex nrrtives, they expressed collective set of ides tht reffirmed the intimte connections nd shred identities etween gods nd rulers. And like the other temples of the Cross Group, the two temples presented Plenque s own understnding of cretion t plce clled Mtwil nd the centrl role plyed in tht story y the Trid gods, in prticulr GI. As the inscriptions of these temples ll mke cler, kings such s K inich Ahkl Mo Nh were considered emodiments of those primordil deities nd ncestors, who, through their own rituls nd scrifices, continued process of ritul renewl egun nerly four millenni previously. We cn esily focus on the esoteric of such records nd iconogrphy, ut we should lso keep in mind the politicl nd socil setting of these expressions, nd the motivtions tht ly eneth them during trouled time in Plenque s history. Succeeding his unfortunte uncle, K inich Ahkl Mo Nh ssumed power through somewht unconventionl mens nd represented new genertion of ruler in court tht hd not seen too much chnge in office over the previous century. He ws y no mens young mn on his ccession, ut he followed in the footsteps of his two uncles, who hd reigned collectively for nerly thirty-eight yers. His grndfther K inich Jn Pkl hd in turn reigned for stunning sixty-eight yers, nd his legcy must hve weighed prticulrly hevily on K inich Ahkl Mo Nh. The grndson derived his politicl legitimcy lrgely through direct linel descent from Pkl, which lso lrgely explins the prominence of his fther Tiwol Chn Mt in Temple XVIII nd in other historicl records of the time. So importnt ws Pkl, in fct, tht the gret ncestor ws the centrl protgonist of the pnel decorting the Temple XXI pltform, where he is shown flnked y K inich Ahkl Mo Nh nd Upkl K inich. The pnel is full of emedded symolism, since Pkl himself is depicted s the impersontor of still erlier ncestors of Plenque s rich nd complex history. Upkl K inich, the successor of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, remins curious figure in ll of this. Temple XIX nd XXI were dedicted t time when this possile rother of the king ws lso powerful figure ner the throne. He himself ws evidently not king until well fter the dediction of the uildings (his contemporneous records, if they exist, remin Detil of Upkl K inich from the stucco pnel of the Temple XIX pier.

96 188 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque The Weight of Time 189 undiscovered), yet he crries strnge nd lmost self-contrdictory title, ch ok K uhul Bkl Ajw, perhps est understood s the emergent Holy Bkl Lord. There cn e little dout tht he ws soon to e king, ut his precise connection to K inich Ahkl Mo Nh stnds s something of mystery. They seem to e ner contemporries in ge (we do lck Upkl K inich s irth dte, however), nd on Temple XXI s tlet they seem to ssume more-orless equivlent role on either side of K inich Jn Pkl. As we hve seen, Upkl K inich is proly est seen s the younger rother of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, nd together they offer n ovious prllel to the rother-to-rother successions tht took plce with their uncles. Temples XIX nd XXI cn e seen s n importnt refurishment of the Cross Group y genertion tht ws proly very conscious of its immedite predecessors nd wished to redefine the relevnce of the Trid gods for their own time nd politicl dvntge. K inich Ahkl Mo Nh relied on GI in prticulr to express nd legitimte the religious foundtion of his rule, nd this seems to e the lrger point of the Temple XIX pltform. No other known My king integrted himself so strongly nd explicitly into mythologicl nrrtive, mking his own inugurtion into re-cretion of primordil mythic history. Here nd in other inscriptions throughout Plenque, K inich Ahkl Mo Nh lso mde direct connections etween his ssumption of power nd the so-clled first ccession of the Trid Progenitor. As fr s we know, neither K inich Jn Pkl nor his two sons ever proposed such strong links to the pst in their own presenttion of history. (The Tlet of the Cross my come close, ut there we find K inich Kn Bhlm simply ssociting himself, minly through his ncestor Kn Bhlm, with the long succession of Erly Clssic kings.) There is no one god ssocited with these lords s like-in-kind figure. In this light, K inich Ahkl Mo Nh seems to hve emrced rdicl (t lest for Plenque) notion of the divinity underlying royl power. Why such drstic chnge? Ws it rection to prcticl difficulties of politicl nd socil life in eighth-century Plenque? I suspect this ws so. K inich Ahkl Mo Nh ws perhps using such symols nd clims of legitimtion to revive, if not redefine in sic wy, the difficult nd strined notions of divine power tht hd long existed within Plenque s dynsty. He not only hrkened ck to Pkl, himself n ncestrl impersontor in Temple XXI, ut chose to equte himself with the gods who long time efore creted proper order out of primordil chos. Looking over the writing nd imgery of Temples XIX nd XXI, we come wy sensing tht eons of time weighed hevily on this king. Detil of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh from the stone pnel of the Temple XIX pier.

97 Trnscription of the Temple XIX Inscriptions 191 H2: 6-MUWAAN-K A -yi I1: U-?-SAK-IK -li J1: TIWOL?-l I2: ch o-ko-aj-?-winik?-? J2: 12- [missing section, 17 locks] Appendix A. Trnscription of the Temple XIX Inscriptions I. The Alfrd Tlet (missing section) pa1: yo-ok-?-tal pb1: y-ajaw-k AHK pa2: 16-7-WINIK-ji-y pb2: 2-HAAB-y I-u-ti pc1: 9- KIB 19-K AN--si-y pd1: OCH-OTOT-NAAH pc2: CHAK-?-NAAH-hi pd2: U-?-pi?-ji-li pe1: [ ] pf1: [ ] pe2: 7-AJAW 3 WAY?-HAAB pf2: [ ] N7: WINIK-ji-y [missing section, 10 locks] O6: [k ]-m-? P6: U-CHOK?-ji O7: K INICH-AHK-l-MO -NAHB P7: K UHUL-BAAK-l-AJAW III. The Stucco Pnel A1: 3-AJAW-3-YAX-K IN-ni B1:? A2: U-NAAH-hi U-?-le B2: 6-AJAW 13-MUWAAN-ni C1: CHUM-TUUN-ni D1: U-2-TAL-l U-?-le C2: 9-AJAW 18-k-se-w D2: k -[m]-? hi-li D3: U-?-le U-PAKAL-K INICH D4: -ch o-ko?-nal-l D5: ch o-ko-unen-k AWIL-l D6:?-?-K UH II. The Stone Pnel A1:? B1: 9-PIK A2: 15-WINIKHAAB? B2: 2-HAAB A3: 7-WINIK [missing section, 28 locks] H1: 4-10-WINIK-ji-y G2: [ ] IV. The Pltform Min Text, South Side A1:? B1: 12-CHAN-? A2: 10-WINIKHAAB?-y B2: 1-HAAB-y A3: 13-WINIK-ki B3: 2-K IN-ni A4: 9-IK B4: 9-K AM-m-j-K UH A5: U-TI -HUUN-n

98 192 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Trnscription of the Temple XIX Inscriptions 193 B5: 2-K AL?-ji-y-HUL A6: U-2-?-? B6:?-?-AHIN-ni A7: U-ch o-ko-k ABA B7:?-ki-9 A8: U-TZ AK-AJ B8: WINIK-ji-y C1: 1-HAAB-y D1: 1- CHIKCHAN C2: 17-IK -SIHOOM-m D2: WA?-ji-y C3: K AWIL-l-? D3: EL-K IN-ni C4: I-u-ti D4: 5-TE -mo-lo C5: CHUM-l-j D5: TA-AJAW-le C6: 1-?-?-? D6: U-KAB-ji-y C7: YAX-NAAH-hi D7: ITZAMNAAJ-ji C8: u-ti-y D8: TA-WUT?-CHAN E1: 16-1-WINIK-y F1: 11-HAAB-y E2: 1- ETZ NAB F2: 6-YAX-K IN-ni E3: CH AK-k-U-BAAH F3:?-?-? E4: tz i--l-?-? F4: 3-?-w-j E5: U-CH ICH?-le F5: n-k-?-w-aj E6: jo-ch o-k AHK -AJ F6: I-PAT-l-j G1: ye-te -je H1: 1-?-?-? G2: 0-8-WINIK-ji-y H2: 3-HAAB-y G3: 8-WINIKHAAB?-y H3: 2-PIK-y G4: u-ti-y H4: 9-IK G5: 5-TE -mo-lo H5: I-u-ti G6: 9-IK H6: 15-CHAK-SIHOOM-m I1: [SIH?]-y-j J1: [1-?-?]-? I2: U-TAL?-k- J2: m-mat-wi-l I3: 13- KIMI J3: 19-CHAK-SIHOOM I4: SIH?-y-j J4: K INICH-?-?-w I5: U-14-l-t J5: 1-AJAW 13-MAK-k I6: SIH?-j-ji-y J6: UNEN-K AWIL-l K1: U-TAL?-k- L1: m-mat-wi-l K2: U-BAAH-hi L2: U-CH AB K3:?-NAL-IXIM? L3:?-(MUWAAN-ni-MAT) K4: 2-6-WINIK-ji-y L4: 15-HAAB-y K5: 1-WINIKHAAB?-y L5: 9-IK K6: CHUM-SAK-SIHOOM-m L6: U-NAAH-TAL-l M1: AJAW-?-y-ni N1:?-NAL-IXIM? M2:?-(MUWAAN-ni-MAT) N2: K UHUL-MAT-l-AJAW M3: mi-12-winik-ji-y N3: 9-HAAB-y M4: 14-WINIKHAAB?-y N4: 7-PIK-y M5: I-u-ti N5: 9-IK M6: 5-K AN--si-y N6: AJAW-?-y-ni M7: o-ki-i N7: K INICH-AHK-l-MO -NAHB M8: K UHUL-BAAK-l-AJAW

99 194 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque Trnscription of the Temple XIX Inscriptions 195 N8: WINIK-ji-y O1: 2-HAAB-y P1: 6-AJAW O2: 8-CHAK-SIHOOM-m P2: 13-TUUN-ni O3: U-NAAH-K AL-TUUN-ni P3: U-K AM-w-OOB? O4: y-ahin? P4:? O5: yi-chi-nal-l P5: 1-?-?-? O6: UNEN-K AWIL-l P6: K INICH-?-?-w O7: u-ti-y P7: TAHN-n O8: CH EEN-n P8: LAKAM-HA Min Text, West Side A1: 7-AJAW B1: 8-K AN--si-y A2: 7-ku-lu-TUUN-ni B2: PAT-w-ni A3: yo-ko-i-li B3: YAX-ITZAM?-AT A4: TUUN-ni-AJAW B4: U-CHOK?-CH AJ-ji A5: K AN-n-JOY-CHITAM-m B5: K UHUL-BAAK-l-AJAW A6: 0-0-WINIK-ji-y B6: 13-HAAB-y A7: 8-WINIKHAAB?-y B7: 4-AJAW A8: 13-YAX-SIHOOM-m B8: CHUM-TUUN-ni C1: U-15-WINIKHAAB? D1: U-K AL-TUUN-ni C2: K INICH-AHK-l-MO -NAHB D2: K UHUL-MAT-l-AJAW C3: U-NAAH-U-HACH?-tu D3: TA-? C4: s-j-l-9 D4: U-TZ AK-AJ C5: 16-7-WINIK-ji-y D5: 2-HAAB-y C6: I-u-ti D6: 9- KIB C7: 19-K AN--si-y D7: OCH-chi-K AHK C8: TA-8-NAAH-K INICH-EL? D8: K AHK -ku-?-ku-naah E1: U-CHAK-?-NAAH-li F1: G1 F1: 4-K AL?-ji-y E2: 7-AJAW F2: 3-WAY?-HAAB-m? / k -m-? E3: U-?-?-mu-li F3: U-HACH?-chi-tu E4: s-l-j-9 F4: 17-6-WINIK-ji-y E5: 2-HAAB-y F5: 6- KABAN E6: 5-YAX-K IN-ni F6: OCH-K AHK E7: 3-2 jo-lo F7: BAAK-?-KAB E8: U-CHAK-?-NAAH-li F8: UNEN-K AWIL-l G1: K INICH-O?-NAAH H1: U-CHAK-?-NAAH-li G2: K INICH-?-?-w H2: 3-2-WINIK-ji-y G3: 10-AJAW H3: 8-CHAK-SIHOOM-m G4: NAAH-5-TUUN-ni H4:?-hi?-li? G5: yo-ko-i-li H5: AJ- G6: yi-chi-nal-l H6: AJ-CHIT?- G7: 1-?-?-? H7: U-CHOK?-ji G8: K INICH-AHK-MO -NAHB H8: K UHUL-BAAK-l-AJAW

100 Trnslitertion nd Prose Trnsltion of the Temple XIX Pltform 197 The? Crocodile is the emergent nme of wht will e twenty-nine dys. It is the sequence of seventeen plus sixteen-score dys, nd one yer. It ws One Chikchn, the Eighteenth of Ch en, K wil? ws erected in the Est. And then the Fifth of Mol hppens. GI is seted into the rulership, Yx Nh Itzmnj tends to it. It took plce on the fce of heven. Appendix B. Trnslitertion nd Prose Trnsltion Of the Temple XIX Pltform South Side I. Pssge S-1..?.. Ljchn Chn..?.. Ljun-winikh-iiy Jun-h-iiy Uxljun-winik Ch -k in Bolon Ik Bolon K hm-j K uh u-ti -hu n Ch -k l-ij-iiy hul-iiy u-ch -..?....?..-..?..-Ahin u-ch ok-k k l(?)-ik-olon U-tz k-j wukljun-[..?..]-wkljun-winik-ij-iiy jun-h-iiy Jun Chn(?) Wxkljun-te Ik sihoom W (?)-()j-iiy K wil-..?.. el-k in I-ut ho -te -Mol Chum-l-j t-jw-le(l) Jun-..?..-..?.. U-k-j-iiy Yx Nh Itzmnj Ut-iiy t-wut(?)-chn Twelve Bk tuns Ten-score yers, then One yer, then Thirteen-score (nd) two dys. It is Nine Ik. Nine-Gods-Are-Tken is (t) the mrgin(?). Twenty-two dys go the second [luntion] rrived here. II. Pssge S-2 Wkljun-[..?..]-jun-winik-ij-iiy uluch-h-iiy Jun..?.. Wk-te Yxk in Ch hk(-j) u-h..?.. tz il-..?.. Ux-..?..w-j u-..?..-el Nk-..?..w-j joch-k hk -j I-pt-l-j y-ete -ej Jun-..?..-..?.. Sixteen plus one-score dys nd eleven yers, then It is One Etz n the sixth of Yxk in, Chopped is the hed of the Hole -cked Strry-Deer Crocodile (nd) the Inscried-ck Strry Deer Crocodile. Thrice flows(?) the lood of the? person, the Fire-drill person. Then it is fshioned, he? it, GI. III. Pssge S-3 Mih-[..?..]-wxk-winik-ij-iiy ux-h-iiy wxk-winikh-iiy ch -pik-iiy Ut-iiy Bolon Ik Ho -te -Mol I-ut Bolon Ik Ho ljun Chksihoom Siy-j Jun-..?..-..?.. U-tl(?)-k Mtwil No dys, eight Winls, three yers, eight-score yers, nd two Bk tuns (fter) Nine Ik the fifth of Mol cme to pss, Then it cme to pss (the dy) Nine Ik the Fifteenth of Chksihoom When GI ws orn. He touched the erth t Mtwil. IV. Pssge S-4 Uxljun Chmiy(?) Bolonljun Chksihoom Siy-j K inich-..?..-..?.. On Thirteen Chmiy the Nineteenth of Chksihoom, GIII ws orn.

101 198 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque V. Pssge S-5 U-chnljun-lt Jun Ajw Uxljun-te Mk Siy-j-iiy Unen-K wil U-tl(?)-k Mtwil U-h u-ch Akn(?)-nl Ixim..?..-Muwn-Mt Fourteen dys lter, on One Ajw the Thirteenth of Mk, GII ws orn. They touched the erth t Mtwil. Their persons re the cretion of Akn?-nl Ixim? Muwn Mt. VI. Pssge S-6 Ch -[..?..]-wk-winik-ij-iiy ho ljun-h-iiy jun-..?..-iiy Bolon Ik Chum Sksihoom U-nh-tl jw-yn Akn(?)-nl Ixim..?..-Muwn-Mt K uhul-mtwil-ajw Two dys, six winls, fifteen yers nd one-score yers lter It is Nine Ik, the Seting of Sksihoom. It is the first ecoming lord of Akn?-nl Ixim? Muwn Mt, the Holy Lord of Mtwil. VII. Pssge S-7 Mih-[..?..]-ljchn-winik-ij-iiy olon-h-iiy chnljun-winik?-iiy wuk-pik-iiy I-ut Bolon Ik Jo-te K nsiiy Ajw-yn Oki K inich-ahkl-mo -Nh K uhul-bkl-ajw No dys, twelve winls, nine yers, fourteen-score yers nd seven Bk tuns lter Then Nine Ik, the Fifth of K nsiiy comes to pss. Oki K inich Ahkl Mo Nh ecomes lord. VIII. Pssge S-8 Wxkljun-[..?..]-uxljun-winik-ij-iiy ch -h-iiy Wk Ajw Wxk-te Chksihoom Uxljun Tuun U-nh-k l-tuun U-k m-w-oo(?) y-hin(?)..?.. Y-ich-(V)n-l Jun-..?..-..?.. Unen-K wil K inich-..?..-..?.. Ut-iiy tn ch een Lkmh Eighteen dys, thirteen winls, nd two yers lter It is Six Ajw, the Eighth of Chksihoom. It is thirteen stones. It is the first stone-inding. He tkes the crocodile throne (?) In the presence of GI, GII, nd GIII. It hppened in front of the spring of Lkmh. West Side I. Pssge W-1 Wuk Ajw wxk-te K nsiiy Wuk-kul Tuun Pt-w-n y-ok-(i)-il Yx-Itzm-At Tuun-Ajw U-chok-ch j-ij K n-joy-chitm K uhul-bkl-ajw Seven Ajw, the Eighth of K nsiiy, It is seven grouped stones. The pedestl(?) of Yx Itzm At, the Tuun Lord, gets fshioned. K n Joy Chitm, the Holy Lord of Bkl, csts (incense upon it?). II. Pssge W-2 Mih-[..?..]-mih-winik-ij-iiy uxljun-h-iiy, wxk-winikh?-iiy Chn Ajw Uxljun Yxsihoom Chum-tuun u-ho ljun-winikh? U-k l-tuun K inich-ahkl-mo -Nh K uhul-mtwil-ajw U-nh u-hch(?)-t-u(?) t-..?.. Slj-Bolon No dys, no winls, thirteen yers, nd eight-score yers lter It is Four Ajw, the Thirteenth of Yxsihoom, It is the stone-seting, It is the fifteenth-score yer. It is the stone-inding of K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, the Holy Lord of Bkl. It is the first rising(?) of GI, the Slj Bolon. III. Pssge W-3 Trnslitertion nd Prose Trnsltion of the Temple XIX Pltform 199 U-tz k-j wkljun-[..?..]-wuk-winik-ij-iiy ch -h-iiy I-ut Bolon- Ki Bolonljun-te K nsiiy Och-k hk t Wxk-K inich-el(?)-nh K hk -..?..-Nh u-chk-..?..-nh-il GI It is the sequence of sixteen dys, seven winls nd two yers Then Nine Ki the Nineteenth of K nsiiy hppens. The fire enters into the Eight Gret Sun Emergence House(s)(?). The Fire? House is the red? house of GI.

102 200 The Inscriptions From Temple XIX At Plenque IV. Pssge W-4 Chn-[..?..]-k l-ij-iiy Wuk-Ajw Ux-te -Wyh(?) K m-..?.. U-..?..-il U-hch(?)-t-u(?) Slj-Bolon Twenty-four dys lter It is Seven Ajw, the Third of Wye, It is the rope-tking(?). It is his? It is the crrying(?) of Slj Bolon. V. Pssge W-5 Wukljun-[..?..]-wk-winik-ij-iiy ch -h-iiy Wk Kn Jo-te Yxk in Och k hk Ux Jojol? Bk..?.. K u-chk-..?..-nh-il Unen-K wil K inich O? Nh u-chk-..?..-nh-il K inich-..?..-..?.. Seventeen dys, six winls nd two yers lter It is Six Kn the Fifth of Yxk in. The fire enters (into) The Three-Skull(?) Bone?, the red? house of GII. The Gret Sun? House is the red? house of GIII. VI. Pssge W-6 Ux-[..?..]-ch -winik-ij-iiy Ljun Ajw Wxk-te Ik sihoom Nhho tuun..?.. hil(?) y-ok--il Aj... Y-ich-n-l Aj Chit... GI U-chok-ij K inich-ahkl-mo -Nh K uhul-bkl-ajw Three dys nd two winls lter It is Ten Ajw the Eighth of Ik sihom. It is the First Five Stones. The oki of Aj? (event missing). It is in the presence of Aj Chit... GI. K inich Ahkl Mo Nh, the Holy Lord of Bkl, csts (incense upon it?). Biliogrphy ADAMS, R.E.W Río Azul: An Ancient My City. University of Oklhom Press, Normn. ARZAPALO-MARÍN, RAMÓN, ed El Ritul de los Bces. Fuentes pr el estudio de l cultur my, 5. UNAM, Mexico, D.F. AYALA FALCÓN, MARICELA 1997 Who Were the People of Toniná? In The Lnguge of My Hieroglyphs, edited y M.J. Mcri nd A. Ford, pp Pre-Columin Art Reserch Institute, Sn Frncisco. AULIE, H. WILBUR, nd EVELYN W. AULIE 1978 Diccionrio Ch ol. Summer Institute of Linguistics, Mexico D.F. BARRERA RUBIO, ALFREDO, nd CARLOS PERAZA LOPE 2001 L pintur murl de Mypán. In L pintur murl prehispánic en México II: Are My, Tomo IV, Estudios, pp Instituto de Investigciones Estétics, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. BARRERA VÁZQUEZ, ALFREDO, JUAN RAMÓN BASTARRACHEA M., nd WILLIAM BRITO SANSORES 1980 Diccionrio My Cordemex, My Espñol, Espñol-My. Ediciones Cordemex, Mexico, D.F. BASSIE-SWEET, KAREN 1991 From the Mouth of the Drk Cve: Commemortive Sculpture of the Lte Clssic My. University of Oklhom Press, Normn At the Edge of the World: Cves nd Lte Clssic My World View. University of Oklhom Press, Normn. BAUDEZ, CLAUDE-FRANÇOIS 1994 My Sculpture of Copán: The Iconogrphy. University of Oklhom Press, Normn nd London. BERLIN, HEINRICH 1959 Glyphos Nominles en el Srcófgo de Plenque. Humniddes 2(10):1-8. Guteml: Universidd de Sn Crlos The Plenque Trid. Journl de l Société des Américnistes [n.s.] 52: The Inscription of the Temple of the Cross t Plenque. Americn Antiquity 30: The Tlet of the 96 Glyphs t Plenque, Chips, Mexico. Preprint of 1970 puliction in Archeologicl Studies in Middle Americ. Middle Americn Reserch Institute, Puliction 26, pp MARI, Tulne University, New Orlens. BERLIN, HEINRICH, nd DAVID H. KELLEY 1961 The 819-dy Count nd Color-direction Symolism mong the Clssic My. Preprint of 1970 puliction in Archeologicl Studies in Middle Americ. Middle Americn Reserch Institute, Puliction 26, pp MARI, Tulne University, New Orlens. BERNAL ROMERO, GUILLERMO 1999 Anlisis epigrfico del Tlero de K n Tok, Plenque, Chips. Pper presented t the Tercer Mes Redond de Plenque, Plenque, Chips, Mexico, June 27-July 1, U Pkl K inich Jnh Pkl, el Nuevo goerndor de Plenque. Lkmh 1(4):4-9. Concult INAH, Plenque. BLOM, FRANZ 1982 Ls Ruins de Plenque, Xup y Finc Encntdo. INAH, Mexico, D.F. (Originl unpulished report issued in 1923.) BLOM, FRANZ, nd OLIVER LA FARGE Tries nd Temples. Two volumes. Tulne University, New Orlens. BOWDITCH, CHARLES P The Temples of the Cross, of the Folited Cross nd of the Sun t Plenque. Hrvrd University, Cmridge.

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McHrgue, pp Pre-Columin Art Reserch Institute, Sn Frncisco. PINEDA, VICENTE 1986 Sulevciones Indigens en Chips: Grmtic y Diccionrio Tzeltl. Instituto Ncionl Indigenist, Mexico, D.F. PROSKOURIAKOFF, TATIANA 1960 Historicl Implictions of Pttern of Dtes t Piedrs Negrs, Guteml. Americn Antiquity 25(4): My History. University of Texs Press, Austin. QUENON, MICHEL, nd GENEVIÈVE LE FORT 1997 Reirth nd Resurrection in Mize God Iconogrphy. In The My Vse Book, Volume 5, edited y B. Kerr nd J. Kerr, pp Kerr Assocites, New York.

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Roertson, pp Roert Louis Stevenson School, Pele Bech, Cliforni An Iconogrphic Approch to the Identity of the Figures on the Piers of the Temple of the Inscriptions, Plenque. In Tercer Mes Redond de Plenque, Vol. IV, edited y M.G. Roertson nd D.C. Jeffers, pp Pre-Columin Art Reserch, Herld Printers, Monterey, Cliforni The Sculpture of Plenque. Volume I: The Temple of the Inscriptions. Princeton University Press, Princeton The Sculpture of Plenque. Volume III: The Lte Buildings of the Plce. Princeton University Press, Princeton. ROBERTSON, MERLE GREENE, MAJORIE S. ROSENBAUM SCANDIZZO, nd JOHN R. SCANDIZZO 1976 Physicl Deformities in the Ruling Linege of Plenque, nd the Dynstic Implictions. In The Art, Iconogrphy nd Dynstic History of Plenque, Prt III, edited y M.G. Roertson, pp Roert Louis Stevenson School, Pele Bech, Cliforni. ROYS, RALPH L The Ethno-otny of the My. Middle Americn Reserch Institute, Puliction 2. MARI, Tulne University, New Orlens Ritul of the Bcs. University of Oklhom Press, Normn. RUZ LHUILLIER, ALBERTO 1958 Explorciones rqueológics en Plenque: Anles del Instituto Ncionl de Antropologí e Histori, 10: INAH, Mexico, D.F. SCHELE, LINDA 1976 Accession Iconogrphy of Chn-Bhlum in the Group of the Cross t Plenque. In The Art, Iconogrphy & Dynstic History of Plenque, Prt III: The Proceedings of the Segund Mes Redond de Plenque, edited y M.G. Roertson, pp Roert Louis Stevenson School. Pele Bech, Cliforni The Plenque Trid: A Visul nd Glyphic Approch. Actes du XLIIe Congres de Americnistes 7: Geneologicl Documenttion in the Tri-figure Pnels t Plenque. In Tercer Mes Redond de Plenque, Vol. IV, edited y M.G. Roertson nd D.C. Jeffers, pp Pre-Columin Art Reserch, Herld Printers, Monterey, Cliforni My Glyphs: The Vers. University of Texs Press, Austin The Huerg Stel: Bloodletting nd the Mythos of Clssic My Rulership. In Fifth Plenque Round Tle, 1983, edited y V.M. Fields, pp The Pre-Columin Art Reserch Institute, Sn Frncisco The Xil Shuffle: A Dnce fter Deth. In My Iconogrphy, edited y E.P. Benson nd G.G. Griffin, pp Princeton University Press, Princeton House Nmes nd Dediction Rituls t Plenque. In Vision nd Revision in My Studies, edited y F. Clncy nd P. Hrrison, pp University of New Mexico Press, Aluquerque The Demotion of Chk-Zutz : Linege Compounds nd Suordinte Lords t Plenque. In Sixth Plenque Round Tle, 1986, edited y V.M. Fields, pp University of Oklhom Press, Normn A New Look t the Dynstic History of Plenque. In Hndook of Middle Americn Indins, Supplement 5: Epigrphy, edited y V.R. Bricker, pp University of Texs Press, Austin Cretion nd the Ritul of the Bks. Texs Notes on Precolumin Art, Writing, nd Culture, 57. Art Deprtment, University of Texs t Austin. SCHELE, LINDA, nd DAVID FREIDEL 1990 A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient My. Willim Morrow nd Compny, New York The Courts of Cretion: Bllcourts, Bllgmes, nd Portls to the My Otherworld. In The Mesomericn Bllgme, edited y V.L. Scrorough nd D.R. Wilcox, pp University of Arizon Press, Tucson. SCHELE, LINDA, nd NIKOLAI GRUBE 1990 A Preliminry Inventory of Plce Nmes in the Copn Inscriptions. Copán Notes, 93. Copn Acropolis Project Pi s Bundle. Texs Notes on Precolumin Art, Writing, nd Culture, 56. Art Deprtment, University of Texs t Austin. SCHELE, LINDA, NIKOLAI GRUBE, nd FEDERICO FAHSEN 1992 The Lunr Series in Clssic My Inscriptions: New Oservtions nd Interprettions. Texs Notes on Precolumin Art, Writing, nd Culture, 29. Art Deprtment, University of Texs t Austin. SCHELE, LINDA, nd PETER MATHEWS 1979 The Bodeg of Plenque, Chips, Mexico. Dumrton Oks, Wshington, D.C. SCHELE, LINDA, PETER MATHEWS, nd FLOYD G. LOUNSBURY 1977 Prentge nd Spouse Expressions from Clssic My Inscriptions. Unpulished mnuscript Redting the Huerg Stel. 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Ph.D. disserttion, Deprtment of Anthropology, Vnderilt University, Nshville Kings of Stone: A Considertion of Stele in Clssic My Ritul nd Representtion. Res: Anthropology nd Aesthetics 29/30: Kinship Terms in My Inscriptions. In The Lnguge of My Hieroglyphs, edited y M. Mcri nd A. Ford, pp Pre-Columin Art Reserch Institute, Sn Frncisco The Fire Enters His House : Architecture nd Ritul in Clssic My Texts. In Function nd Mening in Clssic My Architecture, edited y S.D. Houston, pp Dumrton Oks, Wshington, D.C Testimonios sore l guerr durnte el Clásico My. Arqueologí Mexicn 6(32): c The Decipherment of T128. Unpulished mnuscript The Arrivl of Strngers : Teotihucn nd Tolln in Clssic My History. In Mesomeric s Clssic Heritge: From Teotihucn to the Aztecs, edited y D. Crrsco, L. Jones, nd S. Sessions, pp University Press of Colordo, Boulder Ritul nd History in the Stucco Inscription from Temple XIX t Plenque. The PARI Journl 1(1): c Ls nuevs inscripciones del Templo XIX. 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