Archivist Packet N Greenview Chicago, IL Main Store 1226 NE Fourth Ave Ft Lauderdale FL

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1 This packet would not have been possible without the very generous corporate sponsorship of LeatherWerks. Main Store 1226 NE Fourth Ave Ft Lauderdale FL Charlotte Store 4544H South Blvd Charlotte NC Where Leather is a Lifestyle Introduction Why collect history? Why an archivist packet? What you will find in this packet Suggested Club History Checklist Resources Presentation ideas Helpful Information Tips for paperwork Contributors Tips for photography Lawrence E A Fox Color photos Lawrence is a relative newcomer to the leather community, having been introduced to it by an ex boyfriend in He was the last new member of Crucible MC in Pittsburgh before joining PMC (Shipmates 20 th Anniversary was his first actual leather event). He moved to Ft Lauderdale in 1996 as a boy to Randall Bearman Klett, co-owner of LeatherWerks. October of that year also saw the first offering of the Dungeon series of educational events. In 98 he took over the Presidency of the organization. Over the years he has been involved in the Young Leathermen of South Florida, SPICE, and board of directors for NLA Florida. He has presented demos for several of the Ft Lauderdale leather bars, clubs and organizations. After a move to Chicago for 3 months, he is back in Ft Lauderdale continuing work at LeatherWerks with Bear (now in the non-biblical way). Active club memberships are Delta International, SPICE, NLA Ft Lauderdale, and Associate Member of Highwaymen TNT. Robert Ridinger Damaged paper A full professor of the University Libraries at Northern Illinois University, he has worked to promote awareness of the LA&M within the professional library/archival communities. Speaker on "Daring To Save Our History" sponsored by the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Round Table of the American Library Association. Also a panelist at "The Future of the Queer Past: A Transnational History Conference" at the University of Chicago. Rob has been active since the early 1990s, following coming out into leather in the early 1980s. With life partner John Schultz, he helped found Trident International Windy City, in 1992, and serves as secretary. Faculty for LIL X and XI on panels dealing with regional and leather publication history. Historian of the MACC and has assembled a history of Trident International. He has written for the LA&M Newsletter, about leather culture and history to Bear Book II, Reader's Guide to Gay and Lesbian Studies, ' Children of the Satyrs: Naming Patterns of Leather and Levi Clubs" to the journal NAMES, and on the LA&M for the Journal of Homosexuality, "Things Visible and Invisible." Many thanks to LeatherWerks for their generous sponsorship in making this Archivist Packet possible. Also, tremendous gratitude to Joseph Bean for his suggestions on content and Amy O Brien for her many volunteer hours in Editorial/Proofing N Greenview Chicago, IL Archivist Packet Photo storage Fabric Leather Modern media Tips for extending the life of your videotapes Avoid attics and basements Document restoration Flattening folded or rolled paper Water damage Modern media restoration Select Leather History Timeline Post Script Purpose of the Leather Archives and Museum Collection Policy What the LA&M collects Specific collections Special projects Guidelines for doing an oral history Information sheet for the LA&M

2 Introduction We need to turn our attention from attempting to develop Regional Coordinators with broad-ranging responsibilities over an area of one or a few states, and focus on encouraging individuals to see that their own lives are archived and, even more importantly, on clubs and businesses and organizations. Every group club, non-profit, leathers shop, publisher, etc. should have a historian or an archivist whose job includes both maintaining a sufficient history of that group and sharing that historic record with the rest of the world, or at least of the leather world, by seeing that everything possible is deposited at the Leather Archives & Museum. Obviously, different groups have different capabilities when it comes to researching their already past years and events, but every single group could definitely maintain a reliable and useful history of themselves starting from now, maybe from last year, or from the date of the last shake-up in their administration or whatever. To do this well, it seems to me that two things are required: First, a group should choose someone to serves in this capacity as long as possible with as much help as possible, so that what is learned is not lost each year at election time but continues through the various slates of officers. Second, a group should be given all the help and training and information and support we, the Leather Archives, are able to give. --Joseph Bean to the Board of Directors of the LA&M in May 1999 Why collect history? Those who forget the past are doomed to repeat it. This sounds very trite, but this statement holds the basic truth. Shared history is what defines any specific group of people, it becomes the binding force that identifies them. Our leather community has a special set of circumstances that set us apart from other subcultures. We aren t defined by race, religion, location, age, or politics. Leatherfolk cross all ethnic backgrounds, come from every walk of life, and represent every theological and philosophical viewpoint. Recording the changes, decisions, and actions of daily life in our community may help those in the future struggling to understand themselves. Perhaps knowing that others have shared your pain, joy, views, beliefs, and are willing to accept you for it, will help someone. It is our differences that bring us together. Any sort of material writing, clothing, personal belongings, and pictures can be valuable material. People gather items based on interest for a political or historical issue, or simply for the joy of collecting. It is possible to gather material in the simple acts of daily living. Either way, such collections can be invaluable to researchers in the future, become a great source of pride and focus. Conserving history as you go about your daily life is far easier than reconstructing years later. 2 Information packet for Leather Archives Current Information Full Name of Club Type of club (leather, levi, men-only, bike, social, educational, region, fraternal, etc.) Contact info for Club Address, City, State, Zip Phone number Web page, address Current Club Officers Club Newsletter (title, who produced, how often, can you provide a copy?) Club home bar Member of any over-organizations? (SECC, MAC, AMCC, etc.) Historical Information Founding date of club Founding members (currently active in club?) Constitution and bylaws, articles of incorporation Meeting minutes (useful for chronology of events) Previous names of club and dates of use Club colors (who created, what does it mean, when first used?) Club insignia (try to be highly descriptive so your colors can be identified on any other items, include a drawing or photo if possible) Activities Events hosted by club (when, where, who produced, any reason for the event name), Any media coverage of events (magazine articles, news writeups, posters) Having a paper trail for the club can be a wonderful thing. If possible, try to get club histories from the founding members, you would be surprised at how much detail people remember if you sit down and talk to them for a while. Leather Archives and Museum 6418 N Greenview, Chicago, IL fax 3

3 Your tapes will be transcribed at the LA&M, and both the tapes and the transcript will be filed. Your name as spoken in the sound-check label will appear on the cover sheet of the transcript and in the actual transcription of the beginning of the tape unless you direct us otherwise. Why an archivist packet? This packet is by no means intended to be the definitive authority for a club archivist. We suggest it to be used only as a guideline to set up your own system. This scribe packet was created to assist clubs in collecting their own history. It is not a rulebook, not a bible, and not a mandatory checklist. One of the community s strongest assets is the openness to new and different styles in each club and organization. The history of our community should reflect this great diversity. Too often our history has been lost with the passing of our elder statesmen and women. Countless stories of how our clan developed and grew; have become history left on the curb, given to flea markets or donated to Goodwill. It boggles the mind how much history was simply thrown out by family members who didn t recognize (or were un-accepting of) the importance of some personal effects. Don t dismiss the importance of items because they aren t specifically about an event, historians need to know the general conditions of the period they study. Personal material is as valuable as public; usually more so because it is harder to find and offers an individual perspective. This packet should provide a resource to clubs or organizations that seek to preserve their history. There are things in this packet that do not apply to your organization. More importantly, there are items which do apply that are not included, decide where your needs are and how best to serve them. What you will find in this packet A suggested club history checklist. (As mentioned above, use this as a guidepost instead of a comprehensive list) We have collected helpful information on ways of storing documents and pictures to help prevent damage, as well as restoring items which may have been damaged through flooding, fire or aging. The specific problems of modern media (computer disk, cd roms, video tape) have also been touched upon. Technical (and practical) archival techniques are listed. Museums and archival institutions use most of these practices with their collections. Skimming through these notes can help preserve your history before it is donated to an archival institution. Information about the Leather Archives & Museum. Specific information about our mission, collections and policies. 42 3

4 Suggested Club history checklist Current Information Full Name of Club Type of club (leather, levi, men-only, bike, social, educational, region, fraternal, etc.) Address City, State, Zip Phone number Web page address Current Club Officers Club Newsletter Club home bar Member of any over-organizations? (SECC, MAC, AMCC, etc.) Historical Information Founding date of club Founding members (currently active in club?) Constitution and bylaws, articles of incorporation Meeting minutes (useful for chronology of events) Previous names of club and dates of use Club colors (who created, what does it mean, when first used?) Club insignia (try to be highly descriptive so your colors can be identified on any other items, include a picture or photo if possible) Activities Events hosted by club (when, where, who produced, any reason for the event name) Any media coverage of events (magazine articles, news write-ups, posters) 4 were different then (or there). Ask, Are they better now (here)? Follow-up questions, in general, show the subject that you are finding what he or she says Interesting. And, no less important, they collect more detailed information and personalize the information. All along, allow your interest in what is being said to guide you in asking questions. Show your enthusiasm for the subject and his or her memories. Use follow-up questions to expand on the information volunteered, but let the subject also choose not to say more when he or she wants to drop a topic or turn to a new one. Express as little of your own opinion as possible and as much agreement with the subject as you honestly feel. Your opinions, once introduced, will color what the subject says, even if he or she is already familiar with you and your ideas. When the interview seems to be coming to an end, give the subject an opportunity to speak of whatever he or she wants to by asking something like, Is there anything you would like to talk about that we haven t touched on today? Anything you d like to say more about? Be grateful and show your appreciation. Many of the subjects from whom the LA&M would like to have Oral Histories are people who have been interviewed many times. Making time for you to interview them for the LA&M does them no particular good, so their greatest reward for taking the time and making the effort is likely to be your _expression of thanks or appreciation. Give your subject the opportunity (without the slightest pressure) to donate artifacts or papers to the LA&M, and leave LA&M brochures with him or her. Ask the subject for recommendations about other Oral History interview subjects. After You Do an Oral History Interview for the LA&M Be sure that all tapes are adequately labeled, including sequential numbering of the sides of all cassettes. Be sure that the tapes are properly recorded by playing bits at the beginning and end of each side of each tape. For safety, make duplicates of the tapes if it can conveniently be done. Send the tapes to Rick Storer, Leather Archives and Museum, 6418 N. Greenview Ave., Chicago, IL 60626, as soon as possible. Include a note saying whether you have collected anything in addition to the package of tapes, please indicate whether you have made safety duplicates. 41

5 Keep the conversation rolling. If it bogs down, it is often because the subject has lost his train of thought or is uncomfortable with the information being shared. You might want to keep just one-word notes, a running list, so you can bring the subject back to the matter under discussion or to an earlier subject that may be more comfortable and worthy of more exploration. This backingup process often leads the subject into the uncomfortable matter at a new and more comfortable angle. Remember that the interest of anyone who finds an Oral History in the files of the LA&M will be primarily interested in answers concerning the subject s leather life, but that his biography in general may have tremendous bearing on the leather-related details. So, get a general biography early in the conversation. You might, for example, ask, Can you tell me the Joseph Bean story in 100 words or less? Ask additional questions to get a lifeline that places the subject in time and geography as well as social circumstances. Things like the wealth or poverty of the subject and his or her family, rural or urban childhood, mobile or stationary living situations, degree of education and major interests in school, happy or unpleasant childhood may be of great importance. Be sure to ask, in some form, for the following information: a. Early sexual experiences and fantasies. b. Coming out story, using the term broadly, to include both coming out as gay, if the subject is gay or lesbian and coming out, as kinky or into radical sex. c. What the leather/sm world he or she first encountered was like, where, when, and how it changed in his or her time in the milieu. d. Involvement with leather/sm clubs, businesses or organizations. e. Any involvement with leather/sm or gay/lesbian activism, civil rights, etc. f. Sexual evolution and continuity. (Many people have been involved in leathersex during periods of their lives, but not continuously throughout their lives, and the periods in and out of leather activity could be important factors in how they see and interact with the leather communities.) g. Degree to which the subject has been open about, secretive about or hurt/limited by his sexuality and sexual tastes. It is good to have your Oral History interview include a clear picture of the person, as he or she would be seen in a TV or newspaper feature. That is, include the kinds of identifying information that would appear in a report of the subject, say, winning a race: Joe Blow, a 44 year old decorator, new to the New York area, who has also worked as a landscape architect and waiter, won the marathon today. It is very important to get opinions as well as facts. If, for example, the subject says, It s easier to learn SM techniques now than it was back then? Ask, Do you think that s good? Or, was the old way better? If he or she says, Clubs 40 Resources Having a paper trail for the club is a wonderful thing. Whenever possible, obtain club histories from the founding members. You would be surprised at how much detail people remember if you sit down and talk to them for a while (audio taping these conversations are immensely valuable). Old fliers, club posters, newsletters (of your own club and others) are all good sources of information; they show dates, places and names. News articles are another good source to track down specific information. Weekly bar magazines are also incredibly useful, they not only show what happened, but can give you an overview on the atmosphere of a specific region and general history. The Archives has been working on collecting individual stories from some of the people who have helped define our community. More specific information about the Oral History project can be found in the Post Script section of this packet. In today s world electronic medium has become prevalent. A quick search online under most leather topics will give you a slew of potential pages. The difficulty then simply becomes time to track down the specific information you are looking for. A large number of people have personal web pages that can give you background details not commonly known about important events in the community. Side Note: When taking photos, it s a good idea to have duplicates made, placing each set in a different place to safeguard against loss. Also, it takes only a moment to write some relevant information on the back of a picture (date, names, event, location... use a fine tip marker to keep from damaging the print), which can make a world of difference later when trying to reconstruct events. Presentation ideas Most clubs have trophy cases or scrap books. Everyone likes thumbing through memories, moments taken from time, seeing how they fit into history. A photo album doesn t have to be reserved for just the members of a club. Scrapbooks, home videos, slideshows can be used as background for bar nights or events. Leaving the photo albums in the hospitality suite gives people something to do during the slow times of events, and can become a starting point for some incredible conversation. (We strongly suggest you have duplicates of all material in a safe location, copies will become misplaced or damaged during public viewing). Perhaps another idea would be a special presentation to the founding members of your club. Create a social event (public or private, limited to club members or not) around it. This is Your Life has been a theme for heaven knows how many books, movies, and tv series. This same idea can apply to other clubs or groups you may have had extensive dealings with (much like presentation of club colors to a host bar or sister club). 5

6 Helpful Information Tips for paperwork Most modern papers, unless designated as acid-free or permanent/durable, have an expected useful life of less than 50 years. High temperatures, combined with high humidity, facilitate the acidic reactions, which contribute to the deterioration of paper. Thus, the life of paper can be extended by lower storage temperatures. Theoretically, the useful life is almost doubled at each 10-degree Fahrenheit decrease in temperature. A constant storage temperature of 68-degrees Fahrenheit is considered ideal (being high enough to be comfortable to workers and low enough not to damage materials). Wood and papers contain harmful additives such as bleach or hydrogen peroxide. Use only paper products that are acid free. Proper storage containers are available from archival suppliers. Please be careful in what types of print out you choose to store. Ink jet printers use a water-based ink, which bleeds in high humidity, ruining not only the original sheet, but also any pages placed next to it. Laser printers use a heat transfer process that seals the ink to the paper and is safer to store. Insects and Rodents Insects and rodents are attracted by the cellulose of the paper, proteins and carbohydrates of gelatin sizing, glue, paste, leather and other organic substances. As a further precaution against insects, one can place small open containers of Para dichlorobenzene (the active ingredient of moth crystals) on bookshelves. Para dichlorobenzene is a poison and must be placed beyond the reach of children! If insects are found in stored documents, you can place them in a covered container with Para dichlorobenzene for three weeks, an ample time to eliminate insects and their eggs. Para dichlorobenzene is available in drug, discount and general stores under various trade names. The material readily vaporizes and requires periodic replacement. Silverfish may be eliminated with a sweetened mixture that can be placed in shallow cardboard boxes loosely covered with crumpled sheets of paper. The mixture is ample for several good-sized rooms, and the boxes may be placed in areas where silverfish are known to occur. Wheat flour or Oatmeal (ground to flour) 1 3/4 cups Sodium fluoride (available in drug stores) 1/4 teaspoon Granulated sugar 1/2 teaspoon Salt 1/4 teaspoon Mix the ingredients thoroughly and it is ready to use. This powder should also work on various other insect pests. Sprays should be avoided because of the chance of staining materials. Tips for photography Temperature and humidity affect photographs and documents more than any other element. Best conditions for storage are less than 70 degrees with the relative 6 about. In short, come with as clear an idea as possible of what the likely areas of discussion and controversy and interest will be. Plan to dress and present yourself in a way that will facilitate communications and not inflame controversy with the subject. For example: If you discover that Joseph has had an on-going problem with The 15 Association (which he has not), don t choose to wear a patch or button with the logo of The 15 on it. This does not mean you should lie about yourself or your connections. What s more, you cannot hope to always cover all the bases in this area, but it is worth thinking of. On the positive side, if you have a friendship pin from a club Joseph belongs to, it won t hurt to wear it, and even to intentionally mention you have done so especially for the interview. Clear your own schedule so that you can begin the interview relaxed and with no pressing need for food or bathroom facilities. Carry everything you need in a single bag or briefcase, carefully packed, so you can set up and be ready to start very quickly. Be prepared to set up and then give the subject time to warm up to you before beginning the actual interview. Note: If possible, start the tape before or early in even the idle conversation that takes place before the interview. This give the person a chance to become accustomed to the tape player (learn to ignore it). The recorder collects any gems that might be lost when you later say, When we were talking you said. Conducting an Oral History Interview for the LA&M Speak your label onto the first side of the first cassette as the sound check for your equipment. For Example: This is John Doe, interviewing Joseph Bean at his North Clark Street home in Chicago on October 23, And, add to your sound-check the following, as nearly as you can recall it: This interview is for the LA&M s Oral History Records which will be made available to researchers, writers and scholars. Then be sure to get the subject to indicate that he or she heard that statement by asking something like, You knew that, didn t you? or You understand that people using the archives will have access to this interview, don t you? If the subject wants to discuss the question of people having access to the information in the interview, allow him or her to make any reasonable limiting statement. Maybe he/she will say that no one is to use his name in his lifetime or that anyone wishing to publish information from the interview should be required to check with him/her in advance if the name is to be used, etc. Permit the statement to stand as it is given and trust the administration of the LA&M to secure a less limited access at a later time or to abide by the subject s wishes. Start with a few simple questions that can be answered briefly. Ask the subject, for example, where he or she was born; how long the family stayed there; etc. gives a chance to collect useful information in small bites while you and the subject relax with each other. 39

7 Guidelines for Doing Oral History Interviews Doing an interview as an Oral History for the LA&M is not difficult if you are the kind of person who finds other people s lives and experiences interesting. This interest is very important. It is what will guide you to ask questions and pursue information. If you also have an active interest in the history of the leather lifestyles, your curiosity will lead you to ask the right questions and pursue the information most likely to be of interest to future researchers. Below are some guidelines for the entire process, from preparing yourself, your equipment, conducting the interview and delivering it to the LA&M. In these guidelines, the word subject refers to the person being interviewed. General Recommendations (Rules) For Doing An LA&M Interview Record your interview on a standard-size audiocassette using mid-level or high-grade tape at standard speed. Label your tapes before you meet with the interview subject. Always start with at least two labeled cassettes. If one tape fails, you have another. If the interview goes on beyond the length of a single tape (and most will) you are prepared. Include on the label the subject s name, the date and the place where the interview takes place. For example: Joseph Bean, 23 Oct. 1997, his home, Chicago. Unless your subject especially requests it, or an avoidable circumstance demands it, do not continue to interview a person who has become tired or irritated with the process. Instead, set a date to come back another time to continue the interview, bringing with you a very brief outline of what has already been discussed and a detailed reminder of the final minutes of the previous interview. Pretest your equipment, being sure the batteries in your tape recorder are up to the task. You should have the correct adapter for AC, etc. If you are re-using cassettes, erase or degauss them ahead of time. Arrive promptly at the appointment, calling ahead if possible to confirm that the subject remembers you are coming and has set aside time enough for a free and, one hopes, undisturbed interview. Preparing Yourself to do an Oral History Interview for the LA&M. Know what is generally known about your subject. For example: You know that Joseph Bean is an editor, has recently moved to Chicago to work at the Leather Archives and Museum. Check books in print or, on-line, for books he may have written or edited; ask other editors you know or others involved with the Leather Archives what they think is interesting about Joseph, what they would ask; ask people who don t necessarily know Joseph what they think of his books or his reputation or whatever else you may have to ask 38 humidity under 50%. High humidity is most harmful and high temperatures accelerate the deterioration. Cyclic conditions (high heat and humidity followed by cold and dry weather, followed by high heat, etc) are very bad for the emulsion and may cause cracking and separation of the emulsion from the support (the back of the photo will peel off from the surface). Use only lignin free (from paper pulp), acid free, unbuffered paper to store photographs or as interleaving paper in albums. Color Photos Black and white photographs, when processed properly and stored correctly could last 100 to 300 years. Part of this is because black & white photos use metallic silver as the image former. As long as nothing corrupts the silver, it is a permanent element within the picture. This is not true in the case of color photographs as the color is formed by dyes. Dyes are not stable and this can be seen when the sunlight attacks drapes near a window or any upholstery near the rear window of an automobile. The sun causes these dyes to fade in the same way that the dyes in a color photograph fade. This change happens very gradually and you usually will not notice the change until one day you examine the print and notice that your relatives never had green faces before. Photographic manufacturers are aware of this problem. Kodak (one of the largest film manufacturers in the world) has a disclaimer on each roll of color film concerning this: Since color dyes may change over time, this product will not be replaced for, or warranted against, any change in color. COLOR PHOTOGRAPHS WILL FADE. If you preserve your color photographs in optimal conditions, the best that you can hope for before they start to fade is 50 years. Today most film and paper manufacturers are trying to come up with new materials to help prolong the life of a color photograph. Until they can utilize material other than dyes, we will still have a fading problem. To intensify this problem, in the 1950's thru the 1980's many photo labs were not aware of this problem and did not adequately process the color prints. If you have color photos from the 1950's or 1960's and are displaying them, you will probably already have noticed a shift (or change) in colors. Although the sun and its ultraviolet rays are most harmful, heat, humidity and fluorescent lighting will accelerate the deterioration of the dyes. In fact, the only type of illumination that is recommended for viewing color prints is standard tungsten illumination. However, this too must be kept at a low light level to preserve the color photographs (and really, very few people have access to such specialized equipment). Common sense and practical consideration will offset a great deal of damage. There are some things you can do that will help protect your color photographs. If you have only one original color photograph and do not have the negative, you may want to consider having a color copy made for display. Store the original in a dark, 7

8 cool, dry place. A second suggestion would be to have a black & white copy printed on fiber paper. Almost all prints today are printed on RC (Resin Coated) paper. If processed and stored properly, fiber paper could last 100 to 300 years. Hand coloring fiber paper can survive just as long. Hand coloring uses pigments, not dyes, and pigments have much greater keeping properties (think of the great works displayed in museums). Painters from the 1700's used pigments, and most of them are still in fine condition. Finally, if you must display a color photograph, make sure it does not face a window. For very important events, by all means shoot all the color photos you wish, but you may want to also shoot some black and white film as well. Do not take the black and white film to a 60-minute photo lag, have the film archivally processed. Archival process will allow the film to last 100 years or more. To have this done, you will need a custom photo lab. One easy way to make sure the lab will process it archivally is to ask them how long they will wash the negatives. If it is not at least ONE HOUR washing time, then the chances are that it will not be archival. The Oral History Project - This project involves the taping, transcribing, indexing and filing of interviews with important individuals or longtime participants in the leather lifestyles. The transcribed histories form one of the most important information resources in the LA&M's collections. Identifying subjects, arranging interviews, typing and indexing them is an area where volunteers are always needed. Some Oral Histories are included on our web site, including an Oral History of Tony DeBlase. If you know anyone who you feel should record their oral history there is much more information on this project in the "Get Involved" section of the web site. This is a most important project if we are not to lose the first hand stories of the beginning of the leather world as we know it. Finally, for the sake of history and fading memory as time goes on, attach some information to the photos of the people and events shown. Even a simple quick notation on the back of a print can help spur more detailed memory later of who the people are. Photo Storage Any of the following plastics are safe to use in storing photographs, negatives or documents: Polyester, Mylar, Polypropylene, Polyethylene, and Tyvek. Rubber bands or rubber cement contain sulfur, which degrades photographic emulsions (tending to break down back into the base materials they are made from, creating a sticky mess). Paper clips can abrade or scratch the surfaces of prints or negatives. Pressure sensitive tapes usually contain acids which can accelerate the deterioration process. Any kind of ink also contains acids. Fingerprints on prints or negatives create physical damage from the oils and acids in human skin. Negatives should not be stored touching each other, even a small amount of heat can cause them to stick together. Fumes and vapors from oil-based paints, varnishes, shellac, carbon monoxide (automobiles stored in garages) and photocopiers including laser copiers (most produce ozone, which is a bleach, as a by-product) may accelerate deterioration. Also, the intense light and heat from copiers are detrimental to photographs. Fabric If kept dry, fabric preserves quite well. However, even a small amount of moisture can cause fabric to face or deteriorate and encourage vermin. Dust can be difficult to clean out of some fabrics. For long-term conservation, use boxes rather than a closet and store materials with a desiccant (silica gel packs can be found in stores 8 37

9 LA&M Scrapbook and Archives - What would a record of the Leather History be without a record of the LA&M itself? The traveling exhibit has a busier and fuller travel schedule than even the most involved leather man or woman. International Mr. Leather - More than just an international title contest, IML has become one of the largest annual gatherings of the Leather Community. It's only fitting it should have its own collection. Films and Audio / Video Tapes - Surely you can imagine what fun it would be to spend some time surveying this collection. Other than the obvious, it also includes videotapes and films of Leather Community events and audiotape interviews with some very interesting members of our community. Titleholder Database - Bob Gunther, Mr. Maryland Leather 2000, has been working on a database of all Titleholders for quite some time. You can find this database on the LA&M web site. Sashes - Worn with pride by titleholders around the world and then generously donated to the LA&M. Some are sashes from prior winners of contest that still take place. Others are retired sashes from contest that no longer exist. Pins - You thought you had a lot of pins on your vest! The LA&M Collection of pins is quite extensive. If your club or organization has a pin, be sure to send one to the LA&M. Besides the collections listed above, the LA&M has a few "special" projects. The Colors Project - Includes the colors or logos and histories of Leather, SM, MC, LL, fetish and related clubs and fraternal organizations from around the world. George Cameron of Vancouver, British Columbia originally started this project. The LA&M now manages this project and archives all the colors from its building in Chicago. Special forms are available to collect basic information about the clubs, but it is preferable to collect a more extensive history and the most club records available. The records, of course, are stored in the vertical files. The form for submitting colors is available on this web site as well as much more information and many of the colors collected by the LA&M. which sell photography equipment or hobby stores that deal with pressed/dried flowers). Leather It takes very little work to care for a piece of leather, and if cared for a leather garment will last for decades. Store leather in a cool, dry place with good ventilation. To keep it in good condition, leather should be oiled once a year. For thin, garment weight leather you should use one of the thicker oil products (Black Dubbin or Chelsea Leatherfood are good choices). Be sure the surface is clean beforehand (Lexol conditioner is excellent for cleaning leather and comes in a Ph balanced formula for more delicate items). Take a dollop of the oil in your hands and rub to heat it up a bit. Spread it in a light layer over the leather, rubbing in circles. You should allow the item to set overnight so the oil can be absorbed. Heavier weight or belt leather requires something a little more fluid to fully permeate (Neatsfoot Oil is good for those jobs). For lighter colored leathers you may want to get the clear version of Chelsea Leatherfood or use mink oil (caution: mink oil can darken the finish of light colored leather). DO NOT use mineral oil, baby oil, or vegetable oil products to care for your leather. Mineral and baby oil degrade the fibers which give leather structure, and vegetable oil rots, becomes a great breeding ground for bacteria and attracts vermin. Oiling is also a good time to check the piece for bad patches. Moisture and heat will cause mold to grow; there are several strains specific to leather goods. Once a colony gets started, it is almost impossible to kill. Most cleaning products only kill the active mold, leaving the spores untouched. It takes great heat to destroy mold spores and most products strong enough to destroy the spores will strip the finish from leather goods. It is possible to kill off an active mold colony by wiping the area down with vinegar. This isn t as harmful to the surface as other cleaning techniques and seems to hamper the spores, but again, it is not a guarantee. Should you have a piece of leather become moldy, you should quarantine it from other leather pieces lest it infect them as well. Continue to store it in a dry, cool place. Attempting to contain it in a bag will simply spur further growth of the colony. Modern media Videos are not a reliable way to document anything that you want to preserve. In fact, it is one of the worst methods you can use for preserving images. Videos will only last 10 to 15 years before they start to deteriorate. The best you can hope for is less than twenty years before videotapes deteriorate. Many individuals that own photographs are familiar with photographic deterioration. Photographs get either darker or lighter (depending on the photo process) when they deteriorate. This does not happen with videos, deterioration starts with static lines running across the image, kind of like a video that is not 36 9

10 tracking properly. You cannot correct this problem with your tracking control. This problem gets worse until it is very difficult to view anything. As long as you are aware of their limitations, video cameras are great for short-term viewing. They are also good for turning photos into video demonstrations (surpassing the dreaded slide show from previous times). It can be a great background for club anniversaries or to lend some color to hospitality suites. Videotape is made from a base of polyester, which is coated with polyurethane. The coating acts as a binder, trapping magnetic oxide particles (the carriers of the magnetically encoded information) within the tape. That binding system is fragile, high temperatures and humidity accelerate the deterioration, causing the urethane particles in the coating to react with water (humidity), break free and migrate to the surface of the tape. The next time the tape is played, the oxide particles, no longer obstructed by their binder, peel off, taking with them all of the recorded images. To further compound the problem, the very nature of nature will degrade the magnetic tape. As cosmic rays pass through the material, they will sometimes strike one of the iron atoms making up the magnetic backing, flipping the polarity of the charge, which degrades the information. Tips for Extending the Life of Your Videotapes Temperature range should be from 59 to 77 degrees. Relative Humidity should be kept at 40 to 60%. Fast forward and rewind tapes at least once every three years. That should keep the polyurethane binder from sticking to the adjacent layers of a tightly wound tape. Be aware that adhesion will either prevent the tape from running, or if the tape does run, it will tear the oxide particles from the base, thereby destroying the tape and gumming up the recording machine. Before storing your tapes, rewind them from end to end, in one complete, uninterrupted procedure to make sure the tape is wound evenly and uniformly. Avoid using the inexpensive rewind machines as they could cause damage to the tapes. Buy only the highest quality tapes, they are coated more evenly and last longer. Seal the tapes in plastic bags to protect them from dust, smoke and moisture. Store them vertically, with the tape wound onto the bottom spool. Keep tapes away from strong electromagnetic fields such as speakers and television sets, heat sources, and out of direct sunlight. Avoid Attics and Basements The worst places to store your photographs or documents is in an un-insulated attic or basement. In the summer, temperatures in an attic could reach 125 degrees, while in the winter they can get down to less than zero degrees. With the constant high temperatures and humidity in the summer and low temperatures and humidity in the winter, the photographs or documents will become brittle. In severe cases, What the LA&M Collects The Leather Archives and Museum collects and preserves the following types of material. Books, Magazines, Newsletters, Photographs, Letters Video Tapes Organizations Minutes and Files Club Business Logos and Materials Catalogs, Posters, Fliers, Brochures, Tickets, Programs Club Colors, Patches, Banners, Buttons Original Artwork, Sketches, Sculpture Dungeon/Playroom Photos, Plans & Designs Equipment Designs, Photos, & Sketches Titleholder Sashes, Medals and Trophies Oral Histories T-shirts And other memorabilia Specific Collections All the various items listed above, and collected by the LA&M, are assembled into various specific collections. Fine Art - Pieces in this collection are primarily original works of art by artists such as Etienne. The LA&M wish list for the new building includes a vault for the safe storage of these valuable items. Prints and Posters - This collection includes posters from many modern day events held around the world such as IML, as well as very old Prints and Posters. T-Shirts - If attend any events, you can imagine how many T-shirts the LA&M must have in this collection. Uniforms and Leathers - Currently, this is a fairly small collection, but the Portland Uniform Association has certainly done much to help it s growth. Personal Archives - Frequently the LA&M will receive the personal effects of one of us who has passed as well as the personal effects of those of us who find all the memorabilia we've collected over the years during a move. These items frequently include material representative of the person s experiences. Vertical Files - This collection consists of many file cabinet drawers filled with brochures, calling cards, handouts, and fliers. Prints of Web Sites and s of leather men and women and their businesses and organizations are kept in the vertical files. The histories of clubs and their records and evidence of fetish lifestyles is filed here as well. Every person anywhere in the world could contribute meaningfully to these files by mailing the materials that turn up at every party and bar and meeting of leatherfolk

11 This includes continuation of the capital campaign to pay off the mortgage, seek government and foundation financial support, actively participate in the electronic archiving issue, and continue to help preserve leather history for forever. Collection Policy It is the Policy of the Leather Archives and Museum (LA&M) to collect and expend its resources in the storage, preservation, restoration and exhibition of the artifacts and evidence of Leather/SM/Fetish lives, lifestyles and organizations, including but not limited to fraternal and commercial organizations, without regard to sexuality, race, gender, orientation or age-group representation, except as indicated in further paragraphs of this document. The LA&M will also collect, at the discretion of the curator or other officer acting in the stead of the curator, such items as may be or seem to be unrelated to Leather/SM/Fetish subjects if the items have been the property of persons engaged in Leather/SM/Fetish. More detailed policies may, from time to time, be enacted by the Board of Directors or by the curator to govern special circumstances unanticipated at the time of the adoption of this policy. It is the policy of the LA&M not to collect materials regarding general sexuality or specific categories of sexuality or sex practice if they are unrelated to Leather/SM/Fetish without special consideration or reason such as previous ownership by an obvious constituent of the LA&M's service population of the reasonable likelihood that the material is both of interest and not otherwise being properly preserved elsewhere. Pursuant to a vote of the Membership of the LA&M at the 1999 general meeting, it is the policy of the LA&M not to collect materials related to "boy-love" or intergenerational sexuality or materials related to inter-species sexuality. It is the policy of the LA&M not to collect materials such as SM devices and clothing if these things are in usable condition and might still serve active members of the Leather/SM/Fetish population unless there is an overriding historical interest on the specific item in question. Questions concerning the release, through whatever channel, of items donated but not retained in the collection will be decided by the curator and reported to the Board of Directors. However, the curator (and anyone acting in the stead of the curator) is prohibited from selling or discarding any item from the collection or from any donation to the collection without Board approval in advance, and such approval should not be given in the event that the donor can reasonably be presumed to have intended that the item(s) would remain in the collection. Gifts of cash, stocks, real estate or other non-collection materials are not included in or governed by this policy. the emulsion (image) on the photograph can separate from the base (paper). These cyclic conditions will have a devastating effect on any paper product. High relative humidity (in excess of 68%) cause the swelling and warping of paper fibers and hasten acid deterioration. Also, high humidity in the presence of metal staples and paper clips will cause rust stains, even though no actual water damage occurs. Low humidity (below 40%) will cause paper to dry out and become brittle. Often in this range, fragile pages will stick together as a result of static electricity, and may tear if care is not exercised in turning pages. Un-insulated basements are usually moist which can cause photographs to stick to each other. Another problem encountered in basements is that they are great breeding grounds for insects and rodents which are strongly attracted to gelatin and cellulose in the photographic emulsions. The best places to store important photographs or documents are in a safe deposit box at your bank. They are usually climate controlled and kept dark to provide almost ideal storage conditions of 68 degrees and 50% relative humidity. Document Restoration By following the procedures outlined in the several sections, much can be done to properly restore materials to usable condition without causing further damage. A word of caution however: the methods should not be applied indiscriminately to everything. A professional conservator should be consulted when dealing with documents of great value or material in an advanced stage of deterioration. Without such consultation it is better to do nothing than to do the wrong thing. Flattening Folded or Rolled Materials Papers that have been folded or rolled for long periods are often dry and brittle; and flattening may cause breakage of the cellulose fibers with permanent paper damage. Restoring moisture to the paper will relax and soften the fibers allowing the paper to be flattened much more easily. The best method of restoring moisture is to place the paper in an area of high humidity (around 100% rh) for one or two days. The documents may be sealed in a container with water or with a wet sponge in a manner that the water is not in contact with the material. A new plastic garbage can serves as a useful container, by placing a pan of water on the bottom and, tiered shelving of plastic screening on which to place the materials. The paper must not be in contact with any condensed water, which forms on the wall of the container. Alternatively, the folds or the rolled materials may be wiped with a DAMP sponge. The danger in this method is the possibility of smudging inks or colors that are not water-resistant. With either method, once the paper has absorbed moisture, flattening will proceed more easily. Once flattened, the paper should be allowed to dry under pressure. Individual pages or small groups of pages should be separated with white blotter paper or cardboard (chipboard), then covered with a piece of plywood weighted down evenly with books or some other heavy material for one or two days until dry

12 Damaged Paper Pressure sensitive tapes such as the cellophane "Scotch" tape and "Magic Mending" tape are not appropriate for repairs as both will cause stains and are difficult to remove without damage to the document. Rubber cements will also cause stains; and, as they dry out, will fail. Polyvinyl acetate emulsions (PVA), such as "Elmer's Glue-All" become impossible to remove without damage to the paper; these emulsions are often acidic and will discolor and deteriorate the paper. Gummed paper tapes should be avoided, as the tape is often acidic causing discoloration of the document. Most commercially available pastes are acidic, due to the addition of alum; these will become brittle and discolored and will cause discoloration and deterioration of the paper to which they are applied. As the pastes are water-based, they may cause cockling of the paper and may cause certain inks and colors to run. To check for water solubility of inks, moisten a cotton tipped applicator with distilled water and carefully touch the different inks or colors (one at a time), examining the cotton for any color transfer and spot checking for running. If none is exhibited, a paste may be safely used. The best adhesive is a rice paste, which can be removed with water; that is, the repairs are reversible. Water Damage Water damage to records starts within the first 8 hours after a disaster. After 24 hours, records will start to stick to each other, and within 48 hours paper will begin to chemically breakdown and to show the initial stages of fungal growth. With photographic and magnetic/electronic media, the breakdown will begin sooner and can be more devastating. Do not remove records from file folders while packing. Pack individual records separately from complete folders. Pack wet records carefully in PLASTIC MILK CRATES, no more than ¾ full. These types of crates provide adequate air circulation, can be stacked easily, and will not collapse. If crates cannot be located, use heavy corrugated cardboard boxes. Pack dry records in cardboard boxes. Non-paper records should be left in their original cartons during packing and removal. If photos or film are wet, be sure they stay wet when moving, do not allow them to dry. This can be done by lining a container with a plastic bag and adding clean cool water. Air-drying is ideally suited for emergencies involving small numbers of records in an environment where the temperature and relative humidity are low. Make sure the area for drying is large and clean, with adequate security, and has proper temperature and humidity controls. In a safe area, set up tables and cover them with clean unused newsprint or other blotting materials (i.e., blotter paper, paper towels, cotton rags, florists non-colored waxed paper). Remove the records from the damaged area using plastic crates with 11 Post Script Purpose of the Leather Archives and Museum (as taken from the By-Laws) The compilation, preservation and maintenance of Leather life style and related life styles [including but not limited to the Gay and Lesbian communities] history, archives and memorabilia for historical, educational and research purposes. The Leather Archives and Museum is a vital institution for the future of the Leather Communities of the world. In the collections, libraries and archives housed by the LA&M, generations of leather men and women will find the stories, artifacts and information of their forebears. They will be allowed to build on, rather than reinvent, the traditions and truths of those who lived leather/sm/fetish lives before their own. It was in August 1991 that the LA&M was incorporated in the state of Illinois. From that date until May 1993, the Leather Archives was, in effect, an idea struggling to take form. In 1993, 1994 and 1995, the LA&M existed as a growing collection and appeared in public only as exhibits at International Mr. Leather in Chicago (plus a couple of abortive attempts to appear on the road). In fact, most members of the Leather Communities of the world - even in North America - were still unaware of the LA&M. In 1996, a storefront home for the LA&M was opened in Chicago. Much larger exhibits were mounted in this space, but the collection outgrew the space very rapidly. Even using several off-site storage spaces, it was not possible to provide space for both the collections and reasonable exhibit space. In July 1997, Joseph W. Bean arrived to take on the job of Executive Director of the LA&M. Within three months, he had started a series of changing exhibits and proposed to the Board of Directors a capital campaign to raise funds to buy a building. The capital campaign was announced in December of 1997, and met with immediate success. Beginning in July 1998, to increase awareness of the LA&M and to support the capital campaign, a traveling exhibit was inaugurated. Just one and a half years after the capital campaign began, on August 4, 1999, a mortgage was signed. A new era started for the Leather Archives and Museum, an era in a permanent home of its own in a northerly Chicago neighborhood at 6418 N. Greenview Avenue. This building purchase has been achieved 100% by leather men and women, with no funding or support from any government body or foundation. In 2002, Joseph Bean retired from the LA&M, and Rick Storer was appointed Executive Director. Rick s job at the LA&M is to guide the community as it builds upon the foundation laid by Chuck Renslow, Tony DeBlase, and Joseph Bean. 33

13 bottoms who were consensually "assaulted" are deemed guilty! 1990, March: Gabriel Antolovich of San Diego becomes the fourth International Ms Leather at the contest in San Francisco. 1990, May: Mark Ryan of Boston is named the 12th International Mr. Leather at the contest at the Vic Theatre in Chicago. 1989, May: Susie Shepherd, International Ms Leather 1989, is the first woman to appear on the cover of The Leather Journal #15. The decision is not popular with magazine readers. 1990, June: In New York City GMSMA is invited to send a representative to a community meeting to be held at the residence of the Mayor. 1990, Summer: Luke Owens' Master & Slave contest is held in Los Angeles and won by Mark Bowers and Bob Farrell. 1990, Autum: The German SM-group SMbH is formed in Hannover. 1990, Sept. Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 19 in Douglas MI. William Robert Birtles receives the Caligula Award and Brian Drake the J. Paul Eaton award. 1990, Sept. 18: Clive Platman, Mr. Australia Drummer, presents Leather Pride Flag designer Tony DeBlase with an Australian version of the flag, incorp-orating the southern cross, from the Australian national flag, onto the original LPF design. 1990, Sept. 22: Clive Platman of Melborne, Australia is named the 11th Mr. Drummer in the first truly International Mr. Drummer contest in San Francisco. John Siracusa is named Drummerboy of the year. 1990, Oct : NLA's Living In Leather V conference is held in Portland, OR. Jim Richards is reelected Male co chair and Shannon Kenedy is elected Female co chair. The Rev. Troy Perry is keynote speaker and Chuck Renslow and Pat Califia are presented with lifetime achievement awards. The contest is switched to LIL from May Day and Howard Martin of Seattle and Ruth Marks of San Francisco win the Mr. and Ms NLA titles. Jan Lyon presents the organization with a huge, spectacular, studded leather banner created by Lee Willis of the Studworks.draining holes. Remove the folders from the crates, remove the records from the folders, and discard fasteners and file folders. Folders do not dry well, it is best to create new folders. Be sure to write down information from the folder tab prior to discarding it. Keep the records in the order found in the folder. Clothesline or fishing line may be used to dry papers. Hang the line between two objects and clip the documents to it. This is a good way to dry brochures and pamphlets. Only use this method on paper if a small section of the paper is damp. Do not hang extremely wet records as they are fragile and may pull apart. Use plastic clothespins to hang records as wooden clothespins retain water. Shallow baking trays or screens may also be used for drying. Cover the bottom of the tray/screen with blotter paper so the records will not stick to, nor take the shape of, the pan. Pans can be stacked to allow larger numbers of records to dry at the same time. Wear gloves to prevent dirt and oil from getting on the records. Some items, such as blueprints, maps, etc., will need professional work due to the fragility of the paper used and size. Freezing: Sometimes far too many records are damaged or weather conditions are not suited to air-drying. At those times freezing and storing the records at low temperatures (- 20 F) will stabilize collections until drying becomes possible. Also, if restoration cannot begin within 24 hours freezing should be considered. Modern Media Restoration Photographic Media (Includes Microfilm/fiche, Black/White & Color negatives, Black/White & Color prints and Slides): Microfilm, negatives, and prints that are wet should be kept wet. Breakdown of the emulsion from the base film will begin immediately if the materials are allowed to dry. This will cause silver copies of Microfilm to become a solid mass, almost like a hockey puck. If prints are allowed to dry the emulsion will adhere to whatever it comes into contact with. Avoid touching the surface of all prints/negatives. Do not try to recover these records on your own. Black/White & Color Prints/Slides: Fill tubs with cool, distilled water and keep prints/slide immersed. Line a table with photographic blotter paper. Remove prints/slides from water and lay them flat on blotter paper. Put a layer of blotter paper over the top of the prints/slides. Place weights (bricks covered with clear or white contact paper work well) on top of the blotter paper. Change the blotter paper every 2 days until the wet records have dried. Make a copy of the film/negative/print/slide as soon as possible and discard the damaged records. Photographic blotter paper is the only absorbent material that can be used with prints, negatives, etc. It is specially designed so that it will not remove the emulsion when it comes into contact with the print/slide. This type of paper can be found in any photographic supply store. The water in the containers can be kept cool by the periodic addition of ice to the water. Do not use a viewer to check microfilm/fiche 32 13

14 for damage. Rewind the microfilm/fiche on a professional re-winder. Check for abrasions, melting and separation of emulsion by hand. Magnetic Tape Water Damage: Remove tapes from the water damaged area. Inspect tapes for any visible signs of moisture. If there is any doubt about the tape being dry, declare it wet. Dry the tapes in separate drying batches to maximize control over the bulk. Separate the soaking wet from those suspected of being damp. Establish a recovery room with a temperature of 70 F and Rh level of 50 % where tapes that have been submerged or subjected to cold temperatures can be reconditioned for 24 hours. Allow tapes to reach room temperature. Hand dry all external surfaces with a soft lint-proof cloth. Air-dry tapes by laying them on absorbent materials (e.g., blotter paper, paper towels). Be sure to change the absorbent material when it becomes soaked. After 24 hours inspect the tapes by unrolling approximately 25 feet of each tape and, while handling it gingerly, look for color differences in the tape and for minute drops of moisture. As a last resort in determining whether or not a tape is dry, spin the tape in a tape cleaner without the blade or the cleaning solution. If fog appears, the tape is wet. Using a reel-to-reel tape machine will help tapes dry faster. Run a wet tape through the machine approximately five times. Computer Media (not including CD ROM or Optical Disk) Water Damage: Most water soaked disks can be successfully recovered if they have not been magnetically damaged, warped, or exposed to temperatures exceeding 125 F or humidity levels over 80%. However, there is no guarantee that the information on the disks will be recovered. If recovery cannot begin immediately keep the disks wet in cool, distilled water. Remove all visible dirt. Drain and blot the disks dry with a soft, lint-proof cloth. Allow the disks to dry on absorbent material for 24 hours, draining and turning them periodically. Copy the information to new disks. Computer Media - CD ROM or Optical disk Water Damage: Remove from water immediately. Remove the disks from their containers and carriers - do not bend or scratch. Rinse off any dirt or mud with clean distilled water - do not soak. Drip-dry the disks in a dish drain or rack - vertically, not flat. Clean the disks with a soft, dry, lint-free cloth. Move the cloth perpendicular to groove- left to right, not up and down. Place the cleaned disks in clean containers : Formation of Affirmation Leathermen; Boston Unified Leather Legion (BULL); Brotherhood of Pain, Houston; Knights on Iron MC, San Diego; Leather United, Chicago; Menamore LLC, Wilmington NC; Mike's Men, Boston; Omaha Players Club; Oregon Activists of SM (ORGASM); Rangers, Inc., Cleveland; Sacramento Leather Association; Seattle Men in Leather; Silver Dolphins LLC, Corpus Christi; Trash, Vancouver BC; and Trusted Servants, SF. 1989: California Motor Club of San Francisco disbands after 26 years. 1989, March 9: Robert Mapplethorpe dies of AIDS in New York City. 1989, March: Susie Shepherd of Portland, OR, is named the third International Ms Leather at the contest in San Francisco. 1989, May 28: Tony DeBlase presents his design for a leather pride flag to the audience at International Mr. Leather, the first time the flag is presented to the public. 1989, May 28: Guy Baldwin of Los Angeles becomes the 11th International Mr. Leather at the contest at the Vic theatre in Chicago. 1989, June: The Leather Pride flag is carried by the leather contingent in the Portland OR pride parade, it's first appearance at such an event. (A week preceding pride parades in San 31 Francisco and New York City, where it is also flown). 1989, Sept.: Brian Dawson of Los Angeles becomes the tenth Mr. Drummer and Dieter Edwards is named the first Drummerboy of the year at the contest in San Francisco. 1989, Sept.: Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 19 in Douglas MI. Fred "Ollie" Stewart receives the Caligula Award. Jim Ward is named the first recipient of the J Paul Eaton award. 1989, Oct. 7-9: NLA's Living in Leather IV conference is held in Portland, OR. Geoff Mains and Cynthia Slater receive the NLA Lifetime Achievement Awards. Dr. Nan Borrows gives keynote address : Formation of Bay Area Levi/Leather Society (BALLS), Corpus Christi; Bluegrass Colts, Lexington; Northwest Bears, Seattle; Omikron, Indianapolis; Tarheel Leather Club, Greensboro NC; Tri-State Gay Rodeo Association; and United Leatherfolk of Connecticut. Barbary Coasters MC, SF; Trash, BC; and Zodiacs, BC disband. 1990: The newly formed Tarheel Leather Club of Greensboro North Carolina, takes on the formidable task of trying to unseat US Senator Jesse Helms R-NC. Their Beat Jesse campaign gains nationwide support, including that of IMsL Susie Sheperd with her t-shirt campaign. 1990: The 16 defendants in England's Operation Spanner case are brought to trial and convicted of assault and battery, because the judge rules that consent is not recognized, and even the

15 International Mr. Leather at the contest at the Park West in Chicago. Jim Ed Thompson, former editor of Gay Bondage and Action Male, is first runner up. 1986, June: Mike Murray of San Diego becomes the 7th Mr. Drummer at the contest in San Francisco. 1986, June: The National Leather Association is formed in Seattle by Steve Maidhof with the help of a few other leather men and women. 1986, Sept. 5-8: Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 15 at Douglas MI. John Enteman of New York City receives the Caligula Award. 1986, Oct.: The first Living in Leather Conference is hosted in Seattle by the newly formed National Leather Association : Formation of Boston Ducks; Diablo DV8's, Walnut Creek CA; Firedancers LLC, Dallas; Griffins MC, DE; and Trident International LA. 1987, Mar. 21: Judy Tallwing McCarthy of Portland, OR, is named the first International Ms Leather at the contest in San Francisco. 1987, May: David Rhodes begins publication of The Leather Journal in Los Angeles. 1987, May: Thomas Karasch of Hamburg, Germany, is named the 9th International Mr. Leather at the contest at the Park West in Chicago. 1987, June: Mark Alexander of Los Angeles becomes the 8th Mr. Drummer at the contest in San Francisco. 1987, Aug : NLA's Living In Leather II is held in Seattle. Tony DeBlase of San Francisco, and Susie Bright of Denver, are named NLA Man and Woman of the year. 1987, Sept.: Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 16 in Douglas MI. Robin Tutt of Fire Island Pines, NY, receives the Caligula Award : Formation of Atlanta S&M Solidarity (ASS); COMMAND, Baltimore; Panthers L/L, Atlanta; Gay Male S/M Cooperative (GMSMC), Philadelphia; New York Bondage Club; and Southbay Leather and Uniform Group (SLUG), San Jose. Knights Templar, SF, disbands. 1988: Jaye Evans opens the Atlanta Eagle as the first definite leather bar in that city. 1988, March: Shan Carr of Portland, Oregon, is selected as the second International Ms Leather at the contest in San Francisco. 1988, Sept. 24: The Mr. Drummer contest is switched from the June Gay Pride weekend to coincide with the Folsom Street Fair in September. In advertising Tony DeBlase begins calling it "San Francisco Leather Pride Weekend". Ron Zehel of Columbus, OH becomes the 9th Mr. Drummer. 1988, Sept.: Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 17 in Douglas MI. Wally Wallace of New York City, receives the Caligula Award. 1988, Oct. 8-10: NLA's Living in Leather III Conference is held in Seattle. Alan Selby and Gayle Rubin, both of San Francisco, are named NLA man and woman of the year BCE: Select Leather History Timeline This listing represents only a small selection from the Leather History Timeline started by the late Anthony DeBlase. It is by no means intended to showcase any one particular group, club or organization. The LA&M is actively looking for more complete and accurate information for inclusion into the timeline. There are still tremendous gaps in our recorded leather history and a great deal of our shared past has been lost with the passing of our founding generations. Ca BCE: Destruction of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. Too bad the bible is not more explicit about the reason. The interpretation hinges on the Hebrew word meaning to know. The term is used 943 times in the Old Testament; only 15 of these times is it a euphemism for sexual activity. In the New Testament, the only reference to Sodom (Luke 10:10) identifies the sin as inhospitality. The story of Sodom and Gomorrah probably had nothing to do with sexuality. 580 s BCE Sappho s famed girls school flourishes on the isle of Lesbos. Her ezusite love poems to students are the earliest known lesbian writings. 356 BC, July 20: The birth of Alexander of Macedonia known to history as Alexander the Great king, general, world conqueror, and lover of men, particularly Hephaiston, whose death in 324 he mourns extravagantly, and the eunuch slave boy Bagoas, who had been a favorite of Persian king Darius. 323 BCE, June 10: Death of Alexander the Great. 100 BCE, July 13: Birth of Gaius Julius Caesar in Rome. Wife to every man and husband to every woman CE 12 CE, Aug. 31: birth of the future Roman emperor, Caligula 41 CE, Jan 21: Roman Emperor Caligula killed by a guard who had been frequently forced to kiss the royal middle finger in public, and other things in private. (Birth Aug 31, 12 CE) 79 CE, Aug 24: Vesuvius erupts, thereby preserving the homoerotic, and other sexually explicit, wall murals that would surely have been destroyed by later Christian "civilizations". 533 CE: Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, decrees that homosexuality and blasphemy are equally to blame for famines, earthquakes, and pestilence. He orders castration for offenders

16 : Reign of Pope John XII who loves both boys and muscular young men, he dies at the age of 26 from a stroke while having sex with one of his beautiful young men , Sept. 8: Birth of Richard Plantagenet, Richard Lion Heart, Richard I, King of England and Duke of Aquitaine. His lover for many years was Philip, King of France. He was one of the era's most widely respected generals. But he produced no heirs and eventually his loathsome brother John ascended to the British throne. The result was the Magna Carta. 1252: St. Thomas Aquinas begins his theological teaching. He declares that God created sex organs exclusively for reproduction; homosexual acts were thus unnatural and heretical. 1292: Europe's first known execution for sodomy takes place in Ghent. 1327: Edward II of England is murdered by the insertion of a red hot poker into his rectum. (birth April 25, 1284) 1431, May 30: Birth of Joan of Arc, at Rouen, France. She led the French armies against the British invaders and won battle after battle. Then she was captured by the British in Normandy and condemned to be burned at the stake because she refused to stop wearing men's clothing. Abandoned by most of the French, her friend Gilles de Rais tried to rescue her but was too late : Reign of Pope Sixtus IV. His reign is purchased by his lover Pietro Riario who runs the church, including the Spanish Inquisition, until his death in After that time Sixtus entertains himself by having muscular young men strip and fight to the death, the survivor becoming his bed partner. When Sixtus was ill his physicians prescribe mother's milk, the pope suggests that the juice of young men would suit him better. 1475, March 6: Birth of Michelangelo Buonarroti, (death 1564) Italian sculptor, painter and poet. Not a leatherman himself but certainly gay. And where would we be without his David to become, among other things, FeBe's logo, and his wrestlers in a 69 of testicle torture! ca. 1480: Pico of Mirandola in Against the Astrologists, describes a male acquaintance who is sexually excited by being whipped before sex. This is the first known case history of a masochist : Reign of Pope Julius III who, upon election as Pope, made his 17 year old lover a member of the College of Cardinals, and also appointed him Secretary of State. His orgies with teenage Cardinals were common knowledge. Most were horrified but the Archbishop of Benevento wrote a book, In Praise of Sodomy, dedicated to the pope. 1551, Sept. 19, Birth of Henri III, King of France. In the final years of his reign Defenders of Mithra, Portland, OR; Disciples of DeSade, Dallas; GLSM Hamburg; Golden State Gay Rodeo Association; Grand Rapids Rivermen; The great Midwestern Society for the Promotion and Proliferation of S&M; On Motor Club, Paris; The Outcasts, SF; Pittsburgh MC; Severn Link MSC, Bristol, UK; SigMa, DC; Tridents MC, Boston; Two Wheelers, Omaha; and Wasatch Leathermen MC, Salt Lake City. 1984: San Francisco closes bathhouses and sex clubs in an effort to limit the spread of AIDS. 1984, May: Ron Moore of Denver becomes the 6th International Mr. Leather at the contest at Park West in Chicago. He is the first black man to hold an international leather title. Died: Feb. 25, , June: GMSMA organizes its first Leather Pride Night in New York City. 1984, Sept. 7-10: Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 13 in Douglas MI. David Lewis of Dallas receives the Caligula Award. 1984, Sept. The first Folsom Street Fair is held in San Francisco. 1984, Oct 5-8: American Uniform Association 7th Annual Review is held in Denver : Formation of Hartford Colts; Krew de Cuir, SF; Men in Boots, Vancouver BC; MSC Iceland; PEP, Phoenix; River City Outlaws, San Antonio; Seattle Dungeon Guild; Texas Renegades, Houston; and Total Devotion and Alliance Club of Atlanta. 1985, Jan.: The first Mr. Mid-Atlantic Leather contest held in Washington DC. Sponsored by Centaur MC. 1985, May: Patrick Toner of San Francisco becomes the 7th International Mr. Leather at the contest at the Park West in Chicago. 1985, June: Steve Reiswig of Seattle becomes the 6th Mr. Drummer at the contest in San Francisco. 1985, July: Ringold Alley, a favorite nighttime cruising ground for leathermen, is the site of the first Ringold Alley Fair, a charity fundraiser sponsored by Up Your Alley Productions, a group in which IML 85 Patrick Toner plays a very prominent role. 1985, Sept. 6-9: Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 14 in Douglas MI. Harold Cox of Wilkes Barre, PA, receives the Caligula Award. 1985, Nov. 11: GMSMA holds its first Leatherfest in New York City : Formation of Bournemouth LSMC, UK; Club Mud, Rio Nido, CA; Essex Leather MSC, UK; Der Ledermeister, Syracuse NY; The National Leather Association, Seattle; Portland Power and Trust, OR; and Utica Tri's NY. 1986, Jan 10: GLAAD, Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation is established in New York City. 1986: Portland Power and Trust, a woman to woman SM organization is formed in Portland Oregon by Sallee Huber, Sashie Hyatt, and Judy Tallwing McCarthy. 1986, May: Scott Tucker, of Philadelphia is selected as the 8th 16 29

17 Mafia (LSM) in New York City, Orlando; GMSMA, NYC; Satyricons MC, Las Vegas; SMGays, London; Stillettos, Jacksonville, FL; and Stingrays, NJ. Elegabulus NC, Norwood Australia, and South Florida Council disband. 1981, May: Marty Kiker is named the third International Mr. Leather at the contest at Chicago. 1981, July 3: The New York Times publishes the first article on "the Gay Cancer", the first public news of what was to become known as AIDS. 1981, Oct. 9-12: Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 10 under canvas at a new location in Douglas MI on Columbus Day weekend. It is too cold for outdoor nudity! Bill Kerr of New York City receives the first Caligula Award. 1981, Dec:. GMSMA holds its first Bizarre Bazaar at the Mineshaft in New York City : Formation of Conductors LLC, Nashville; Corpus Christi MC; County Men, Detroit; dreizehn, in Boston; Gaucho MC, Tampa; Harbor Masters, Portland, ME; Leathermasters Inc., LA; Rainbow MC in San Francisco; Somandros, LA; Trident International Detroit; and Tower City Corps, Cleveland, and Vancouver Activists in SM, VASM, in Vancouver, BC. 1982, May: Luke Daniel, Mr. Drummer, is selected as the 4th International Mr. Leather at the contestant Park West in Chicago. 1982, Aug.: Dr. Tom Waddel brings together thousands of gay men and women for the first Gay Games. Originally called the Gay Olympics the US Olympic Committee brings suit to protect their name. Hundreds of events around the world are called Olympics but only the Gay Olympics has been singled out for such prohibitions. 1982, Sept : Chicago Hellfire Club returns to September dates and holds Inferno 11 on two sites in Douglas and Saugatuck, MI. Ken Hocking of Sydney Australia receives the Caligula Award : Formation of Avatar, LA; Cowtown Leathermen, Ft. Worth; Dreizehn, Boston; Gryphons MC, Dayton, OH; Leather and Lace, LA; Lords of Leather, New Orleans; Manchester Super Chain, UK; and Tower City Corps, Cleveland. 1983, May: Colt Thomas of Houston TX is named the fourth International Mr. Leather at the contest at Park West in Chicago. 1983, Aug. 17: An ad-hoc committee of GMSMA issues a report: 'Proposed New Statement of Identity and Purpose' using the phrase "safe, sane, consensual." 1983, Sept. 9-12: Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 12 in Douglas MI. Ron Bentley of Midland, Texas, receives the Caligula Award : Formation of Arizona Gay Rodeo Association; California Eagles, SF; Copperstate Leathermen, Phoenix; (he died at 37) he surrounded himself with handsome young men and abandoned himself to hedonistic joys. He took particular delight in flogging the backs of penitents marching in holy procession. 1563: The Roman Catholic council of Trent concludes that sex is bad and denounces paintings calculated to excite lust. Pope Paul IV has clothes painted onto the naked figures in Michelangelo's painting, Last Judgment, in the Sistine Chapel : Richard Cornish of the Virginia Colony is tried and hanged for sodomy. He is the first person in America known to be convicted of this offense. 1631: Rembrandt sells rude etchings, thought to be of his wife pissing. 1649: Sarah White Norman and Mary Vincent Hammon are charged with "lewd behavior each with other upon a bed" in Plymouth MA. Charges against Hammon are dropped, but Norman is convicted and has to make a public confession. She is the first woman in America know to be convicted of lesbian activity. 1677: Using the newly invented microscope, Dutch researchers Leeuwenhoek and Ham observe human sperm for the first time , June 2: the Birth of the Marquis desade. 1763, Oct. 29: By order of the King of France, the Marquis desade is committed to Vincennes fortress for excesses committed in a brothel which he has been frequenting for a month , Dec. 2: Death, at Charenton Asylum of Donatien Alphonse Francois de Sade, the Marquis. 1820, May 12: Birth of Florence Nightingale, who is alleged to have said, I have lived and slept in the same bed with English Countesses and Prussian farm woman has excited passion among women more than I have. 1836, Jan 27: Birth of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, author of Venus in Furs. The man who put the "M" in SM , Feb. 22: The birth, in London, of Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden- Powell, founder of the Boy Scouts, army officer, and homosexual. 1888, Aug 15: The birth of Thomas Edward Lawrence, Lawrence of Arabia, who was captured, caned and raped by Turkish soldiers, and who loved it so madly he hired Robert Bruce to flog him regularly after he returned to England. 1895, Jan. 1: birth of J. Edgar Hoover, for many years head of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation. He maintained secret surveillance files on individuals 28 17

18 and organizations, including gay and other sexually identified ones. He was a homosexual and homophobe. (died: May 2, 1972) 1895: Oscar Wilde is convicted of committing indecent acts with young lower-class men and is condemned to two years of hard labor. 1895, Mar. 9: Official date of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch's death from heart failure as given by his family. This incorrect date is still found in a large number of texts. Actual date of death:1905, see below. 1895, May 6: Birth of Rudolfo Alfonzo Raffaelo Pierre Filbert Guglielmi di Balentina d'antonguolla in Castellaneta, Italy. Better known as Rudolph Valentino, there is little argument that he enjoyed male-to-male sex, was dominated by his lesbian wife, and died because his macho image demanded that he fight in a boxing arena. But we love him best for the image of the captured Sheik hanging from up stretched arms to that barred window, his chest bared, his body ready for whatever we desire. 1897, May 19: Oscar Wilde is released from Prison in England , Dec. 17: The birth, in New York City, of artist Paul Cadmus, who wonderfully portrayed lusty sailors, and had a painting destroyed by the Navy as being "inappropriate". 1905: The Austrian physician Sigmund Freud publishes his Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie. Sadism and masochism are described as illnesses resulting from incomplete or faulty development of a child's personality. Psychoanalysis, a form of speculative philosophy with no empirical basis, becomes the dominating theory in psychiatry for the next 60 years : Magnus Hirschfeld creates the term transvestite and is the first to separate them from homosexuals. 1910, May 14: Alice B. Toklas and Gertrude Stein begin living together in Paris , May 8: The birth in Finland of Touko Laaksonen, the erotic artist who would become known to leather men of the world as Tom of Finland. (Died 1992). 1924, Dec. 10: The Society for Human Rights, founded in Chicago by Henry Gerber ( ), probably the first "gay lib" organization in the US, is granted a charter by the Illinois legislature. It lasted only a few months but during that time Gerber brought out two issues of the country s first gay liberation magazine, Friendship and Freedom. No copies of these are known to still exist. 1928: D. H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley s Lover is published in France. Banned in Britain, it is only in 1960 that a British court declares the book to be art not porn. 1979, May: David Kloff, of San Francisco, is named the first International Mr. Leather at the contest in Chicago. Durk Dehner, of Los Angeles, is First Runner Up. 1979, May 21: Dan White convicted only of voluntary manslaughter in the killing of Milk and Moscone. The conviction results in the White Night riots by gay men in San Francisco. 1979, June: Dykes on Bikes make their first appearance in a Pride Day Parade, in San Francisco. 1979, Sept : Chicago Hellfire Club's Inferno 8 goes to a two night SM party and Tony DeBlase creates a schedule of demonstrations, contests, and a flea market to fill the intervening day. It is covered extensively with text and photos by John Preston and Tony DeBlase in Drummers #34 and 35. This is the first real publicity on Inferno. 1979, Oct. 14: The first Lesbian and Gay March on Washington. Over 100,000 attend : Formation of Bacchus, St. Louis; Blackhawks MC, Rock Island IL; Centurions LL MC Roanoke, VA; FFA of Miami; The 15 Association, SF; The Foot Fraternity, Gulf Coast Buccaneers MC, Mississippi; HyBreeds of Rochester, NY; National Association of Black and White Men Together; Northern Lights, Edmonton, Alberta; Renaissance Men, Detroit; SMBB International/Australia, NSW; Stingrays MC, West Palm Beach, and Sundance Cattle Co., Houston. 1980: Val Martin is named the first Mr. Drummer by publisher John Embry. Entered in International Mr. Leather he places as first runner up. 1980: Cruising, a movie staring Al Pacino, depicting murder and violence in Leather bars and among leather men, opens in New York City, to loud protests by gay demonstrators. 1980, Feb.: The 15 Association formed in San Francisco by David Lewis and others. It is an all male group dedicated to SM activity. 1980, May: Patrick Brooks of Australia is named the second International Mr. Leather at the contest in Chicago. 1980, Aug.: Brian O'Dell publishes a letter in New York City's Gay Community News, which leads to the formation of GMSMA. 1980, Aug. 8-10: Chicago Hellfire Club's Inferno 9 is held near Chicago. It is the year of the Gang of Four but all goes well. 1980, Sept.: DungeonMaster #6 includes the phrase safe and sane scenes to describe the objectives of the Safety Valve column. Safe and sane S&M is a phrase often used in subsequent issues to describe the objectives of the publication. 1980, Dec.: Gay Male S/M Activists officially organized in New York City, and holds it's first public meeting on January : Formation of Colorado Gay Rodeo Association, Confederation of New York Area Clubs, Florida Brotherhood of Clubs, Lesbian Sex 18 27

19 1977, Sept.: Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno : Formation of Avengers MC East, Summit, NJ; Centurions, Columbus; Destiny MC, Miami; Eagle MC, West Palm Beach; FFA Philadelphia; Four Star MSC Belgium; Nickel City MSC, Buffalo; Pegasus MC, Wichita; Pennsylvania Association of Clubs; Phoenix Levi\Leather Club; Pocono Warriors, PA; Reading Railmen, PA; Renaissance MC, Detroit; Rough Riders MC, San Antonio; Royal Eagle, Montreal; Samois, SF; San Francisco Wrestling Club; Scorpio Leather Club, Holyoke; South Florida Council of Clubs; Stud MC, New Haven; Swamp Fox MC, Columbia, SC; Toronto Motorcycle Riders; Trenton Bulls MC; Trojans MSC, Montreal and Youngstown Exiles, OH. Signs of Zodiac, Detroit, Disbands. 1978: Drummer announces a search for Mr. Drummer, the winner to be picked from photo submitted by those wishing to enter. 1978: Drawings by Cavelo are first featured in Drummer # : The Pocono Warriors are founded in eastern Pennsylvania as a combination of the older leather/levi/motor-cycle social club and the more current SM sex club. 1978, June: The Rainbow (Gay Pride) flag, designed by Gilbert Baker, is flown as a decorative element at the annual gay pride parade. It later achieved national prominence when a gay man in West Hollywood sued his landlords because they attempted to prohibit him from flying his flag from his balcony. 1978: July: MAFIA (Mid-America Fists In Action) founded. Holds first meeting at Inferno in September. 1978, Sept.15-17: Chicago Hellfire Club hosts Inferno , Oct.: The American Uniform Association holds its first annual AUA Review. 1978, Nov 27: Harvey Milk, openly gay San Francisco Supervisor, assassinated, along with mayor George Moscone, by former Supervisor Dan White : Formation of Castaways MC, Milwaukee; Chicago MOB (Men of Brotherhood); Dolphin MC, Sydney; Excalibur of New Jersey; The Inn Men, Akron, OH; Leathermen/Atlanta; Minnesota Marauders, Minneapolis; New World Rubbermen, Santee CA, later Port Townsend, WA); and St. Louis Leathernecks. Northern Lights MC, Montreal disbands. 1979: The Pocono Warriors hold their first Whitewater Weekend, which includes opportunities for whitewater rafting, and a very well equipped dungeon space. The first organization after Chicago Hellfire Club to formally include an SM sex party in the activities. 1979: Satyrs MC, the country's oldest, celebrates its 25th anniversary in the Grand Ballroom of the Queen Mary, Long Beach CA. 1929, Aug. 26: Birth in Chicago of Chuck Renslow, who with his partner Dom "Etienne" Orejudos, was to father Kris Studios, The Gold Coast, Man's Country, International Mr. Leather, and other enterprises. More Recently Chuck has been instrumental in founding The Leather Archives & Museum and the Chicago Eagle : Marlene Dietrich, in the film Morocco, makes the first of her many male impersonations. 1931, Feb. 8: The birth, in Marion, Indiana, of James Dean. The mysterious masochist and cultural icon did nothing in his life to dispel the rumors of his masochism (preferring, it is said, to be burned with cigarettes and to be kicked and stepped on) and the rumors became legends after his death in a car crash on Sept. 30, , Jan. 30: Hitler bans all gay publishing in Germany. 1933: Department II of the German Gestapo is created for the express purpose of hunting down and imprisoning homosexuals. 1933, July 1: Birth of Domingo "Dom" Orejudos, better known as the erotic artists Etienne and Stephen, and as partner with Chuck Renslow in operation of Kris Studio, the Publication of Mars and Rawhide magazines, the Gold Coast leather bar and Man's Country baths in Chicago, and the founding of the International Mr. Leather contest. 1934, March 10: The birth in El Paso, Texas, of author John Rechy, whose writing skirted the edges of leather sexuality, and about which he had strong opinions. 1938: The American zoologist Alfred C. Kinsey begins his studies on human sexual behavior, using empirical data from over 12,000 interviews. 1939: In the film Bringing up Baby, Cary Grant, appearing in a dress, exclaims that he has gone gay. Historian John Boswell credits this as the first public use of the term in the US, outside of pornography and the homosexual community. But it isn't until the 1970s that "gay" is widely accepted as the standard, non-slang synonym for homosexual, and not until 1987 that it is accepted by the New York Times. 1939, Jan. 10: Birth of actor Sal Mineo. He wore the leather jacket in Rebel Without a Cause even though he was the obvious and willing bottom to James Dean's reluctant Top. His gristly 1976 murder has never been solved : July 27: Birth of the Reverend Troy Perry, Minister, activist, leatherman, and founder of the Metropolitan Community Church. He 26 19

20 devised a wonderful way to use the Gideon bible found in every hotel room as a ball weight. 1941: The first appearance of the cartoon character, Wonder Woman, an Amazon with special powers, living on an all-woman island. Her magical lasso rendered powerless anyone she placed in bondage. 1942, April 3: Birth date of Anthony F. DeBlase, aka Fledermaus, leather/sm writer, editor, publisher, teacher, and creator of the Leather Pride Flag , Dec.: Mattachine Society founded in Los Angeles. 1951: (or by 53) Shaw's, New York City's first Leather Bar opens. 1952: Alan Turing, mathematical genius, breaker of Nazi codes, acclaimed as "the man who saved England" reports the theft of his property by a hustler, when the police realize why the thief was there Turing himself is arrested and prosecuted. He is chemically castrated by the authorities and hounded by the press. He committed suicide in : Satyrs MC founded in Los Angeles, the first gay motorcycle club. 1954: The movie 'The Wild One' Starring Marlon Brando as a leather jacketed motorcycle gang member is released, creating a sensation and giving seed to an image. 1955, Sept. 21: The Daughters of Bilitis, the first Lesbian organization in America, is formed in San Francisco. 1957: The Spring issue of Physique Pictorial magazine includes the first published erotic art of Tom of Finland, and marks the first time that name is used. 1958: Both Federal and Chicago authorities charge Kris studios with censorship violations. Renslow fights back, surprising the prosecution. His defense uses the simple stand that nudity is not obscene. In support his attorney shows photos of nude male sculpture in the courthouse where the case is being held. Kris was found not guilty, prosecution appealed and eventually the same decision came from the US Supreme court. 1958: Oedipus MC founded in Los Angeles, the second gay motorcycle club. 1959: In the San Francisco mayoral election homosexuality becomes a political issue. The incumbent clamps down on "queers" : Spring: Owners of San Francisco gay bars revolt against police pay-offs and the "Gayola Scandals" result. Police retaliate with a vengeance and close most Gay bars in the city. 1960: Warlocks MC, and California Motor Club formed in southern California and San Francisco respectively : Formation of Adventurers/Suncoast Florida; American Leathermen MC of Houston; Companion MC, Philadelphia; The Connecticut Copperheads; The Corn Haulers, Des Moines; Dallas MC; East Anglia Bikers, UK; Falcons MC, Rhode Island; FFA-CAC, DC; Glass City Champions (originally International Roadmasters of Toledo); Griffin Motor Club, Canberra, Australia; Jackaroos, Victoria, Australia; Knights of Omaha; MSC Finland; MSC Groningen, Netherlands; New York Coordinating Committee, Peregrine MC, Atlanta; 76ers, San Bernadino, CA; South Pacific Rangers, SF; Silver Barons MC, Reno; The Spirits of St. Louis; SLC Stuttgart; SLM Norway; The Tarnsmen, Baltimore; Trojans MSC, Toronto; and Valley Knights MC, Sacramento. 1976: Bar openings include: Badlands, NYC; and The Boston Eagle. 1976, Sept.: Chicago Hellfire Club celebrates its 5th anniversary by holding a weekend long event featuring a Saturday night SM party at a remote campground. Called Inferno 5, this is first of what are to become the most infamous and exclusive male SM play events. 1976, Oct. 26: The Mineshaft in New York City opens. This after-hours club allowed and encouraged virtually all forms of sexual activity among its hot male patrons. It was a Mecca for leather/sm types in the Eastern US and Canada. Closed in Nov : Formation of Ambassadors of Goodwill MC, Boston; Avengers MC West, Claremont, CA; Black Angels Koln; The Black Guard, Minneapolis; Boomer MC, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia; Force-5, Palo Alto; Friends of Leather and Denim Club of Montreal; Guardians MC, New Haven; II MC Berlin; Lancers MC, New Orleans; Leatheriders Bike Club, Victoria, Australia; The London Blues, UK, MC Faucon, Montreal; Meisters der Manner, Orlando; Missouri Association of Clubs,; Mobile Man Van Club, Detroit; MSC Rotterdam; Nimbus Cycle Club, Grand Rapids; Nutcrackers MC, Indianapolis; Pennsmen, Harrisburg, Phoenix Uniform Club, SF; SLM Goteborg; SMBB International, Northampton, UK; South Orange Bikers, Santa Ana, CA; Texas Cadre, Austin; and Tsarus/Memphis. Colts MC of Ft Lauderdale disbands. 1977: Founding of American Uniform Association (AUA) in New York City. 1977: Run premiers include First Links MC Leather Cocktails in NYC; Lone Star in Texas; The Philadelphians Tri Cen; and Prairie Fire, at Chicago. 1977: Bar openings include Dirty Edna's Stampede, NYC; Boots, Los Angeles; and The Brig, SF. Folsom Prison, SF, closes. 1977: Publication of The Sexual Outlaw by John Rechy. 1977: Art work by The Hun is first published in Drummer # , Feb.: 14: Anita Bryant forms "Save our Children" to fight Miami's gay rights ordinance, and ignites a counter movement that brought together gay men and women in unprecedented numbers to stand up for their rights

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