1 travel guide to the digital world: Internet Policy and Governance for Human Rights Defenders Becky Hogge
2 Published in London 2014 by Global Partners Digital This work is licensed under Creative Commons, Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
3 travel guide to the digital world: Internet Policy and Governance for Human Rights Defenders Becky Hogge
5 The same rights that people have offline must also be protected online United Nations Human Rights Council resolution, 2012
6 6 The internet is the defining technology of our age. Sometimes gradually, sometimes dramatically, it is shifting power relationships in every aspect of our lives, from commerce to politics, from education to art. With these shifts come new opportunities in the field of human rights, but also new threats. The internet empowers people by placing the means to access and disseminate information directly in their hands. The internet empowers people by placing the means to access and disseminate information directly in their hands. It grants even those with only a modest level of technical skill the ability to bypass state censorship. Where once the power to communicate with a wide audience was monopolised by elites, the internet allows ordinary people to raise their voices against injustice, incompetence and ignorance. It presents all of us with new ways to organise ourselves, to make a difference in our communities and in our societies. It paves the way for new digital services with the potential to put prosperity in the hands of the world s poorest. And it has the capacity to offer the socially marginalised, the physically disabled, the visually impaired and many other disadvantaged groups new channels of communication and expression, free from intolerance or impediment.
7 7 The internet provides opportunities for advancing human development and human rights. Already, we can see the possibilities. In Kenya, citizens used and their mobile phones to send messages about political violence they had witnessed. These messages were gathered together on a website Ushahidi (testimony) that was able to present a picture of levels of violence during the post-election crisis. In Tunisia, as thousands of people took to the streets to protest against the economic and human rights hardships suffered under a decades-old regime, activists shared details of police movements and of demonstrations on Facebook and Twitter, and posted videos live from the streets to YouTube and DailyMotion videos that Al Jazeera beamed back onto Tunisia s television sets, stoking the revolution and spreading the news around the world. In Saudi Arabia, thousands of people signed an online petition calling for an end to the kingdom s ban on women driving, with dozens of women using YouTube to post videos of themselves violating the ban on a designated Day of Women Driving, intended to put pressure on the authorities to address the issue. Although the internet provides opportunities for human development and the advancement of human rights, it brings threats with it, too. With new forms of expression come new forms of censorship and surveillance. What s more, as communications technology spreads, uneven patterns of adoption amplify already-existing inequalities. The same features that make the internet a great way to disseminate information and rally individuals around a collective cause can also make it a great way to spread disinformation and polarise people. The fact that the computers that power the internet are able, by their very nature, to retain near-perfect records of all the online activity of all of their users means that personal privacy is fundamentally at risk as we move into the digital age.
8 8 It has never been easier for the state to locate and identify an activist who uses digital communications technology to organise and, once they are so located, to spy on, record and suppress their activities. Dissidents in Egypt have given accounts of being confronted with their own private text messages during interrogation sessions under the Mubarak regime. Statesponsored hacking attacks against independent news media and human rights groups have been reported in Tunisia, Russia, China, Vietnam, Burma, Mexico, Israel, Egypt and Iran. In 2012, the United Nations recognised the huge impact of digital technology on human rights and resolved that The same rights that people have offline must also be protected online. This resolution reflects a hope for the future, not the present state of affairs, and this hope cannot be realised without action on the part of human rights defenders who understand the internet and the opportunities and threats it presents. Privacy is fundamentally at risk as we move into the digital age. Understanding and addressing how the underlying structure of the internet, and the way it is operated and governed, affect the rights of its users is a new field a field from which human rights expertise is currently lacking. Instead, powerful interests mainly governments and big businesses are being permitted to shape our digital future in key debates, treaties and deals that are happening now. Those civil society groups that are involved in these debates are fighting an unequal fight, and desperately need the diversity and depth that the human rights community brings with it. The digital rights they are defending will be rights on which we all come to rely, even those of us who think the internet has little to do with our day-to-day work now. It is time for human rights defenders from the offline world to familiarise themselves with the internet, and prepare to defend human rights online.
11 11 An Overview Of This Guide To people who are used to defending human rights in the real world a place geeks often refer to as IRL (In Real Life) or AFK (Away From Keyboard) the internet can seem like a foreign language. The aim of this guide, then, resembles that of any good travel guide: to introduce newcomers to the history, workings and culture of the virtual world and help them find the features most relevant to their concerns. It is much easier to enjoy a trip abroad when you understand a bit about your destination and speak some of the local language, and it is impossible to defend human rights online successfully without a basic understanding of the history of the internet and how it works. The next chapter is a short introduction to what the internet is (and what it is not). Chapter Two contains a brief history of the internet, its technical development, use and governance. Chapter Three explains the different technologies that power the internet, and the actors behind them. Chapter Four introduces the various groups and institutions that either have or want a stake in internet governance, and are therefore poised to influence the future of human rights online. Chapter Five outlines the major human rights issues to look out for in the new digital world, and Chapter Six examines possible futures for networked digital communications, and their human rights implications. You will find many technical terms as you read, but do not be put off by them. This guide is aimed at a non-technical audience, so where technical terms are included, these are in bold print and are explained in the extensive glossary at the end of the guide. By the time you have finished reading this guide, although you may not yet be referring to the non-virtual world using three-letter acronyms, you will be able to speak a little bit of geek yourself.
12 Contents Chapter 1: Wait, where am I? What The Internet Is And Is Not Chapter 2: How did we get here? A Short History Of The Internet 20 Development 20 Adoption 20 Uses 21 Governance 21 Chapter 3: Are you sure this thing s working properly? Understanding The Internet 28 The layer model The physical layer The code layer The application layer The content layer Chapter 4: Can I speak to the manager? Internet Governance State-level governance Corporations 51 Users and digital civil society 52 Technical governance 53 The United Nations Country groupings 58
13 Chapter 5: What a human rights issue looks like now: A Spotter s Guide 62 Censorship Case study: a step too far? China s Green Dam 64 Case study: Arab secularists on Facebook 66 Surveillance Case study: Finfisher 69 The global digital divide Harmful content Case study: the Internet Watch Foundation and Cleanfeed 72 Chapter 6: Stop this thing, I want to get off! A Changing World 76 Weaponisation of cyberspace 76 Internet Balkanisation 76 Case study: Stuxnet 77 Internet of things 78 Big data 79 Glossary 80 Acknowledgements 89
15 chapter 1 Wait, where am I? What The Internet Is And Is Not
16 16 What The Internet Is And Is Not The internet is made up of millions of computers across the world, all connected to one another and sharing information. People talk about downloading things from the internet or going onto the internet or online to check facts or fetch s. What they re really doing is using the internet to download information onto their computer from some other computer somewhere on the internet. The internet is made up of millions of computers across the world, all connected to one another and sharing information. The internet has been called a world of ends and an end-to-end network, because on the internet the stuff that matters, the smart stuff, happens at the end points, at the computers that connect to it. The computers that connect to the internet are constantly generating, storing and sharing information. Computers here doesn t just mean the laptop in your bag right now. It could mean the 180,000 computer servers, currently running in Pineville, Oregon, that make up Facebook; it could mean the smartphones in the pockets of 41% of Nigerians. One day soon, it might mean your refrigerator, your car or even your bath (see chapter 6 for more on the internet of things).
17 17 And information here doesn t just mean bus timetables or research reports. Information means absolutely anything that can be translated into the computer s language of ones and zeros. That could be videos shot and uploaded live from a protest in Istanbul, or pictures of cats, or the voices of people who live halfway across the world from their families, using Skype to catch up. It could be software updates, or malicious computer viruses. Or it could be a shaky camera recording of the latest Bollywood movie, being shared illicitly using peer-to-peer file-sharing. Some types of computer: laptop, computer server, smartphone. The internet s end-to-end structure arises from the fact that, unlike the communications networks that came before it, the internet was not designed with one particular type of communication in mind. The communications protocols that allow the computers that make up the internet to connect to one another are designed to run on almost any type of physical infrastructure and to carry any type of digital information. It is this design that has made the internet so scalable and flexible, and allowed innovation online to flourish.
19 chapter 2 How did we get here? A Short History Of The Internet
20 20 A Short History Of The Internet Many of the internet s peculiarities today are traceable to its history. Development The origins of the internet lie in research carried out during the 1960s, much of it funded by the United States Department of Defense, which sought to build resilient communications infrastructure using computer networks. This research led to the development of many different packet-switching computer networks across the United States and Europe. As these different networks flourished, ideas about joining them together were put forward. The TCP/IP protocol (see Chapter 3), which allows this inter-networking, was gradually adopted and an elementary, global network of networks the internet was born. Adoption At first, the internet was used mainly by academic institutions, although hobbyists could use early modems and personal computers to log on via the telephone network. During the 1990s people started adopting the internet at a rapid pace that has not slowed since: at the beginning of the decade, about 313,000 computers were connected to the internet; by 2000 that figure was over 93 million. Today, 2.5 billion people more than one third of the world s population have access to the internet.
21 21 Uses dominated the internet for a long time after the first was sent in During the 1980s, online forums, such as Usenet, and bulletin board systems (BBS) became widely used. During the 1990s, the worldwide web led to a huge increase in the amount of information available to non-technical people via the internet; this decade also saw the rise of e-commerce. Peer-to-peer filesharing, social media, video and voice-over-ip all blossomed online during the 2000s, despite the dotcom bust early in the decade saw the first of many mass online disclosures of state secrets; these may ultimately contribute to defining the 2010s as the decade during which the internet became a major political force. Governance Early internet pioneers defended the internet as a place that defied state-level regulation because of its global nature, but since the early 1990s, states and their legal systems have enacted new laws and adapted old ones to attempt to regulate internet activity. At an international level, states and civil society have looked to the United Nations (UN) to address internet governance issues and to influence the development of the globally networked world, through the UN-sponsored World Summits on the Information Society (WSIS) in 2003 and 2005, which in turn gave rise to the Internet Governance Forum (IGF). Away from the scrutiny of civil society, multilateral trade negotiations and meetings of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) also provide settings in which corporations and governments attempt to form internet policy.
22 Timeline: development and use 1977: The Apple II computer is launched. 1977: Dennis Hayes and Dale Hetherington invent the modem. 1974: (December) Vint Cerf publishes an internetworking proposal, which contains the first recorded use of the word internet. 1973: accounts for 75% of the traffic on ARPANET. 1972: France begins research on the CYCLADES packet switching network : Ray Tomlinson sends the first : (29 October) Computers in Stanford and Los Angeles connect across the ARPANET packet-switching network for the first time. 1988: US National Science Foundation invests heavily in internet infrastructure. 1984: The creation of the Domain Name System. 1984: The WELL Bulletin Board System is established : The Usenet computer network communications system is established.
23 1999: The launch of the Blogger blogging platform. 1998: Google search engine is launched. 1995: Launch of ebay and Amazon. 1993: The launch of the popular Mosaic web browser. 1990: Tim Berners-Lee proposes the worldwide web. 2004: The launch of Facebook. 2003: Skype is launched. 2006: The launch of Twitter. 2006: Google buys YouTube. 2005: The launch of YouTube. 2003: Google buys Blogger : The launch of Wikipedia. 2000: The Dotcom bubble bursts : Edward Snowden, a former employee of the Central Intelligence Agency, leaks thousands of classified documents detailing the extensive internet surveillance activities of the USA, the UK and their allied governments. 2012: Mass online protests prevent the passing of the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) in the USA. 2010: WikiLeaks releases the Collateral Murder video, followed by the Afghan and Iraq War Logs and US Diplomatic cables.
24 Timeline: governance 1998: The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is established to take over the duties of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority from the US Department of Defense. 1998: China begins its Golden Shield Project, popularly known as The Great Firewall of China. 1998: The US enacts the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), including provisions for intermediary liability. 1996: (December) World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) members adopt two Internet Treaties, designed to strengthen intellectual property laws for the digital age. 1996: (February 8 ) John Perry Barlow writes the Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace. 1993: John Gilmore tells Time magazine, The internet interprets censorship as damage and routes around it. 1992: The Internet Society is founded to provide leadership on internet-related issues and a corporate home for the IETF : The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF ) holds its first meeting : France adopts its HADOPI law, which includes notice and disconnection provisions. 2008: The Open Net Initiative s (ONI) survey of global internet censorship states: Technical filtering does occur in other parts of the world, but in a more limited fashion. 2006: The first meeting of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) takes place. 2005: The Second World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS 2005) is held. 2003: The First World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS 2003) is held. 2000: The European Parliament adopts its E-Commerce Directive, which includes provisions for intermediary liability.
25 : (December) Failed attempt by some International Telecommunications Union (ITU) members to bring aspects of internet governance under its control. 2011: The India, Brazil and South Africa Dialogue (IBSA) calls for greater UN involvement in internet governance. 2011: The Dutch government launches a Freedom Online Coalition of 21 countries. 2010: The Internet Governance Forum s (IGF) mandate is renewed until : The ONI s survey of global internet censorship begins: Internet censorship is becoming a global norm.
27 chapter 3 Are you sure this thing s working properly? Understanding The Internet
28 28 Understanding The Internet The internet is designed to run on almost any type of physical infrastructure and carry any type of information. This design has made the internet scalable and flexible, and allowed innovation online to flourish. Having a basic grasp of how the internet works will help anyone new to defending human rights online understand more clearly the different actors and threats they encounter. The layer model One way to understand how the internet works is to think of it as a series of layers. The physical layer, at the bottom of the stack, contains the hardware components computers, routers, switches, etc. that underpin the internet. On top of this is the code layer (a series of software layers, often called the protocol stack, or TCP/IP), which defines the way applications (the third layer up) and their content (the top layer) are transported around the network. Each of these layers works independently of the others: for example, what the physical layer is made up of be it copper wire, optical fibre or radio signals has no bearing on what type of content voice, music, text, code it can carry. It is this independence, together with the rigorous standardisation of the various protocols in the TCP/IP protocol stack (see The code layer section, below), that characterises the internet and makes it so successful as a scalable network.
29 29 The internet is designed to run on almost any type of physical infrastructure and to carry any type of information. This design has made the internet scalable and flexible, and allowed innovation online to flourish. For example, when you write an (content layer) using Microsoft Outlook (application layer), and hit send, the information is encoded with a series of protocols (code layer) that will shape how and where it is transported. Much as the postman does not need to look inside an envelope to ascertain where a letter needs to go, so the routers and switches (physical layer) that make up the local and global networks across which your travels need only look at the information encoded in the protocols specific to them. The same is true of a conversation (content layer) taking place over Skype (application layer), that is encoded and divided into packets (code layer) and routed around a global network (physical layer) of, among other things, the computers of other Skype users. Although the way the internet works may be hard to grasp at first, it is important for human rights activists to have a basic understanding of it. Threats to human rights may occur in any one of these layers. Each layer is shaped by a different set of actors.
30 30 What Is It? Examples Who Shapes It? What s At Stake? Content Layer Information we access and share online Text and images, data, video, voice, code, music Users, from media and advertising companies to individuals Hate speech; disinformation; copyright infringement; criminalisation of legitimate expression; defamation Application Layer Software that helps us access and share that information Web browser, client, social networking platform, search engine Google, Facebook; Twitter; free software developers; individuals Censorship through website blocking and traffic filtering; surveillance; malware Code Layer Communications protocols that allow any type of information to travel across any type of physical infrastructure Internet Protocol (IP); Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP); Domain Name System (DNS) IETF; ICANN Censorship through DNS seizure Physical Layer Network nodes connected by network connections Computer, smartphone, server, switch, router, optical fibre, mobile phone base station Network operators; internet service providers (ISPs); internet exchange points (IXPs) Censorship through blocking and filtering; surveillance; net neutrality; the digital divide
31 31 The physical layer What is it? The word internet derives from inter-networking (see Chapter 2): joining several different packet-switching communications networks together. The internet can therefore be understood as a network of networks. At its physical layer, this means the internet is made of the same stuff that communications networks are made of: network nodes, connected to each other by various network connections. A network node could be a computer or computer server, but it could also be a piece of networking hardware, such as a switch (which links and routes network traffic between hosts on a local network), a router (which routes traffic between different networks), or a firewall (which controls access to computer servers for the purpose of network security). A network connection is something that connects these nodes together somehow. It could be wireless, such as wifi, 3G or satellite, or it could be a physical (fixed line) link between nodes, such as the copper wire typical of the first telephone networks, the coaxial cable typical of cable television in the US, or optical fibre cables that use pulses of light to transmit data at super-fast speeds. Who shapes it? Because the internet is a network of networks, the physical layer is controlled by lots of different network operators and internet service providers. They provide their customers with access to the entire internet by coming to arrangements with one another, either financial or in-kind, to exchange network access. In-kind arrangements (also called peering agreements) are executed at internet exchange points (IXPs).
32 32 The physical layer is controlled by lots of different network operators and internet service providers who have a great deal of power over the data we transmit across their networks. Network operators generally have close ties with the state. The largest fixed line network operators are either state-owned, or in the process of some kind of privatisation and/or market deregulation and consequently have a historic link to their governments. Wireless network operators also have close relationships with the state because their access to wireless frequencies (spectrum) is state-regulated. What s at stake? Network operators have a great deal of power over the data we transmit across their networks. They are under significant economic and political pressure to exercise that power, despite the existence of certain legal safeguards (see box on page opposite). The cost of investment in new physical infrastructure means network operators will underinvest in areas that are not seen to provide sufficient return, leading to a digital divide (See Chapter 5) between those with fast access and those with slow, or no, internet access. Pressure to maximise profits from existing infrastructure has left many network operators keen to experiment with new business models that, for example, offer different online services premium access to their customers, threatening the end-to-end principle and net neutrality.
33 33 Regulation and network operators Network operators and website hosts are generally granted immunity from prosecution for the content that travels across their wires, provided they make efforts, when requested, to block, or remove from their servers, content found or alleged to be illegal or infringing. In several regions, including the USA and Europe, this arrangement is codified in law and referred to as intermediary liability. Market regulation mechanisms and increasingly statutes (in Chile, Brazil and the Netherlands) also control how much network operators are permitted to interfere with the internet traffic they carry for their own business purposes, in order to preserve the principle of net neutrality, the fundamental design principle of the internet as an end-to-end network (see Chapter 1). As powerful players with close ties to governments, network operators can horse trade with regulators on these two principles of intermediary liability and net neutrality; for example, by offering the state greater control over internet traffic in exchange for less state control over their own business-related traffic management. Network operators often find themselves the target of political, legislative or judicial campaigns to filter, or block access to certain types of content (child sexual abuse images, inflammatory and copyright-infringing content, or material deemed seditious or indecent). Network operators are also under legal and extra-legal pressure to monitor their users communications for the purpose of state surveillance. Both censorship and surveillance are accomplished using deep packet inspection technologies, probes that operate in the code layer (see next section), going beyond the communications protocols necessary for merely routing data and into the actual content of data packets.
34 34 The Code layer What is it? The code layer, also called the protocol stack, defines how the internet works. Protocols are technical standards a bit like call and response patterns designed to enable communications across a network. The different protocols in the protocol stack each enable a different aspect of communication across the internet, from how data is split into packets for transmission, and reassembled again, to how data packets are routed around the network. Together, the protocols in the protocol stack allow the internet to run on almost any type of physical infrastructure and carry any type of information. The protocol stack includes the communications protocols that allow network nodes to locate one another on the internet. The most common of these communications protocols is the Internet Protocol (IP). Together, the protocols in the protocol stack allow the internet to run on almost any type of physical infrastructure and carry any type of information. Who shapes it? The technical standards that make up the code layer are overseen by the Internet Engineering Taskforce (IETF), an association of experts with no formal membership structure. At the IETF, communications protocols are developed, defined and standardised by specialist working groups, with an open invitation for anyone to participate. For more on the IETF, see Chapter 4.
35 35 The remits of the IETF and ICANN are focussed squarely on technical good governance. The Internet Protocol (IP) relies on there being a large volume of unique numeric IP addresses. The maintenance of the IP address system is overseen by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), a non-profit private organisation constituted in the state of California. ICANN also oversees the management of top level domains and of the root name servers that operate the Domain Name System the vital reference system that translates numeric IP addresses into human-readable names, and that is often likened to the telephone directory of the internet. For more on ICANN, see Chapter 4. What s at stake? Both ICANN and the IETF (through its parent organisation, the Internet Society) have their headquarters in the United States, and this has been the subject of significant international tension since the mid-2000s. However, since the remits of the IETF and ICANN are focussed squarely on technical good governance, this tension is best understood as symbolic: it represents a more generalised anxiety about US power on the internet, not least through the dominance of US corporations.
36 36 The Domain Name System has been exposed as a point of censorship in recent years. ICANN delegates the operation of top level domains (.org;.de;.co.uk, etc.) to registries that work with registrars to sell domain names (like mywebsite.co.uk ) to end users. Recently, government agencies, most notably the United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency, have acted to seize domains, by presenting their registrars with court orders to redirect (to US government servers) any traffic to websites they believe are trading in illegal or infringing information. The application layer 1 What is it? The application layer is made up of software that allows users to interact over the internet. It includes applications large and small, from the browsers (such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, Chrome), search engines (Google, Bing) and social networking platforms (Twitter, Facebook) of the worldwide web, to clients such as Outlook and Thunderbird and Voice-Over-IP packages (Skype). 1 Note that in technical circles one of the components of the protocol stack (in the code layer) is also called the application layer. Here, we are talking about something different, namely any type of software (application) that helps users to interact via the internet.
Just Net Coalition statement on Internet governance (Just Net Coalition is a global coalition of civil society actors working on Internet governance issues) All states should work together to provide a
UNESCO S CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DRAFT OUTCOME STATEMENT OF THE NETMUNDIAL CONFERENCE 16 April 2014 (Highlighted in yellow below) Introduction 1. The Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet
Cablelynx provides a variety of Internet Services (the Services) to both residential and business customers (the Customer). Below, you will find the terms and conditions that you agree to by subscribing
Global Information Society Watch 2014 Communications surveillance in the digital age This report was originally published as part of a larger compilation, which can be downloaded from GISWatch.org Association
EDRi s Red lines on TTIP January 2015 European Digital Rights Rue Belliard 20, 1040 Brussels www.edri.org @EDRi tel. +32 (0) 2 274 25 70 ABOUT EDRI European Digital Rights is a network of 34 privacy and
Speech by Mr Rudolf Peter ROY, Head of division for Security Policy and Sanctions of the European External Action Service, at the L COSAC Meeting 29 October 2013, Vilnius Honourable members of the National
Music, Film, TV and the Internet A guide for parents and teachers Music, film and TV on the internet what you should know There are many great ways of accessing music, film, TV and video safely and legally
Author: Andrea Renda, Senior Research Fellow, Centre for European Policy Studies May 3, 2013 Editor's note: This brief is a feature of the Council of Councils initiative, gathering opinions from global
Music, Film, TV and the Internet A guide for parents and teachers Music, film and TV on the internet what you should know There are many great ways of accessing music, film, TV and video safely and legally
Internet Technical Governance: Orange s view 1 Internet Technical Governance: Orange s view With the increasing use of IP technologies in the electronic communication networks and services, Internet Technical
Bahnhof - a Free Speech ISP Bahnhof is proud to be known as a Free Speech ISP. We do not enforce tighter restrictions on "speech" than the law demands. If the site and content is legal in Sweden, you may
DOC NO: INFOSOC 53/15 DATE ISSUED: June 2015 Resolution on the open and neutral Internet Introduction This resolution builds on the TACD net neutrality resolutions of April 2010 1 and June 2014 2, which
PEER-TO-PEER NETWORK February 2008 The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region The contents of this document remain the property of, and may not be reproduced in whole or in part without
Global Corporate Responsibility for Internet Freedom Background paper Introduction The Internet, as a global network of networks, is not under the control of a single government or international entity.
Objective: At the end of this module, you must be able to 1. Establish a basic understanding of the Internet 2. Understand the Internet's evolution What is Internet? Internet is a vast collection of different
Freedom of Expression Online The Role of Internet Intermediaries This summary describes a forthcoming report to be published jointly by UNESCO, the Internet Society, and the Open Society Foundations. It
BPI response to the Draft Ofcom Annual Plan 2013-14 Introduction 1. BPI welcomes the opportunity to comment on the planned work of Ofcom in the year 2013-14. BPI will contain its comments to those aspects
Libel Reform Campaign Initial summary assessment of the Defamation Bill The Defamation Bill has been agreed by Parliament and is awaiting Royal Assent to become the Defamation Act 2013. We have campaigned
Written Submission of the Center for Democracy & Technology before the House Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security Hearing on Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking
Privacy and data protection in a post-snowden world Carly Nyst Head of International Advocacy The great irony is that we re the only ones not spying on the American people. - Keith Alexander, head of the
Chapter 1 Review Questions R1. What is the difference between a host and an end system? List several different types of end systems. Is a Web server an end system? 1. There is no difference. Throughout
Government Surveillance, Hacking, and Network Security: What Can and Should Carriers Do? Kent Bressie PITA AGM, Tonga April 2015 1 Network and cybersecurity vs. access Fundamental tension exists between:
COMMUNIQUÉ ON PRINCIPLES FOR INTERNET POLICY-MAKING OECD HIGH LEVEL MEETING ON THE INTERNET ECONOMY, 28-29 JUNE 2011 The Seoul Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy adopted at the 2008 OECD
AFRICAN DECLARATION on Internet Rights and Freedoms Last updated 28 August 2014 Emphasising that the Internet is an enabling space and resource for the realisation of all human rights, including the right
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 11 Executive summary The functions of Internet intermediaries Internet intermediaries provide the Internet s basic infrastructure and platforms by enabling communication and transactions
The Open Internet Speech The Internet is fast becoming the dominant medium in the world. More than a third of the earth s population is connected. Facebook is the third largest country in the world and
The Children s Online Privacy Protection Act COPPA How COPPA & Parental Intelligence Systems Help Parents Protect Their Kids Online A uknow White Paper by Tim Woda, co founder of uknow.com, Inc Overview
GENERAL STATEMENT TONBRIDGE & MALLING BOROUGH COUNCIL INTERNET & EMAIL POLICY AND CODE 1.1 The Council recognises the increasing importance of the Internet and email, offering opportunities for improving
Promoting Cross Border Data Flows Priorities for the Business Community The movement of electronic information across borders is critical to businesses around the world, but the international rules governing
Acceptable Use Policy 1. General Interoute reserves the right to modify the Acceptable Use Policy ( AUP ) from time to time. Changes to this Acceptable Use Policy will be notified to Customer in accordance
A clean and open Internet: Public consultation on procedures for notifying and acting on illegal content hosted by online intermediaries Questions marked with an asterisk * require an answer to be given.
FRESNO COUNTY EMPLOYEES' RETIREMENT ASSOCIATION INTERNET AND E-MAIL USAGE POLICY Effective August 24, 2004 Overview: The Fresno County Employees Retirement Association (FCERA) provides access to the Internet
Digital rights under HR international standards ARTCILE 19 approach on FOE and ICTs Why is FOE important? FOE is a necessary condition for the realisation of the principles of transparency and accountability
Telecom Italia Group s Submission for NETmundial (7 March 2014) Abstract: Telecom Italia Group is pleased to provide this submission on Global Internet Governance Principles and a Roadmap for the further
Committee A: Net Neutrality and Internet Access Draft Resolution Submitted for revision by the delegations to the Model United Nation, College of Charleston, Spring 2011 The General Assembly Reaffirming
Daniel Castro Senior Analyst Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF) Should the Department of Commerce Relinquish Direct Oversight Over ICANN Before the Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee
region16.net Acceptable Use Policy ( AUP ) Introduction By using service(s) provided by region16.net (including, but not necessarily limited to, Internet Services and videoconferencing), you agree to comply
T.V. SERVICE, INC., dba TVS CABLE MASS MARKET INTERNET SERVICE POLICIES AND CUSTOMER INFORMATION The following policies apply to mass market broadband Internet services offered by T.V. Service, Inc., doing
The British Academy of Management s Website and Social Media Policy The creation of management knowledge through research and its dissemination through teaching and application The British Academy of Management
1 Terms & Conditions In this section you can find: - Website usage terms and conditions 1, 2, 3 - Website disclaimer -Acceptable internet use policy 1,2,3,4 - Acceptable email use policy 1, 2 - Copyright
Copyright Infringement and Enforcement in the US A Research Note, November 2011 The U.S. House of Representatives is currently debating the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) the counterpart to the Senate s
Policy Statement: NineStar Connect MASS MARKET INTERNET SERVICE POLICIES AND CUSTOMER INFORMATION The following policies apply to mass market broadband Internet services offered by NineStar Connect. NineStar
REPORT BY THE COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL HC 890 SESSION 2012-13 12 FEBRUARY 2013 Cross-government The UK cyber security strategy: Landscape review 4 Key facts The UK cyber security strategy: Landscape
Introduction to Web Technology 1 (ECS-604) Unit- I Introduction and Web Development Strategies 1. World Wide Web: The World Wide Web is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet.
FKCC AUP/LOCAL AUTHORITY The information contained in this section has its basis in Public Law 93.380. It is further enhanced however, by Florida State Board of Education Administrative Rule 6A-14.51 and
Principles of Oversight and Accountability For Security Services in a Constitutional Democracy Introductory Note By Kate Martin and Andrzej Rzeplinski The 1990 s saw remarkable transformations throughout
Copyright (Infringing File Sharing) Amendment Bill 2010 - further glossary of terms relating to File Sharing and the Digital Environment As requested by the Commerce Select Committee Contents Introduction
MARKETING AND MEDIA RELATIONS Social Media Guidelines Emporia State University Last Updated: July 09, 2011 Introduction What is Social Media? Social media consists of web-based tools used to interact with
CA106 Web Design Dr. Dónal Fitzpatrick, School of Computing Room l2.48, Extension 8929, email@example.com History of the Internet Terminals attached to mainframe computer From mid 1960 s packet-switching
1 Each country is ranked on a scale of 0 to 100, with 0 being the best and 100 being the worst. A combined score of 0-30=Free, 31-60=Partly Free, 61-100=Not Free. Under each question, a lower number of
DOC NO: INFOSOC 52/14 DATE ISSUED: June 2014 Resolution on the open and neutral Internet Introduction This resolution builds on the TACD net neutrality resolution of April 2010 1, which called for policies
Smart Policing Initiative Website and Social Media Vivian Chu, CNA Research Specialist Iris Gonzalez, CNA Project Manager February 8, 2012 This project was supported by Grant No. 2009-DG-BX-K021 awarded
LARKS HILL JUNIOR & INFANT SCHOOL Social Media Policy Written: Reviewed Autumn Term 2015 Larks Hill J & I School Social Media Policy 1. Introduction For the purposes of this policy, social media refers
Music and the Internet A guide for parents and teachers Music on the internet what you should know There are many great ways of accessing music safely and legally online. This guide aims to keep parents,
Paper presented to the British Society of Criminology Conference, Liverpool 10-12 July, 2014 and the European Group for the Study of Deviance and Social Control Annual Conference, Liverpool 3-6 September
This Time Safety & Security in ICT Systems INFO 2 Oliver Boorman-Humphrey www.oliverboorman.biz This time we look at the need to protect data in ICT systems and the subsequent threats if these measures
Internet Marketing Professor, College of Business, San Francisco State University (William Perttula interviewed by Theodor Valentin Purc rea) The trend toward internet marketing has been going on since
All resident students are provided with access to a high-speed Internet connection. Connection to this network is done at the students own risk. The College is not responsible for material viewed or downloaded
CHAPTER 9: THE EVOLVING INTERNET Multiple Choice: 1. What was the department of the U.S. government that developed the initial stages of the Internet? A. Department of Commerce B. Department of Defense
Draft WGIG Issues Paper on Spam 1. Issue Spam directly engages a very wide range of stakeholders that includes individual consumers, all organizations of whatever size in the private and public sectors
DRAFT BILL PROPOSITION Establishes principles, guarantees, rights and obligations related to the use of the Internet in Brazil. THE NATIONAL CONGRESS decrees: CHAPTER I PRELIMINAR PROVISIONS Article 1.
Coventry Public Schools Digital Technology Acceptable Use & Internet Safety Policy The Coventry Public Schools encourages the use of digital technology for teaching and learning, for professional responsibilities,
RUSSIA CHINA NEXUS IN CYBER SPACE E. Dilipraj Associate Fellow, CAPS On May 08, 2015 Russia and China inked an important agreement in the field of cyber security. This bilateral agreement is the latest
1.0 Overview The purpose of this Policy is to detail the University s plans to effectively combat the unauthorized distribution of copyrighted material by users of the Information Technology Resources,
[Example] Social Media Acceptable Use Policy Overview The [agency] recognises that there are legitimate business and personal reasons for using social media at work or using corporate computing resources.
Cyber-Safety Keeping Australians Safe Online AIMIA Digital Policy Group DIGITAL POLICY GROUP Contents DIGITAL POLICY GROUP Facebook 2 Google 4 Yahoo!7 8 ebay 10 Summary 12 Key Contacts 12 Millions of people
Networks 2 Gabriela Ochoa Lecture Networks 2/Slide 1 Content How is Internet connected? Internet backbone Internet service providers (ISP) How to connect a home computer to the Internet? How do networks
Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p. 1/? Computing, Python and Robots Net Neutrality Chris Brooks Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco Department of Computer
ID REGISTER: Telef05162 Telefónica response to the consultation on the implementation of the Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement Directive Telefónica welcomes the opportunity to comment on the findings
Policy: Title: Status: ISP-S9 Use of Computers Policy Revised Information Security Policy Documentation STRATEGIC POLICY 1. Introduction 1.1. This information security policy document contains high-level
Virginia Commonwealth University Police Department NUMBER SECTION CHIEF OF POLICE EFFECTIVE REVIEW DATE 2 9 1/2013 2/2013 SUBJECT SOCIAL MEDIA GENERAL The department endorses the secure use of social media
(U) Appendix E: Case for Developing an International Cybersecurity Policy Framework (U//FOUO) The United States lacks a comprehensive strategic international policy framework and coordinated engagement
1.0 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Information Technology ( IT ) includes a vast and growing array of computing, electronic and voice communications facilities and services. At the Colorado School of Mines ( Mines
Karel De Gucht European Commissioner for Trade ACTA - State of Play 1st Exchange of Views with the Committee for International Trade of the European Parliament Brussels, 29 February 2012 Professor Moreira,
Chapter 7: Computer Networks, the Internet, and the World Wide Web Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version, Third Edition Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: Basic networking concepts
FACEBOOK STATEMENT RICHARD ALLAN NOVEMBER 11, 2013 [I. INTRODUCTION] My name is Richard Allan, and I am the Director of Public Policy for Facebook in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. I have been with
General Policy General Policy Statement: The following policies apply to mass- market broadband Internet services offered by Chat Mobility. It is Chat Mobility s policy to provide robust and reliable access
INSTITUTIONAL COMPLIANCE REQUIREMENTS PUBLIC LAW 110-315 The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Policy Copying, distributing, and downloading copyrighted materials, including
Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography... (for full text of Optional Protocol, see Appendix 2, page 670 and for reporting guidelines, see Appendix 3, page 692)
MEAC SIG 2015 Tunis, Tunisia Who are the Stakeholders in Internet Governance? Houda BELKASSEM Morocco Internet governance is now an active topic of international discussion. Interest has been fueled by
Comments of Verizon Communications on the Draft Convention on Jurisdiction and Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters Verizon Communications appreciates the opportunity to submit comments on
INTERNET SECURITY: THE ROLE OF FIREWALL SYSTEM Okumoku-Evroro Oniovosa Lecturer, Department of Computer Science Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT Internet security
Do you have a private life at your workplace? Privacy in the workplace in EC institutions and bodies Giovanni Buttarelli In the course of his supervisory activities, the EDPS has published positions on