FHE DEFINITIVE GUIDE. ^phihri^^lv JEFFREY GARBUS. Joe Celko. Alvin Chang. PLAMEN ratchev JONES & BARTLETT LEARN IN G. y ti rvrrtuttnrr i t i r

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1 : 1. FHE DEFINITIVE GUIDE fir y ti rvrrtuttnrr i t i r ^phihri^^lv ;\}'\^X$:^u^'! :: ^ : ',!.4 '. JEFFREY GARBUS PLAMEN ratchev Alvin Chang Joe Celko g JONES & BARTLETT LEARN IN G

2 Contents About the Authors Foreword xix xvii Part 1: All About Programming 1 1 Introduction 3 SQL Variations 3 lof5 3 2 of of of of 5 5 Where We Go from Here 6 2 SQL Basics 9 SELECT Statement and Logical Query Processing Joins 13 Cross Join 13 Inner Join 15 Outer Join 17 Subqueries 20 Table Expressions 23 UNION Operator 25 UPDATE Statement 27 TOP Option 31 CASE Expression 34

3 vi Contents CUBE, ROLLUP, and GROUPING SETS Options SELECT INTO Statement 41 Dynamic SQL 42 Summary 45 Additional Reading 45 Exercise 46 Exercise Solution 46 3 Tables 49 Table Creation 49 Real and Implied Limitations 51 Data Types 52 Exact Numerics 52 Approximate Numerics 53 Date and Time 54 Character/Unicode Strings 55 Other Data Types 56 Working with CLR User-Defined Types 56 Data Type Selection 57 Identity Columns 58 ROWGUIDCOL 60 Computed Columns 60 Some General Tips for Creating Tables 61 Temporary Tables 62 Creating Temporary Tables 62 "Permanent" Temporary Tables 63 Table Variables 63 Summary 63 Exercise 64 Exercise Solution 64 4 Views 65 Why Use a View? 65 The View in General 66 WITH CHECK OPTION 67 WITH ENCRYPTION 68

4 WITH SCHEMABINDING 68 Limitations and Data Modification 68 Indexed Views 70 Requirements for an Indexed View 70 Partitioned Views and Horizontal Partitioning Modifying Views 74 View Info 74 Summary 75 Exercise 75 Exercise Solution 75 5 Built-in Functions and SET Options 77 Transact-SQL 77 Scalar Functions 77 Mathematical Functions 78 String Functions 79 Date Functions 81 System Functions 83 Function Examples 86 SET Options 90 SET Examples 94 More about SET Options 95 Summary 97 Exercise 97 Exercise Solution 97 6 Programming Batches 99 Basics 99 Comments 100 Local Variables 101 Notes on Local Variables 102 PRINT Statement 103 Notes on the PRINT Statement 103 RAISERROR Statement 104 RAISERROR Options 104 Standardizing Error Message Syntax 106

5 vim Contents Error Handling with TRY...CATCH 107 Notes on TRY...CATCH 108 Statement Blocks: BEGIN...END 109 Conditional Execution: IF...ELSE 110 IF EXISTS 111 Notes on IF...ELSE 112 Repeated Execution: WHILE 112 Control Transfer: GOTO 113 Event Handling: Exiting WAITFOR 113 Notes on WAITFOR 114 Summary 115 Exercise 115 Batches with RETURN 115 Exercise Solution Transactions 117 ACID Properties 118 Transactions and Batch Flow 122 Nested Transactions 122 Transactions and Stored Procedures 123 Locking 126 Granularity 127 Identifying Locks 128 Transaction Isolation Levels 129 Deadlocks 130 What Happens at Update Summary Cursors 135 Cursors 136 Cursor Types 137 Cursor Steps 137 Time 133 Transact-SQL Cursor Types 137 Dynamic Cursors 137 Static Cursors 138 Keyset Cursors 138

6 Contents ix T-SQL Cursor Usage 138 Declaring Cursors 139 ANSI-92 Syntax 139 T-SQL Syntax 139 Opening Cursors 141 Notes on Open Fetching Rows 141 Navigation Options 142 Fetch Examples 142 Notes on Fetch 143 Cursors 141 Simple Cursor Example 144 Modification with Cursors 144 Notes on Cursor Modification 145 Closing the Cursor 145 the Cursor 146 Deallocating Scope of Cursors and Name Conflicts 146 Cursor Variables 146 Cursor Options 147 Cursor Lock Granularity 147 Cursors and Locking 147 A Sample Cursor Program 148 Notes on Cursors 149 Cursor Pros and Cons 149 Cursor Concurrency 150 Acquiring Locks 150 Using Locks 151 Optimizing Summary 152 Cursors Stored Procedures 153 Creating Stored Procedures 154 User Interfaces 156 Table-Valued Parameters 159 Parameter Sniffing 161 Error Handling 162 Transactions in Stored Procedures 165

7 x Contents Summary 170 Additional Reading 170 Exercise 170 Exercise Solution User-Defined Functions 175 UDF Components 176 of Functions 177 Types Table-Valued Functions 178 Summary 180 Exercise 180 Exercise Solution Triggers 181 The Trigger Mechanism 182 Trigger Creation 183 Removing Triggers 184 Modifying Triggers 185 Deleted and Inserted Tables 185 What Happens on Delete 186 What Happens on Insert 188 Handling Multirow Inserts/Updates 189 If Update Test Syntax 190 Checking Decoding Insert Trigger Example 193 Columns for Modification 191 a Bitmask 192 Conditional Insert Trigger Example 194 Update Trigger Example 195 Trigger Limitations 196 Triggers during Transactions 197 Using Savepoints in Triggers 198 Nested Triggers 199 Additional Notes on Triggers 200 Summary 201 Exercise 202 Exercise Solution 202

8 Contents xi 12 Common Table Expressions 203 CTE Basics 203 CTE and Recursion 205 Multiple Anchor Members 206 Multiple Recursive Members 207 Recursion Limit 212 Uses for Common Table Expressions 213 Traversing a Hierarchy 214 Date Ranges 214 Parsing Beyond Summary 219 CSV Values Part 2: Focus on Performance Understanding Graphical Query Plans 223 What Is an Execution Plan? 223 Retrieving Queiy Plans 224 Graphical Execution Plan Sections 226 Reading the Graphical Execution Plan 228 Analyzing Graphical Execution Plans 229 Common Operators in Graphical Plans 234 Clustered Index Scan/Nonclustered Index Scan/Table Scan 234 Clustered Index Seek/Index Seek 235 (Bookmark) Key Lookup/RID Lookup 237 Nested Loop Join 240 Merge Join 242 Hash Match 244 Sort 248 Stream Aggregate 250 Compute Summary 252 Additional Reading 252 Scalar Indexes 253 How Does the Index Work? 254 Covered Queries 255

9 XII Contents Index Classification 256 Clustered Indexes 256 Nonclustered Indexes 257 Composite Index Architecture 259 Index 259 Index Structure and Access 260 Clustered versus Nonclustered Index Architecture 261 Clustered Index Architecture 262 Nonclustered Index Architecture 263 Data Storage and Data Access 264 Data Storage 264 Data Access 264 Indexing Strategy 265 When Not to Index 270 When to Use an Index 272 Index Creation and Maintenance 274 CREATE INDEX Command 274 DROP INDEX Command 275 FILLFACTOR Option 276 Database Reorganization 277 DBCC Command 278 Database Defragmentation 279 SQL Server Index Optimization 282 Auto Create Statistics 283 Index Selection 284 Column Selectivity and Joins 284 Operators INCLUDE Columns 287 and Clauses 285 Filtered Indexes 288 SYS.INDEX and SYS.SYSINDEXES System Tables 288 Constraints 292 Data Integrity 293 Domain Integrity 293 Entity Integrity 294 Referential Integrity 296 User-Defined Integrity 296

10 Contents xiii Constraint Types 297 PRIMARY KEY Constraints 297 UNIQUE Constraints 298 CHECK Constraints 299 FOREIGN KEY Constraints 300 NOT NULL Constraint 301 ER Diagrams with Key Summary 303 Constraints Join Optimization 303 Does Join Order Matter? 306 Nested Loops Join (aka Nested Iteration Join) 308 Merge Joins 310 Hash Joins 310 In-Memory Hash Join 311 Grace Hash Join 312 Recursive Hash Join 312 Forcing a Join Order 313 Influencing the Joins 314 Things to Note While Giving Hints 316 Self-Joins 317 Matching Data Self-Join 318 Parent-Child Self-Join 320 Outer Joins 323 Summary 324 Exercise 324 Exercise Solution Subquery Optimization 327 Subquery Basics 330 Optimizer Rewrites 332 Optimizing Subqueries Optimizing Subqueries Scalar Subqueries 340 Summary 342 Exercise 342 Exercise Solution 343 in the SELECT Clause 334 in the WHERE Clause 337

11 xiv Contents 17 Hardware 345 CPU 348 CPU Precision 349 CPU Speed 350 CPU Cache 350 Operating System Effects on Processor Use 351 Before You Buy 352 Once the System Is in Place 352 Memory 357 Memory Size 357 Memory Speed 358 SQL Server's Memory Use 358 Before You Buy 361 Once the System Is in Place 361 Front-Side Bus 366 Before You Buy 367 Once the System Before You Buy 370 Once the System Is in Place 367 Is in Place 370 I/O 372 Solid State Drives (SSDs) and SQL Server 375 SANs, NAS, and Other Storage Types 375 How SQL Server Uses Files 376 Before You Buy 378 Once the System Is in Place 378 The Virtualization Question 384 Summary 385 Part 3: Advanced SQL Techniques Set-Oriented Programming A Bit of History 389 Classic Structured Programming 390 BEGIN-END 390 IF-THEN-ELSE 391 WHILE-DO 393 MERGE Statement 396 Summary 398 versus Procedural Code 389

12 Contents xv 19 Dynamic SQL 399 Types of Dynamic SQL 399 T-SQL Dynamic SQL 399.NET Application Dynamic SQL 402 Security Concerns 403 Table-Level Access Requirement 403 Using Impersonation with EXECUTE AS 404 SQL Injection 405 Unchecked User Inputs 405 Preventing SQL Injection 406 Using Certificates and EXECUTE AS to Circumvent SQL Injection 406 Putting Dynamic SQL to Work 408 Cache Bloat from Dynamic SQL 409 Using T-SQL Stored Procedures 410 Using.NET Application Dynamic SQL 416 Administration and Maintenance 418 Summary Grouping Data 421 CUBE Option 426 ROLLUP Option 426 GROUPING Function 428 GROUPING SETS 429 GROUPINGJD Function 432 Summary 433 Additional Reading 434 Exercise 434 Exercise Solution Refactoring 437 Design Refactoring 437 Entity-Attribute-Value T-SQL Code Refactoring 445 Ranking Solutions 445 Refactoring Data Merge 449 Problem 438

13 xvi Contents Summary 453 Additional Reading 453 Exercise 453 Exercise Solution Why Other People's Why Coding Is That There? 458 Standards 460 SELECT * 460 Parsing 461 Overnormalization 464 SQL Injection 465 System Tables 465 Cursors 465 Code Stinks 457 Multiple Passes Through Data 465 Working Too Hard 465 Summary Case Study #1 467 ProcessAuditTrail 468 General Setup Script (Read Before Executing) 24 Case Study #2 479 New Code (Rewritten) 480 Old Code Case Study #3 491 Very Bad 492 Bad 494 Not So Bad 496 Index 497

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