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2 Ackowledgemets The Ceter for Sciece i the Public Iterest (CSPI) thaks Nadie Feistei, Katharie Coo, Jaso Smith, Cheryl Kovalsky ad Lara Khalil for their cotributios to the cotet of this report. Jim Bogde, Tracy Fox, Michael Jacobso, Amada Purcell, Jaa Powell, ad Michelle Price provided valuable commets to the report. Support for this report was provided by the Robert Wood Johso Foudatio ad the Argosy Foudatio. CSPI ad the Nutritio Policy Project The Ceter for Sciece i the Public Iterest (CSPI) is a oprofit orgaizatio based i Washigto, D.C. Sice 1971, CSPI has bee workig to improve the public s health through its work o utritio, food safety, ad alcohol issues. CSPI is supported primarily by the 900,000 subscribers to its Nutritio Actio Healthletter ad by philathropic foudatios. CSPI s Nutritio Policy Project is workig with cocered citizes, health professioals, govermet officials, ad other oprofit orgaizatios to stregthe atioal, state, ad local policies ad programs to promote healthy eatig ad reduce obesity. Our goal is to help reduce the illesses, disabilities, ad deaths caused by diet- ad iactivity-related diseases ad coditios such as heart disease, cacer, high blood pressure, diabetes, ad obesity. For more iformatio o curret projects ad other policy goals to promote healthy eatig ad physical activity, visit <www.cspiet.org/utritiopolicy>. Writte by Joy Johaso, M.P.H., seior policy associate ad Margo G. Woota, D.Sc., director of utritio policy. For more iformatio, cotact: Ceter for Sciece i the Public Iterest Nutritio Policy Departmet 1875 Coecticut Aveue, NW, Suite 300 Washigto, DC Phoe: Fax: February 2007 Sweet Deals is available olie (free of charge) at <www.cspiet.org/schoolfudraisig.pdf>.

3 Cotets Summary: Healthy School Fudraisers Ca Be as Practical ad Profitable as Uhealthy Fudraisers... iii Recommeded Healthy Fudraisers ad Fudraisers to Avoid...v School Fudraisig Myths... ix Itroductio... 1 Fudraisers Are Commo i Schools... 1 Marketig to Childre Is a Key Goal of May School Fudraisers... 3 Childre s Diets ad Health... 4 The School Eviromet ad Childre s Diets ad Health... 5 Product Fudraisers: Healthy ad Uhealthy Optios... 7 Uhealthy Products... 9 Healthy Food ad Beverage Sales... 9 No-Food Product Fudraisers Evet Fudraisers Physical Activity Fudraisers Book Fairs Raffles Auctios Car Washes Fudraisers that Udermie Childre s Diets ad Health Hold the Fries: Fast-Food Restaurat Promotios Label Redemptio Programs Bake Sales: A Half-Baked Idea Market Day: America s Food Fudraiser A La Carte Vedig Machies School Foods Policy Coclusios Recommedatios for Healthy School Fudraisig Appedix A: Cotact Iformatio for Fudraisig Compaies Appedix B: Schools ad School Districts That Have Improved Foods ad Beverages ad Maitaied Profits Refereces ii

4 Summary: Healthy School Fudraisers Ca Be as Practical ad Profitable as Uhealthy Fudraisers May schools rely o fudraisig activities to supplemet school budgets ad pay for equipmet, materials, supplies, ad evets. Ufortuately, may school fudraisers ivolve the sale of uhealthy foods. A 2000 survey foud that clubs, sports teams, or PTAs sold food to raise moey i 80% of schools atiowide. Of those schools, may sold utritio-poor foods ad beverages; 76% sold chocolate cady, 67% sold high-fat baked goods, ad 63% sold o-chocolate cady. Fudraisig activities cetered o uhealthy food iclude bake sales; fudraisig evets held at fast-food restaurats; ad sales of sugary driks, chips, ad sack cakes out of vedig machies or a la carte. Give the risig obesity rates ad childre s poor diets, may schools are recosiderig whether sellig low-utritio foods is a appropriate way to raise moey. I 2004, the U.S. Cogress established a ew requiremet that all school districts develop ad implemet welless policies that address utritio ad physical activity by the start of the school year. As a part of their welless policies, may school districts are settig policies to esure that schools coduct oly healthy fudraisers. The issue of whether schools should have to raise reveue through fudraisers at all is a questio beyod the scope of this report. Also beyod the scope of this report is the questio of whether it is appropriate to elist school childre as a part-time sales force for food ad other compaies. This report addresses the curret situatio, i which may schools are coductig fudraisers, ad recommeds that fudraisers, if they occur, ot udermie the utritio ad health of studets. Clubs, PTAs, athletic departmets, school pricipals, ad others may be reluctat to stop usig fudraisers they have bee coductig for years. Idetifyig ad iitiatig ew fudraisig strategies ca be a challege. However, this report describes may practical optios for healthy fudraisers available to schools. We also provide ames ad cotact iformatio for more tha 60 fudraisig compaies with which schools ca coduct healthier fudraisers (see Appedix A). May healthy fudraisig alteratives are available. May of these are ot oly practical, but also ca be profitable. While schools typically retai about 33% of sales reveue from beverage vedig machies (which i may schools are still stocked mostly with uhealthy products), schools usually keep 45% of sales reveue from product fudraisers, though the reveue to the school is determied by the volume sold. I additio, may schools have foud that they ca make as much moey through vedig machies sellig healthy sacks ad beverages as uhealthy oes. iii

5 Esurig that Fudraisig Does Not Udermie Childre s Health. I the Child Nutritio ad WIC Reauthorizatio Act of 2004, the U.S. Cogress established a ew requiremet that all school districts with federally-fuded school meal programs develop ad implemet welless policies that address utritio ad physical activity by the start of the school year. Parets, teachers, pricipals, food service staff, health professioals, ad others should work together to implemet ad refie school welless policies to allow oly fudraisers that sell o-food items or foods that meet school or school district utritio stadards (see for a model policy). The policy also should address school approval procedures for fudraisers; frequecy of fudraisers; ad who may beefit from fuds raised. Schools, school districts, states, ad/or USDA should implemet utritio stadards for foods ad beverages sold out of vedig machies, school stores, a la carte, ad other veues outside of school meals, such as would be required by the atioal Child Nutritio Promotio ad School Luch Protectio Act. Nutritio stadards for vedig machies ad a la carte would address two of the biggest veues through which may schools raise fuds by sellig juk food. It is importat that all foods ad beverages sold at ad by schools make a positive cotributio to childre s diets ad health. Give risig obesity rates ad childre s poor diets (oly 2% of America childre eat a healthy diet), it is o loger acceptable to sell juk food to childre through school fudraisers. Healthy fudraisers set a positive example ad support healthy eatig by childre, utritio educatio, ad parets efforts to feed their childre healthfully. iv

6 Recommeded Healthy Fudraisers ad Fudraisers to Avoid Recommeded Healthy Fudraisers (See Table 1) Walk-a-thos ad fu rus. Icreasigly popular, walk-a-thos ad 5Ks promote physical activity ad ca raise sigificat fuds. Book fairs. This popular fudraiser promotes literacy while raisig reveue. No-food product sales. The possibilities are edless. Fudraisig compaies help schools sell jewelry, toys, persoal care products, plats, cadles, ad may other products. Scrip/Schoolpop. Scrip or schoolpop is a gift card for use at local grocery stores, clothig stores, coffee shops, or other retail stores. Schools purchase scrip at a discout from those retailers. There is o added cost to parets, who purchase the scrip for the full face value ad sped it, like a gift card, at participatig stores. Schools make moey because they get to keep the differece betwee the discouted price they pay the retailer ad the full face value that parets pay them. Sale of school-related promotioal items. Sales of T-shirts, sweatshirts, pes, pecils, book covers, water bottles, ad other items braded with the school logo ca help build school spirit ad raise fuds. Gift wrap sales. Ask gift wrap compaies for catalogs that do ot iclude cady ad other low-utritio foods i additio to wrappig paper. Recyclig fudraisers. Recyclig compaies purchase used items, such as clothig, priter cartridges, ad cell phoes, from schools. Healthy food sales. Schools ca sell healthy food products such as fruit, spices, bottled water, or graola bars. Grocery store fudraisers. Grocery stores give a percetage of commuity members purchases to a desigated local school. Scratch cards/discout cards. Participats scratch dots o cards to desigate a doatio amout. I exchage for makig the idicated doatio to the school, participats receive discout coupos from local busiesses. Ask parets for a doatio at the begiig of the school year. May parets prefer to pay a upfrot doatio to the school to reduce the umber of other fudraisers durig the rest of the school year. Parets ca pay the fee i oe lump sum or i istallmets over the school year. Auctios. Auctios ca be very profitable, though also labor itesive, ad ideally iclude several big-ticket items doated by local busiesses. v

7 Car Washes. Car washes also promote school spirit ad physical activity. Cookbook fudraisers. Schools collect recipes from studets, staff, ad promiet commuity members to create a cookbook, which is sold to members of the commuity. Fudraisers to Improve Covert sales of foods ad beverages through a la carte ad vedig machies from low-utritio to healthier foods ad beverages. May schools are fidig that they ca raise just as much moey sellig healthier products through a la carte ad vedig as they did by sellig soda ad juk food. I additio, the reveue raised by schools through a la carte ad vedig is likely offset by decreases i sales from the Natioal School Luch Program, through which schools receive reimbursemets from the federal govermet. A la carte. A la carte food ad beverage items are sold idividually i place of or alogside of reimbursable meals i school cafeterias. A la carte sales geerally costitute the largest source of food ad beverage sales outside of school meals. Sice oly childre with spedig moey ca purchase a la carte items ad reimbursable meals are free to lowicome studets, the sale of a la carte foods ca stigmatize the reimbursable school meals. Vedig. Overwhelmigly, the sacks (85%) ad beverages (75%) available from school vedig machies are of poor utritioal quality. The average amout of sugary driks high school studets cosume out of school vedig machies is eough so that over four years of high school, a studet could gai a extra 9.6 pouds. A Though school beverage cotracts appear to be lucrative, the fuds raised usually represet less tha 0.5% of school districts budgets; school beverage cotracts raise a average of just $18 for schools ad/or districts per studet per year. Fudraisers to Avoid (See Table 1) Bake sales. Cookies, cakes, ad other sweet baked goods are leadig sources of calories, sugars, ad saturated ad tras fats i childre s diets. This uhealthy, time-cosumig, ad relatively uprofitable fudraiser also requires parets to pay twice: oce for the igrediets for the baked goods ad a secod time whe they give their childre moey to buy those baked goods. A If the calories are ot compesated for though physical activity or reduced itake of other calories. vi

8 Cady, cookie dough, doughut, pizza, or pizza kit sales. Elistig school childre to sell products for juk-food maufacturers seds kids the wrog message about the importace of healthy eatig. School fudraisers at fast-food restaurats. A restaurat offers a school a cut of the sales o a week ight desigated for the fudraiser. This is a marketig opportuity for the restaurat to drum up busiess ad associate its brad with the school. Nutritioally, such fudraisers are of cocer because the majority of choices available at most fast-food restaurats are too high i calories, saturated ad tras fat, or salt ad iclude few fruits, vegetables, or whole grais. Label redemptio programs that iclude may low-utritio products. For these programs, studets families are asked to purchase products from particular compaies ad the tur the labels (or other proof of purchase, such as box tops) ito the school, which redeems them for school supplies or moey. I both the Campbell s Labels for Educatio Fudraisig Program ad the Geeral Mills Box Tops for Educatio Program, 80% of eligible products are of poor utritioal quality. vii

9 Table 1. Healthy v. Uhealthy Fudraisig Optios Available to Schools Recommeded B Healthy Fudraisers A la carte ad vedig machie sales that meet utritio stadards A Auctios Bakeless bake sales (i.e., parets doate the amout of moey to the school that they otherwise would have spet at a bake sale; o baked goods are sold) Book fairs Bottled water sales Caledars, statioery, greetig cards, ad picture frames Bake sales Avoid Uhealthy Fudraisers Cady, cookie dough, ad doughut sales Fudraisers at fast-food restaurats Label redemptio programs that iclude products of poor utritioal quality Pizza or pizza kit sales Sale of foods ad beverages of poor utritioal quality through a la carte, vedig, or school stores C Cadles, ceramics Car washes Cookbook fudraisers Coupo books ad scratch cards Fruit sales Fu rus, walk-a-thos, bowl-a-thos, golf touramets, sportig evets Grocery store fudraiser Holiday decoratios/oramets, ovelties Jewelry, clothig, accessories, ad persoal care products Magazie subscriptios Plats ad flowers Raffles Recyclig of clothig, cell phoes, ad priter cartridges Safety ad first aid kit sales Scrip ad gift checks Spices Toys Wrappig paper B See Appedix A for the cotact iformatio for fudraisig compaies that sell these products. C See Table 3 for utritio ad portio size stadards. viii

10 School Fudraisig Myths Myth: Sellig juk food is the oly lucrative way to raise fuds for schools. Reality: As listed i Table 1, we foud more healthy fudraisers available to schools tha uhealthy fudraisers. May o-food ad healthy-food fudraisers geerate profits for schools equal to or greater tha profits from fudraisers sellig low-utritio foods. Myth: The oly foods ad beverages childre will purchase are juk foods ad soft driks. Reality: Studets will buy ad cosume healthful foods ad beverages ad schools ca make moey from sellig healthful optios, accordig to USDA ad the Ceters for Disease Cotrol ad Prevetio (CDC). 1 Of 17 schools ad school districts that tracked icome after switchig to healthier school foods, 12 icreased reveue ad four reported o chage. The oe school district that did lose reveue i the short term experieced a subsequet reveue icrease after the study was completed. Myth: Vedig machies raise a lot of moey for schools. Reality: Though cotracts ofte appear to be lucrative, the fuds raised usually represet oly a small fractio of a school district s overall budget. The average cotract provides oly oe-quarter of oe percet of the average cost of a studet s educatio, which accordig to the Natioal Ceter for Educatio Statistics, is about $8,000 per year. 2 A atioal study of 120 school beverage cotracts i 2006 foud that cotracts raise a average of $18 for schools ad/or districts per studet per year. I additio, the profitability of exclusive soft drik cotracts vary cosiderably from district to district; the rage of total aual reveue to schools/districts from beverage cotracts averages $0.60 to $93 per studet. 3 However, oly oe small school from amog the 120 aalyzed cotracts raised more tha $50 per studet per year. Myth: Vedig machies are more profitable tha other types of school fudraisers. Reality: Typically, the profit margis o vedig machies are less tha for other types of fudraisers. The average commissio rate to schools o vedig machie beverage sales is 33%. 3 For example, i Austi Idepedet School District, studets spet $504,000 per year o products from school vedig machies, but their schools received oly $90,000 of the proceeds. For other product fudraisers, schools usually keep 45% of sales reveue, though the reveue to the school is determied by the volume sold. Myth: Vedig machies brig ew moey ito schools. Reality: School vedig shifts moey away from the utritioally regulated school meal programs. Kids come to school with luch moey, ad may either sped that moey o a balaced luch or o HoHos ad a sugary drik from the vedig machie. The Texas Departmet of Agriculture estimates that Texas schools raise $54 millio per year from vedig sales, while the state s school food service operatios may lose $60 millio per year to the sale of foods outside of the meal programs. 4 ix

11 Myth: Soda compaies are geerous beefactors of schools. Reality: Coke, Pepsi, ad other juk-food maufacturers that sell their products i schools are ot givig moey to schools, they are takig it. The moey raised from fudraisig i schools is ot a charitable doatio from the soft drik ad sack food idustries. The moey comes out of the pockets of childre ad their parets. Compaies, i the case of beverage vedig, take about twothirds of the moey back to corporate headquarters. 3 Myth: Bake sales are popular. Reality: Maybe with kids, but may parets reset bake sales, which require them to purchase igrediets, bake a item to sell, ad the give their child moey to buy the products for which they have already paid. Myth: Label redemptio programs (e.g., Campbell s Labels for Educatio Fudraisig Program, Box Tops for Educatio) are effective fudraisers. Reality: To ear a digital camcorder, a school would have to collect 27,850 Campbell s product labels. At $1.20 per ca of soup, studets families would have to sped $33,420 o Campbell s products i order for the school to ear a $300 camcorder. I a school of 500 studets, each studet s family would have to buy 56 products. Myth: Gift wrap sales are healthy fudraisers. Reality: They should be, but may popular gift wrap catalogs also iclude chocolates, high-fat high-sugar baked goods, ad other low-utritio foods. x

12 Itroductio Fudraisers are Commo i Schools Schools frequetly rely o fudraisig activities to supplemet school budgets, to pay for equipmet, materials, ad supplies, ad to sposor school programs ad activities such as studet athletics, clubs, ad trips. Accordig to a survey coducted by the Natioal Associatio of Elemetary School Pricipals (NAESP), more tha 90% of schools coduct fudraisig activities to raise supplemetal cash. I additio, 83% of schools have reported a icreased eed for fudraisig over the past decade. 5 A atiowide survey coducted by the Ceters for Disease Cotrol ad Prevetio (CDC) i 2000 foud that i 80% of schools, clubs, sports teams, or the PTA sell food to raise moey. 6 Of those schools, 76% sell chocolate cady, 67% sell baked goods that are ot low fat, ad 63% sell o-chocolate cady. 6 Typically, various fudraisers are coducted by may differet idividuals ad groups withi a give school (see Figure 1). Fudraisig activities ofte iclude vedig, a la carte sales (idividual foods ad beverages sold outside the reimbursable meal programs) i the cafeteria, school stores or sack bars; cocessios at school evets; fudraisig evets (such as silet auctios, fu rus, or car washes); ad product sales (like cady or wrappig paper sales). Groups ad idividuals coductig fudraisers ca iclude food service, PTAs, school pricipals, studet clubs, booster clubs, music or art departmets, ad athletic departmets or teams. 1

13 Figure 1. Veues for Food Sales i Schools ad Groups Frequetly Ivolved i Sales Note: The food veues show were estimated to be available i a majority of high schools, accordig to a survey by the Govermet Accoutability Office (GAO). The groups listed were estimated to be directly ivolved i food sales through the specified veue i at least 25 percet of high schools. 7 Reveue geerated through vedig ad other food sales provides schools with a flexible fudig source ofte used for programs ad supplies, such as: 7 Field trips (i 36% of all schools) Assemblies ad related programs (i 34% of all schools) Athletic equipmet, facilities, or uiforms (i 23% of all schools) Geeral overhead (i 20% of all schools) Textbooks ad school supplies (i 17% of all schools) Arts programs excludig bad or chorus (i 13% of all schools) 2

14 Bad or choral equipmet or uiforms (i 13% of all schools) Computers/techology equipmet (i 12% of all schools) Staff developmet (i 11% of all schools) Give the risig obesity rates ad childre s poor diets, may schools are recosiderig whether fudraisers that sell food of poor utritioal quality are appropriate, ad may school districts are requirig through their welless policies that school fudraisers be healthy. (For recommeded utritio stadards for school foods ad beverages, icludig for school fudraisers, see Table 7.) This report outlies examples of uhealthy fudraisers commoly used by schools, healthy fudraisig alteratives, ad the relative profitability ad practicality of various fudraisers. We foud that healthy fudraisig alteratives ca be ot oly practical, but also profitable. Schools ca raise moey without udermiig studets diets ad health. Marketig to Childre Is a Key Goal of May School Fudraisers Marketig i schools has become big busiess. Compaies view it as a opportuity to make direct sales ow ad to cultivate brad loyalty to esure future sales. Compaies wat to market their products i schools for a umber of reasos, such as: almost all childre atted schools ad school childre are a captive audiece; schools are relatively ucluttered marketig eviromets i compariso to other veues, like televisio or the Iteret; ad school-based marketig adds credibility to marketig efforts by associatig a compay s ame, brads, or products with schools ad teachers, which are trusted istitutios ad role models for childre. Compaies market products i schools through a variety of fudraisig methods, icludig direct sales of products (e.g., Gatorade sports driks sold i vedig machies or studets sellig Hershey cady bars); givig away braded merchadise prizes as icetives with fudraisers (e.g., gift certificates to fast-food restaurats); redemptio programs (e.g., Campbell s Labels for Educatio Program or Geeral Mills Box Tops for Educatio Program); sellig brad ame fast food i the cafeteria; school fudraisers at fast food restaurats; ad i-school cotests. Some defed food sales ad marketig i schools by sayig that if schools stop sellig soda ad other juk foods, school childre will leave campus to purchase them. However, atioally, 94% of elemetary schools, 89% of middle/juior high schools, ad 73% of high schools have closed campuses. 6 Durig a give moth, oly 19% of childre walk to school at least oce a week. 8 3

15 Several atioal orgaizatios have take formal positios agaist marketig to childre i schools. For example, the Natioal PTA s guidelies state that public schools must ot be used to promote commercial iterest. 9 The policy of the Natioal Associatio of State Boards of Educatio s (NASBE) o school-busiess relatioships states that sellig or providig access to a captive audiece i the classroom for commercial purposes is exploitatio ad a violatio of the public trust. 10 Childre s Diets ad Health Obesity rates have tripled i childre ad tees over the past two decades. More tha ie millio youg people aged six to ietee years are cosidered obese. 12 Obese year olds with at least oe obese paret have a 80% chace of beig obese as adults. 13 Obese idividuals are i jeopardy of developig a host of costly ad potetially disablig diseases, icludig diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure, heart disease, osteoarthritis, ad certai cacers. 14 Also importat to childre are the embarrassmet, reduced ability to participate i physical activities, ad social stigma that ofte accompay beig overweight. Eergy-dese, low-utriet foods, such as desserts, cady, carboated ad other sweeteed driks, ad salty sacks accout for early oe-third of the daily calorie itake of America childre ad adolescets. 15 Eve for childre at a healthy weight, most have uhealthy diets that put them at risk for coroary heart disease, cacer, high blood pressure, stroke, osteoporosis, ad other diseases. Oly 2% of childre (2 to 19 years) meet the five mai recommedatios for a healthy diet from the U.S. Departmet of Agriculture. 16 Childre ad adolescets typically over-cosume calories, saturated fat, tras fat, refied sugars, ad sodium ad they uder-cosume fruits, vegetables, ad whole grai products. Three out of four childre cosume more saturated fat tha is recommeded i the Dietary Guidelies for Americas. 17 Three out of four America high school studets do ot eat the miimum recommeded umber of servigs of fruits ad vegetables each day. 18 The umber of calories childre cosume from sacks icreased by 120 calories per day betwee 1977 ad 1996, from 363 calories to 484 calories. 19 Sodas ad fruit driks are the biggest sigle source of calories ad added sugars i the diets of teeagers. 20 Childre who cosume more soft driks cosume more calories (about 55 to 190 extra calories per day) tha kids who drik fewer soft driks 21 ad are more likely to become overweight. 22,23 Cosumptio of soft driks also ca displace healthier foods i childre s diets like low-fat milk, which ca help to prevet osteoporosis, ad 100% juice. 21,24,25,26,27 As a result of poor diet ad beig overweight, may childre experiece medical problems that used to be cosidered adult diseases. 4

16 Oe-quarter of childre ages 5 to 10 years have high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or other early warig sig for heart disease. 28 Atherosclerosis (clogged arteries) begis i childhood. Autopsy studies of tees ages 15 to 19 have foud that all have fatty streaks i more tha oe artery, ad about 10% have advaced fibrous plaques. 29 Type 2 diabetes ca o loger be called adult oset diabetes because of risig rates i childre. I a study coducted i Ciciati, the icidece of type 2 diabetes i adolescets icreased te-fold betwee 1982 ad High blood pressure i childre is risig, icreasig their risk of adult high blood pressure, heart attacks, ad stroke. 31 The School Eviromet ad Childre s Diets ad Health America childre sped approximately six hours each day i school. While at school, may childre eat breakfast ad luch, as well as oe to two sacks. Childre cosume a estimated 35% to 50% of their calories durig the school day 32 through school meals, as well as foods ad beverages sold through vedig machies, a la carte i the cafeteria, school stores, ad other veues. Give the amout of time that childre sped i school, it is vital that the school eviromet support healthy eatig. Impact of School Food Offerigs o Childre s Diets ad Health. O-campus food-related practices, such as the sale of low-utritio foods i school fudraisers or use of low-utritio foods as classroom rewards, are associated with icreases i childre s body mass idex (BMI). Every separate food-related practice that promotes low-utritio foods i a school is associated with a 10% icrease i studets BMI. 33 Whe studets trasitio to middle school ad gai access to school sack bars, they ted to eat fewer fruits ad vegetables 34 ad drik less milk ad more sweeteed beverages tha i elemetary school. 35 Sellig Juk Food i Schools Udermies Parets. Parets etrust schools with the care of their childre durig the school day. Sellig juk food i schools udermies paretal authority ad parets efforts to feed their childre healthfully. Whe parets sed their child to school with luch moey, they should ot have to worry that their child will buy a cady bar ad a sugary drik from the vedig machie istead of buyig a balaced school luch. This is especially a cocer whe childre have diet-related health problems, such as high cholesterol or diabetes. 5

17 Parets etrust schools with the care of their childre durig the school day. Sellig juk food i schools udermies paretal authority ad parets efforts to feed their childre healthfully. Sellig Juk Food i Schools Cotradicts Nutritio Educatio. Studets should receive cosistet messages about health throughout the school day, across all subjects, ad i all school veues - from the classroom to the cafeteria to the gymasium. Sellig low-utritio foods i schools cotradicts utritio educatio by sedig the message that good utritio is uimportat. 36 The school eviromet should reiforce classroom utritio educatio by modelig ad supportig healthy behaviors. Schools should ot sell utritio-poor choices to kids, or should they elist childre i sellig utritio-poor choices to their family, frieds, ad eighbors. Sellig Juk Food i Schools Competes with Balaced School Luches. School meals are required by law to meet detailed utritio stadards set by Cogress ad USDA i order for school foodservice programs to receive federal subsidies. 37 I cotrast, atioal utritio stadards for foods sold outside of the meal programs, icludig those sold through vedig machies, a la carte, ad other fudraisers, are out of date ad out of syc with curret cocers regardig child utritio. The sale of juk food i school vedig machies ad other veues competes with utritioally balaced school luches. It also ca play a role i stigmatizig the school meal programs whe higher-icome childre ca purchase braded juk food through a la carte, vedig, ad school stores, while low-icome childre ca afford oly USDA reimbursable meals. 36 All food ad beverages sold or served to studets i school should be healthful ad meet a accepted utritioal cotet stadard Natioal Academies Istitute of Medicie. Prevetig Childhood Obesity: Health i the Balace,

18 Product Fudraisers: Healthy ad Uhealthy Optios Product fudraisig etails the purchase ad re-sale of cosumer products by a school or oprofit group, ofte by usig a professioal fudraisig compay. Approximately 1,500 fudraisig compaies operate i the U.S. ad Caada, with thousads of products available for sale through their programs. The Associatio of Fudraisig Distributors ad Suppliers (AFRDS) estimates that each year school groups et $1.4 billio through product fudraisers. 38 The most popular products for sale are cady ad cofectios (makig up 25% of all sales), magazie subscriptios, froze etrees, cheese ad meat products, decorative ovelties, ad gift wrap. A icreasig umber of fudraisig compaies offer healthier or o-food product alteratives, eablig schools to switch easily to sellig healthier products while cotiuig to work with fudraisig compaies. Several schools ad school districts have switched to sellig healthier items through product fudraisers ad have ot lost reveue. Whe coductig a product fudraiser, schools should first determie the target amout of moey that they wish to raise. The percetage of sales retaied by a school depeds upo the type of products sold, with profit margis typically ruig at about 45%, 39 though the reveue to the school is determied by the volume sold. Selectig the right fudraisig compay is oe of several factors that iflueces the success of a school s fudraiser. Usig compaies that provide clear istructios ad materials makes the logistics of school fudraisers easier. The Associatio of Fudraisig Distributors ad Suppliers recommeds askig the followig questios whe choosig a fudraisig compay: How log has the compay bee i the product fudraisig busiess? 2. Is a compay represetative available 24 hours a day? 3. How does the compay address the questio of state sales tax requiremets? 4. What is the retur policy for usold products? 5. Does the compay have solid refereces? 7

19 Table 2: Popular Product Fudraisers No-food Products/Healthier Foods Uhealthy Foods Books Caledars Cadles Ceramics Clothig ad accessories Coffee Coupo books, gift checks Custom prited items Doatio cards ad programs Fresh ad dried fruit Gift wrap Greetig cards Holiday oramets ad ovelties Items with school logo (t-shirts, sweat shirts, water bottles, key chais, etc.) Jewelry Magazie subscriptios Nuts Picture frames Plats ad flowers Safety ad first aid kits Soap ad persoal care products Spices Sports peats, cards, ovelties Statioery Toys Cady, chocolates, & cofectios Cheese ad processed meats Cookies, cookie dough, doughuts, ad other baked goods High-fat sack foods Pizza & pizza kits 8

20 Uhealthy Products Give the variety of products available for sale from fudraisig compaies ad the growig problem of childhood obesity ad poor utritio, may schools have cocluded that it is ot appropriate for fudraisig orgaizers to sell products that make a egative cotributio to childre s diets ad health, such as cady, cookies, cookie dough, ad pizza (see Table 2). Similar levels of profit ad ease of sales are available through ofood products ad healthier food product sales, icludig plats, flowers, books, clothig, jewelry, greetig cards, gift wrap, persoal care products, holiday decoratios, fruit, ad spices. I fudraisers ivolvig the sales of certai products, childre are drafted as a part-time sales force for Krispy Kreme, Hershey s, ad other food compaies. While this situatio does ot violate child labor laws, its appropriateess is questioable. Healthy Food ad Beverage Sales Fresh Fruit. (See Sectio A of Appedix A for compay examples ad cotact iformatio) Orages, tageries, magos, peaches, apricots, pieapples, ad plums are a mere samplig of the may fruits that ca be sold to raise fuds for schools. These fudraisers ca be quite profitable. Accordig the Florida Fruit Associatio, fruit fudraisers ca raise $8,000-$10,000 i as few as oe to two weeks. 41 Lagdo Barber Groves, a Floridabased fudraisig compay that specializes i fresh fruit sales, coteds that more tha 80% of their customers achieve their fiacial fudraisig goals. 42 Bottled Water. (See Sectio B of Appedix A for compay examples ad cotact iformatio) Custom-labeled bottled water is a icreasigly popular ad healthy fudraiser. Termed Wet Gold by Fudraisig.com, bottled water fudraisers ca be highly profitable. As part of these fudraisers, schools recruit local sposors to doate moey i exchage for havig the sposor s ame prited o water bottle labels. The schools the sell the water bottles. The more sposors that a school recruits, the greater the profits they ear (each label ca list multiple sposors) (see Table 3). 9

21 Table 3. Custom-Labeled Bottled Water, Potetial Profits 43 # of Sposors Amout Doated from Sposors ($100 per Sposor) Cost per Pallet (1 Pallet = 60 Cases of 24 [16.9 oz] bottles) Reveue from Sellig 1 Pallet of Water for $1/Bottle School s Profit per Pallet % Profit from Sellig 1 Pallet of Water 9 $900 $936 $1,440 $1,404 98% 8 $800 $936 $1,440 $1,304 91% 7 $700 $936 $1,440 $1,204 84% 6 $600 $936 $1,440 $1,104 77% 5 $500 $936 $1,440 $1,004 70% 4 $400 $936 $1,440 $904 63% 3 $300 $936 $1,440 $804 56% 2 $200 $936 $1,440 $704 49% 1 $100 $936 $1,440 $604 42% 0 $0 $936 $1,440 $504 35% Grocery Store Fudraisers. (See Sectio C of Appedix A for compay examples ad cotact iformatio) Grocery store chais that offer school fudraisig programs iclude Albertsos, Food Lio, Giat Food, Haaford, Harris Teeter, Ralphs, Safeway, ad Tom Thumb. These fudraisers are coveiet ad require little effort by commuity members. Schools receive reveue without parets havig to make ay purchases beyod their usual weekly groceries. May grocery stores provide a club card or reward card for customers to preset whe they make purchases. The cards provide discouts to customers, ad also eable stores to collect iformatio o cosumer purchase patters. May supermarkets also tie school fudraisig to club cards. I such fudraisers, a customer completes a form to desigate a school tied to their club card. The, whe that customer makes a purchase, the store seds a doatio to the desigated school equal to a percetage of the customer s purchase. 10

22 May supermarkets also participate i scrip school fudraisig programs, as described below i the No-Food Product Fudraisers sectio. Scrip is a gift certificate or gift card that ca be used to purchase goods or services at local retail stores. Schools purchase scrip cards at a discout from participatig retailers ad the sell them at face value. No-Food Product Fudraisers Scrip/Schoolpop. (See Sectio D of Appedix A for compay examples ad cotact iformatio) Scrip or Schoolpop is a gift certificate or gift card that ca be used to purchase goods or services at supermarkets, coffee shops, movie theaters, or clothig, video, electroic, book, or other local retail stores. Schools purchase scrip at a discout from participatig retailers. (Busiesses offer schools a discout because it is a way for them to acquire ew customers ad retai busiess.) The, parets ad school supporters buy scrip from a school at the full-face value. The school makes moey, sice it keeps the differece betwee the discout price at which it bought the scrip ad the value at which it sells it to participats. Participats sped scrip at participatig retailers, where it is worth the full face value which they paid for it. Accordig to Alicia Millar ad Tim Sulliva of PTO [Paret Teacher Orgaizatio] Today, scrip works for two reasos: 1) the participatig retailers are stores where your supporters already shop ad 2) your supporters ca help your school without spedig a extra dime. It s a ice combiatio. 44 Sice the scrip fudraisig program was started 15 years ago, o-profits have raised millios of dollars usig scrip programs. Table 4. Examples of School Earigs through Scrip 45 Number of Families Participatig Average Weekly Purchases Dollars Raised Aually (7% Average) Processig Fees Total Eared by School Aually 25 $100 $9,100 $2,080 $7, $100 $18,200 $4,160 $14, $100 $36,400 $6,240 $30, $100 $72,800 $7,490 $65,310 11

23 Discout or Value Cards. (See Sectio E of Appedix A for compay example ad cotact iformatio) Discout cards offer savigs at local busiesses, such as restaurats, bowlig alleys, auto maiteace shops, dry cleaers, ad hair salos. Schools buy the cards from fudraisig compaies, usually for about $5 each. The schools re-sell the cards to their supporters for double that amout, thus earig 50% of the sales. Discout cards ca offer a variable umber of savigs offers from local busiesses. Be sure to ask for cards that iclude oly o-food or healthy food busiesses avoid discout cards that iclude fast-food restaurats or other busiesses that sell predomiatly low-utritio foods (see Figure 2). Figure 2. Sample Discout/Value Card Valvolie Istat Oil Chage $3.00 OFF ay Oil Chage 607 Walut Ave. America Cleaers 15% Off Dry Cleaig 561 Harriso St. Flower Stop 20% OFF purchase 709 Tita Blvd. AutoZoe Car Wash $2.00 OFF Regular Car Wash 2020 Adrea L. Family Video FREE DVD Retal w/retal of same 5711 Midtow Rd. Subway FREE 6 Sub w/purchase of 6 Sub 7543 Piter St. Fatastic Sam s Quick Cut 20% OFF ay Haircut or Products 984 Brado Pl. AMF Bowlig FREE game w/purchase of (2) games 178 Radolph Rd. Carl s Pharmacy $5 OFF purchase 420 Tilde L. Shoes Ulimited FREE pair of socks with shoe purchase 28 Macomb St. Global Office Supply 20% OFF all paper products 77 Charles L. Two for oe meas equal or lesser value. Oe use per visit uless specified o offer. Valid oly at participatig locatios. No-trasferable at time of purchase. Offer ot good with other sales or promotios. Misuse of the card may result i deial of service ad/or loss of card. Other restrictios may apply. 12

24 Scratch Cards. (See Sectio F of Appedix A for compay examples ad cotact iformatio) Scratch cards are used to solicit doatios i retur for discouts at local busiesses. Scratch cards work as follows: A potetial door scratches dots off a card to idicate his/her doatio amout. The door cotributes the total amout idicated by the umber of dots he/she scratched. (Typically, the maximum cotributio amout per dot is $3). Oce the doatio is made, the door receives a coupo page with about $50 to $75 worth of product discouts at local busiesses. The profit margi o scratch cards teds to be about 80% (see Table 5). Ask for cards that iclude oly o-food or healthy food busiesses. Table 5. Scratch Cards. 46 Quatity of Cards Sales Costs to School Profit to School Free* $2,200 $400 $1, Free $5,500 $1,000 $4, Free $11,000 $2,000 $9, Free $27,500 $5,000 $22,500 * Fudraisig compaies ofte provide schools with extra free cards at o additioal cost. 13

25 Example of a scratch card. Ask for cards that iclude oly o-food or healthy food busiesses. Recyclig Fudraisers. (See Sectio G of Appedix A for compay examples ad cotact iformatio) Clothes. The Friedship Used Clothig Collectio rus a clothig drive fudraiser for schools. Schools collect re-usable clothig, shoes, accessories, ad beddig ad are paid for those items. Accordig to the compay, the clothes collected go to eedy commuities i the Uited States ad throughout the world. Priter Cartridge Recyclig. The collectio of priter cartridges ot oly beefits the eviromet, but also eables schools to raise moey. Millios of ikjet cartridges are throw away each year. 47 It takes up to 6 cups of oil to produce a ew toer cartridge from scratch. 48 Most cartridges ca be recycled ad resold. Refuds for used priter cartridges vary from $0.06 to $2.10 per cartridge, depedig upo the brad ad ik color. 49 Cell Phoe Recyclig. Recyclig compaies pay schools for used cell phoes. (Compaies refurbish them ad make moey from the resale of the refurbished phoes.) Accordig to Larry Lakford of EcoPhoes, your profit really depeds o the umber of phoes you collect. You ca make aywhere from a few hudred to thousads of dollars. For example, the Coppell High School Bad Boosters Club has raised over $15,000 through our program. 50 The amout of moey the compay pays schools per phoe depeds upo the type of phoe doated; however, o average, EcoPhoes pays $3 per phoe. 14

26 Gift Wrap. (See Sectio H of Appedix A for compay examples ad cotact iformatio) Sellig gift wrap is a traditioal ad profitable fudraisig iitiative for may schools. For example, the River Oaks Elemetary School i Texas raised over $28,000 through a Sally Foster gift wrap fudraiser i Gift wrap fudraisers, o average, provide schools with a 50% profit. Ufortuately, gift wrap compaies catalogs ofte iclude cady, cookies, or other low-utritio foods. Urge compaies to provide your school with catalogs that do ot iclude uhealthy foods. Cookbook Fudraisers. (See Sectio I of Appedix A for compay examples ad cotact iformatio) After collectig healthy recipes from school studets, staff, or promiet commuity members (for example, the mayor, players o local sports teams, or a local ews achor), a professioal fudraisig compay creates a persoalized cookbook for the school. Cookbook fudraisig compaies try to make their programs as simple as possible, ofte providig schools with step-by-step istructios. Not oly are school cookbooks distictive, but their keepsake value eables them to be sold at a high profit. O average, the cost to the school is $3 to $5 per book for a basic cookbook. Jessie Shafer, marketig coordiator of G&R Publishig, says, groups ca charge whatever they wat for the books. Typically, they are sold for $10 each, or a 100 to 230% profit, which meas that if you sell 600 cookbooks, you ca make early $4, Bakeless Bake Sales. Bakeless bake sales are a emergig tred i schools. Parets ad others are ivited to cotribute a doatio equivalet to the amout of moey that they would have spet o igrediets ad/or the purchase of the baked goods had there bee a traditioal bake sale. No baked goods are sold at all, makig this a healthier alterative. The popularity of bakeless bake sales stems, i part, from the work ivolved i ad characteristically low profit margis of traditioal bake sales. 15

27 Evet Fudraisers Physical Activity Fudraisers Walk-a-Thos, Fu Rus, 5Ks, 10Ks, bowl-a-thos, dace-a-thos, golf touramets, ad baseball, basketball, soccer, or volleyball evets ca raise fuds, be ejoyable, ad promote physical activity. The PTA i Bixby, Oklahoma, raised $50,000 at its September 2005 Jog-a-tho to beefit the three elemetary schools i the district. This is their major aual fudraiser. I the jog-a-tho, studets collected pledges from family ad frieds ad jogged or walked laps durig the 20-miute evet. Orgaizig a walk or race ca be a big job. Proper plaig ad publicity are key elemets to a evet s success. May large, well-kow races take from six moths to a year to pla ad publicize. However, smaller evets may be plaed i just a few moths. Whe orgaizig a walk or race, it is importat to cosider the followig: Evet locatio, whether permits are required, ad layig out a course that is safe for pedestrias; Who will be ivited to participate i the walk, race, or evet (i.e., is it limited to studets or will other commuity members be ecouraged to participate?); Obtaiig sposorship from local busiesses (sice participatio provides them with positive publicity, merchats ofte will cotribute water, sacks, t-shirts, or prizes); Whether a etrace fee will be charged or whether participats will be required to raise a miimum amout of moey through pledges; ad Recruitig voluteers to esure that the evet rus smoothly. Book Fairs (See Sectio L of Appedix A for compay examples ad cotact iformatio) Book fairs are popular fudraisers because they simultaeously promote literacy ad raise fuds for schools. The largest operator of school book fairs i the Uited States is Scholastic, which sposors more tha 100,000 book fairs per year. The amout of moey geerated by book fairs depeds o the quatity of books purchased, ad varies from school to school. 16

28 Raffles Attractive or practical prizes, such as tickets for movies, sportig evets, cocerts or amusemet parks; weeked vacatios; spa treatmets; gift certificates from local retailers; ad vouchers for car washes or dry cleaers, help to sell raffle tickets. Raffle orgaizers ask local busiesses to doate prizes, icludig products, gift certificates, or services. Alteratively, i a 50/50 raffle, the prize is half of the moey raised. For example, if $1,000 worth of tickets are sold, the wier takes home $500. Sice raffles are regulated i may states, cosult local ad state laws prior to orgaizig a raffle. Auctios (See Sectio J of Appedix A for compay examples ad cotact iformatio) Auctios ca be profitable, sice almost all of the auctioed items are doated, usually by parets, school staff, or local busiesses. For a auctio to be successful, several auctioed items should be highly desirable, such as vacatio packages, behid the scees tours of sports stadiums, dier with a local celebrity, or rouds of golf. However, settig up a auctio ad securig doatios ca be labor itesive. Auctio software programs (such as, AuctioCheckoutPro ad Auctio Maestro Pro) ad professioal fudraisig auctioeers are available to assist with plaig ad implemetig a profitable auctio. Alteratively, olie auctios make fudraisig easier. Compaies set up a school-specific website o which to post descriptios ad photos of items available for purchase. Compaies also will create cotact lists, set up olie paymet programs, ad geerate messages ad thak-you letters to bidders. Car Washes A car wash fudraiser ca eable a school to ear fuds while promotig school spirit ad physical activity. The success of a car wash depeds o several variables, icludig weather, locatio, ad publicity. It is best to hold a car wash i a visible, high-traffic locatio (while takig appropriate precautios for traffic safety). 17

29 Fudraisers That Udermie Childre s Diets ad Health May school fudraisig activities iclude the sale of foods ad beverages that udermie childre s diets ad health. Examples iclude fast-food promotios; bake sales; cady sales (discussed above with other product sale fudraisers); ad sales of sugary driks, chips, ad sack cakes out of vedig machies. Hold the Fries: Fast-Food Restaurat Promotios May fast-food restaurats offer school fudraisig opportuities. Such fudraisers 1) market fast-food restaurats to childre, 2) are image marketig for restaurats (restaurats associate their brad with schools, which are trusted istitutios, ad restaurats appear beevolet by givig moey to schools), ad 3) drum up busiess o a slow ight (restaurats ofte oly allow school fudraisers o weekights). While there are some healthy choices available at fast-food restaurats, the overwhelmig majority of choices are of poor utritioal value. Few fruits, vegetables, or whole grais are available or actively promoted. Eatig out is oe key cotributor to obesity ad poor dietary habits. 54,55,56,57,58 About oe-third of U.S. childre ad tees ages 4 to 19 eat fast food o ay give day. 59 Studies lik eatig out to higher calorie cosumptio, overweight, ad obesity i both adults ad childre. 54,55,56,57,58,60,61,62,63,64 Foods from restaurats ad other food-service establishmets are geerally higher i calories ad saturated fat ad low i utriets, such as calcium ad fiber, as compared with home-prepared foods. 55,56,57,58 I additio, it is ot ucommo for restaurat etrees to cotai oe-half to oe whole day s worth of calories (i.e., 1,100 to 2,350 calories). 65 School fudraisig programs are marketed by McDoald s, Chuck E. Cheese, Little Caesars, Krispy Kreme, Domio s, Burger Kig, Friedly s, Popeye s, ad other compaies (see Table 6 for other examples). 18

30 Table 6. Fudraisers for Schools Marketed by Restaurats Restaurat Baja Fresh Chevy s Chik-Fil-A Fuddruckers Papa Joh s Pizza Hut Fudraisig Descriptio Schools work with local restaurats. Restaurats make flyers. Schools keep approximately 15% of profits from fudraisers. Schools work with local restaurats. Restaurats make flyers. Schools keep approximately 15% of profits from fudraisers. Frachise-operated, so promotios vary from restaurat to restaurat. School Spirit Night: a percetage of profits goes to schools. Caledar Sales: schools buy caledars for half price ad the sell them. I their Fuddraisers, schools work with local restaurats. Restaurats make flyers. Schools keep approximately 20% of total sales from fudraisers. School fudraisig ight: parets ad studets metio the school whe placig their pizza order ad give a flyer to the pizza delivery perso. Schools keep 25% of pizza sales reveue. Raisesomedough.com: schools purchase Papa Joh s coupo books ad sell them to parets. Schools keep 50% of profits from coupo books. Schools keep $4 profit from the sale of each $10 Pizza Hut card. Cards are redeemable for free pizza toppigs. McDoald s McTeacher s Night. Natiowide, schools ca schedule McTeacher s Nights with their eighborhood McDoald s. At McTeacher s Night, teachers ad admiistrators work with McDoald s staff behid the couter takig orders ad servig food. This fudraiser adds to the workload of teachers ad pricipals. It also directly liks these trusted school employees with the McDoald s brad ad its food, which by ad large is of low utritioal value. A participatig school keeps 10 to 20% of the sales from the McTeacher s Night, while McDoald s keeps 80 to 90% of the sales. That profit margi for schools pales i compariso with that from product fudraisers (e.g., sales of cadles, gift wrap, etc.), which typically provide schools with 45% of the sales geerated, though the reveue to the school is determied by the volume sold. 19

31 Advertisig for a McTeacher s Night is the resposibility of the school. Because the amout of fuds raised is directly related to sales, it is i the school s iterest to ecourage may studets ad their families to eat at the restaurat durig the evet. Maagers at McDoald s ofte suggest that school staff ad studets dissemiate posters ad fliers to promote their upcomig McTeacher s Nights (see Figure 3 for a example). At McDoald s there are 24 possible combiatios for a Happy Meal ad 24 Mighty Kids meal combiatios. Of the 48 available meal combiatios, 96% (46) meals are of poor utritioal quality, accordig to the utritio stadards i Table 7. D,66,67 Thus, while it is possible to eat a healthier kids meal at McDoald s, the odds are stacked agaist childre gettig a healthy meal there. Figure 3. Flyer from McTeacher s Night i Vetura, CA D The two meals that meet CSPI s utritio stadards are a Happy Meal with a four-piece Chicke McNuggets, Apple Dippers with low-fat caramel dip, ad apple juice; ad a Happy Meal with a hamburger, Apple Dippers with low-fat caramel dip, ad apple juice. 20

32 Table 7. Nutritio ad Portio Size Stadards for Foods ad Beverages E,68 Nutritious/Healthy Beverages water ad seltzer without added sweeteers beverages that cotai at least 50% fruit juice ad that do ot cotai additioal sweeteers low-fat ad fat-free milk, icludig flavored milks ad calcium-fortified soy ad rice beverages Fat Nutriet Saturated plus tras fat Added sugars Sodium Nutriet cotet Idividual beverage ad food items Meals Nutritio Stadards for Beverages Low-utritio Beverages soft driks, sports driks, ad sweeteed iced teas fruit-based driks that cotai less tha 50% juice or that cotai added sweeteers beverages cotaiig caffeie (except low-fat ad fat-free chocolate milk, which cotai trivial amouts of caffeie) Nutritio Stadards for Sacks ad Meals Criteria No more tha 35% of total calories, excludig uts, seeds, ad peaut or other ut butters No more tha 10% of calories Less tha 35% of added sugars by weight (added sugars exclude aturally occurrig sugars from fruit, vegetable, ad dairy igrediets) No more tha: 1) 230 mg per servig of chips, crackers, cheeses, baked goods, Frech fries, ad other sack items; 2) 480 mg per servig for cereals, soups, pastas, ad meats; 3) 600 mg for pizza, sadwiches, ad mai dishes; ad 4) 770 mg for meals Cotais oe or more of the followig: 1) 10% of the DRI of (aturally occurrig/without fortificatio) vitamis A, C, or E, calcium, magesium, potassium, iro, or fiber, 2) half a servig of fruit or vegetable, or 3) 51% or more (by weight) whole grai igrediets Portio Size Limits for Foods ad Beverages No larger tha the stadard servig size used for Nutritio Facts labels (except for fruits ad vegetables, which are exempt from portio size limits) No more tha oe-third of the daily calorie requiremet for the average child i the age rage targeted by the marketig E CSPI s Guidelies for Resposible Food Marketig to Childre were developed with iput ad advice from more tha a doze child health ad marketig experts. They are based o the Natioal Alliace for Nutritio ad Activity s (NANA) model utritio stadards for school foods, which were developed ad are supported by more tha 50 member orgaizatios of NANA. 21

33 Chuck E. Cheese s. Chuck E. Cheese s restaurat sposors Tur Fu ito Fuds: The Chuck E. Cheese s Elemetary Schools Fudraisig Evet, for preschools ad elemetary schools. Authorized school persoel or PTA/PTO represetatives ca book a evet for their school. Fudraisers must be scheduled for weekights. Chuck E. Cheese s gives 10% of all sales geerated by the evet back to the school. To ecourage studet ad teacher participatio, Chuck E. Cheese s supplies schools with flyers, posters, free tokes, Super Studet certificates, ad free meals to teachers who atted. O the day of the evet, staff from Chuck E. Cheese s will make a appearace at the school. A Lucrative Iitiative i the Compay s Arseal We believe that [school fudraisers] hold the potetial to lift Chuck E. s samestore sales beyod most other iitiatives i the compay s arseal ad with miimal capital outlay. Robert Derrito, aalyst with Morga Keega & Co. Ic. Source: Natio s Restaurat News 69 Chuck E. Cheese s sells sadwiches, Frech fries, appetizers, pizzas, beverages, desserts, ad salad bars. Amog the 47 food ad beverage meu items for which utritio iformatio is available, all items except oe (apple juice) are foods/beverages of poor utritioal quality, accordig to the utritio stadards i Table Chuck E. Cheese s also has a salad bar, which is ot icluded i its utritio listigs. Healthy choices may be obtaied at the salad bar, but also available are high-fat, high-salt dressigs ad fatty salads, such as potato ad macaroi salads. Little Caesars. Little Caesars Pizza sposors a Pizza Kit fudraiser, which it claims ca raise BIG DOUGH! The Little Caesars program ivolves sellig pizza kits ad/or cookie dough. Each Little Caesars Pizza Kit cotais all of the igrediets eeded to make pizza ad sacks at home. Pizza Kits sell for $16.50-$18.00 each ad schools receive 29% of the sales reveue ($5 per Pizza Kit)

34 Of the e types of pzza, four types of crazy bread, four types of cooke dough, ad oe cooke avalable for sale through the Lttle Caesars fudrasg program, all are foods of poor utrtoal qualty, accordg to the utrto stadards Table 7. Eve a slce of the whole-wheat pzza, whch the compay advertses as healthy, exceeds recommeded levels of saturated fat. Pzza s the fourth-leadg food source of calores the dets of Amercas, 72 ad cheese s the secod-leadg source of saturated fat the dets of chldre. 73 krispy kreme. Krspy Kreme Doughuts rus a varety of fudrasers that are avalable to schools, youth sports groups, churches, ad other o-profit groups. They offer several fudrasg optos: (1) tradtoal doughut sales; (2) gft certficates; (3) partershp cards; ad (4) A Doughut Day. 74 Of the 33 dfferet types of Krspy Kreme douts ad dout holes, all are of poor utrtoal qualty accordg to crtera lsted Table label redemptio ProgrAms campbell s labels for educatio Fudraisig Program. School-based coordators ask famles to buy Campbell s products ad tur the product labels to ther school. The school coordators the budle the labels, sed them to Campbell s, ad, wth the credts from the labels, order supples for the school. Ths program seems to be more about corporate marketg tha about provdg sgficat fudg to schools. For example, a school that collects oe hudred product labels ca redeem those labels for a Campbell s Soup label collecto b, used to collect more labels. Collectg 1,200 labels ears a school sx sets of e Crayola colored pecls, valued at about $12. At $1.20 per ca of soup, famles have to sped $1, or 120 tmes the actual cost of the pecls -- to ear ths reward. 23

35 Campbell s Labels for Educatio Program: Effective Corporate Marketig, Iefficiet School Fudraiser To ear a digital camcorder, a school would have to collect 27,850 Campbell s product labels. I a school of 500 studets, that meas about 56 labels per studet. At $1.20 per ca of soup, studets families would have to sped $33,420 o Campbell s products i order for the school to ear a $300 camcorder. I additio to beig a bad busiess propositio for schools, this Campbell s fudraisig program promotes the cosumptio of a product lie that is geerally of poor utritioal quality (see Table 8). Of 622 Campbell s products, 80% are of poor utritioal quality accordig to the utritio stadards i Table 7; 64% of eligible products are too high i sodium. 24

36 Table 8. Nutritioal Quality of Campbell s Products* Brad Product Category Number of Products Number of Products of Poor Nutritioal Quality Percetage of Compay s Products i Category that Are of Poor Nutritioal Quality Campbell s Beas products Codesed soup Low sodium soup SpaghettiOs pasta Gravy Tomato juice Ready to serve soup Soup at Had Chili Chuky soup Healthy Request soup Supper bake Select soup Fraco-America Gravy Pepperidge Farm Bread Croutos Rolls Stuffig Cookies Crackers Goldfish crackers ad cookies Froze garlic bread Cakes Turover/dumplig/puff pastry Swaso Broth Caed chicke V8 Vegetable juice Splash juice drik Splash smoothie Prego Pasta sauce Pace Salsa & sauces Beas & chilies Taco seasoig Total * The utritioal quality of Campbell s products was assessed agaist the utritio stadards i Table 7. Our assessmet icluded products for which there was utritio iformatio available o Campbell s Web site durig February Tras fat was ot icluded i this aalysis because tras fat iformatio was ot provided o the Web site. I additio, food service products were ot icluded i this aalysis because utritio iformatio for those products was ot provided o the site. 25

37 Geeral Mills Box Tops for Educatio Program. Families are asked to collect box tops from Geeral Mills products, ad a school coordiator seds the box tops to Geeral Mills to redeem te cets for each box top. Geeral Mills issues checks twice per year to participatig schools, which are free to sped the reveue however they choose. Schools eed to keep i mid that this is a marketig program for Geeral Mills, ad that 81% of eligible products i the program are foods of poor utritioal quality. F Jaey Elemetary School i Washigto, D.C., which has about 480 studets, eared just $185, o average, per year over the last te years through the Geeral Mills fudraiser. 77 Yet, the school s PTA regularly promotes Geeral Mills (through this program) i its weekly ewsletter (which oe of the authors receives sice her daughter is a studet at Jaey Elemetary). I iterviews with the Bosto Globe, parets from schools participatig i the program reported havig switched from buyig Post or Kellogg s products to Geeral Mills products to ear box tops. 78 Bake Sales: A Half-Baked Idea Bake sales are a commo school fudraiser. Bake sales typically ivolve the sale of high-fat cakes, cookies, browies, ad pastries. Accordig to the CDC, two-thirds of schools atiowide i 2000 sold cookies ad other baked goods through fudraisers. 6 I some schools, bake sales are istitutioalized as a regular part of the school week. Give utritioal, practical, ad fiacial cosideratios, it is doubtful that bake sales make sese as a school fudraiser aymore. Bake sales require a good deal of time ad effort, usually by studets parets. Parets must purchase igrediets, sped time bakig items to cotribute to the sale, ad ofte sped time sellig the items ad workig with studet groups o the day of the sale. Ofte strapped for time, parets may istead choose to purchase pre-made baked goods. The, frequetly, parets provide their childre with moey to buy items at the bake sale. As a result, parets ed up payig twice for the low-utritio baked goods. Rather tha beig occasioal treats, sweet baked goods, such as cookies, cakes, sack cakes, pastries, ad douts, have become a real problem i the diets of America childre. Sweet baked goods are the third leadig source of calories 73 ad the fourth leadig source of saturated fat 73 i childre s diets. F To determie this percetage, we assessed utritio iformatio available o-lie for Geeral Mills food products ad compared them with the utritio stadards i Table 6. 26

38 Market Day: America s Food Fudraiser Market Day: America s Food Fudraiser, whose sloga is helpig schools with every bite, works with more tha 5,500 schools atiowide ad has eared more tha $370 millio for schools sice it started more tha 30 years ago. Ufortuately, this fudraiser peddles pricipally uhealthy products. Families ca order froze appetizers, breakfasts, luches, diers, sacks, side dishes, ad desserts through Market Day ad pick them up at their school. Ufortuately, of the more tha 200 food products for sale through this fudraiser, oly 9% met the utritioal stadards i Table A La Carte Foods ad Beverages A la carte food ad beverage items are sold idividually i place of or alogside of reimbursable meals i school cafeterias. Although some of these items also are sold as a part of school meals, whe they are sold idividually (a la carte), they are ot eligible to be reimbursed through the federal school meal programs (oly complete/balaced meals are eligible for federal reimbursemet). Food ad beverage a la carte optios ca iclude idividually sold compoets from the USDA-reimbursable meals, as well as foods ot offered as part of the school meal program. The availability of a la carte items eables studets to build meals for themselves, without guidace from parets or food service professioals. For example, a studet might build a meal out of Frech fries, ice cream, ad a sugary sports drik sold a la carte. Also, studets may purchase a la carte foods ad beverages to add o to their utritioally regulated USDA meal or a meal they brig from home. Foodservice departmets are may times hesitat to stop servig juk a la carte items because there is the miscoceptio that these are the oly foods that brig i reveue. Whe appealig, healthful alteratives are offered, studets do purchase these items, which cotribute reveue to school meal programs. -- Sara Schmitz, RD, Gree Bay Public Schools, i Makig It Happe! School Nutritio Success Stories. 1 27

39 Healthy food ad beverage items are ofte offered a la carte: water, low-fat milk, fruit, vegetables, or 100% fruit or vegetable juices are amog the most commoly sold a la carte items. 7 However, schools also sell may uhealthy a la carte optios, icludig high-fat sweet baked goods, salty sacks, Frech fries, pizza, sports driks, ad sugary juice driks. 7 Forty-ie percet of elemetary schools, 67% of middle schools, ad 80% of high schools sell high-fat cookies, crackers, cakes, pastries, ad other baked goods a la carte. 6 A 2003 Califoria study foud that 90% of school districts surveyed sold fastfood items a la carte. 80 A 2005 atiowide survey foud that 67% of elemetary schools, 88% of middle schools, ad 91% of high schools sell a la carte foods to studets (Table 9). 7 A la carte is usually ru by the school food service departmet ad reveue from a la carte typically accrues to the food service accout. 7 Table 9. School Food Sales Veues 7 Elemetary Schools (%) Middle Schools (%) High Schools (%) A la carte Vedig machies School stores Oe or more of the above veues Food service departmets geerate more moey tha ay other school group from foods sold outside of school meals, ad a la carte sales costitute food services greatest source of reveue other tha school meals. 7 Amog schools that sell a la carte foods, approximately 40% of high school food services ad almost 25% of middle school food services geerate more tha $50,000 per year i a la carte sales (see Table 10). 7 For compariso, that is sigificatly more reveue tha is usually raised by school beverage cotracts. The Govermet Accoutability Office foud that approximately oe-quarter of high schools with exclusive beverage cotracts geerated more tha $15,000 per school per year from those cotracts. 7 28

40 Table 10. Estimated Percetage of High Schools i which Food Services Geerated Differet Amouts of Reveue through a la Carte Sales i Reveue per School ($) Percetage of Schools 0-1, ,001-5, ,001-25, ,001-50, ,001-75, , , , ,000 5 Over 125, Note: Estimated percetages do ot add to 100 because some school food service directors were usure how much reveue they geerated through a la carte sales. A la carte sales ca decrease participatio i the Natioal School Luch Program, 81 through which schools receive reimbursemets from the federal govermet. Thus, the reveue raised by schools through a la carte is likely offset by decreases i sales from USDA-reimbursable school meals. Accordig to the Govermet Accoutability Office, improvemets to the utritioal quality of foods sold out of a la carte, vedig, ad other school veues are ofte accompaied by icreased participatio i the school meal programs. I site visits to four districts, the GAO foud that after sellig healthier a la carte items, federal reimbursemets for meals subsequetly icreased, beefitig the school food authority. 7 I fiscal year (FY) 2003, the Jefferso Couty, Ketucky, school district itroduced volutary utritio stadards for a la carte foods. Those stadards were: o more tha 30% of calories from fat; o more tha 30% sugars by weight; ad o more tha 170 mg of sodium. They did ot set utritio stadards for beverages. I FY 2004, the couty implemeted madatory utritio stadards for a la carte i all its schools. Betwee FY 2002 (prior to chages i utritio stadards) ad FY 2005 (after utritio stadards were put i place), aual icome from a la carte declied by $3.2 millio. However, aual reimbursemets for school meals icreased by $6.9 millio, for a et icrease i aual icome of $3.7 millio

41 I May 2001, the Richlad Couty, South Carolia, School District Oe set utritio ad portio size stadards for foods sold through vedig machies, sack bars, school stores, ad a la carte. While the district lost approximately $300,000 i aual a la carte reveue, school luch participatio ad federal reimbursemets icreased by approximately $400,000, for a et gai of $100, See Appedix B for additioal examples of schools that switched to healthier a la carte optios ad did ot lose reveue. I additio, the sale of a la carte foods may stigmatize studets who are eligible for reimbursable school meals. Oly childre with spedig moey ca purchase a la carte items, whereas the reimbursable meal is free to studets who meet icome requiremets. Accordig to USDA, childre may perceive that school meals are primarily for poor childre rather tha utritio programs for all childre. Because of this perceptio, the willigess of low-icome childre to accept free or reduced price meals ad oeedy childre to purchase school meals may be reduced. 36 Vedig Machies While some may ot thik of them as fudraisers, vedig machie sales are a key meas by which may schools raise fuds. May Schools Have Vedig Machies. Natioally, 46% of elemetary schools, 87% of middle/juior high schools, ad 91% of seior high schools have vedig machies (see Table 9). 7 Of all product sales i schools, exclusive beverage cotracts have bee the fastest-growig vetures i recet years. 83 Natiowide, half of all school districts have cotracts with soft drik compaies. 6 While these cotracts cover beverage sales through vedig machies, they frequetly also set coditios for childre s purchases of a soft drik compay s products from cafeteria lies, school stores, ad cocessio stads. Most Vedig Machies Dispese Juk. Approximately 85% of sacks 84 (see Table 11 ad Figure 4) ad 75% of beverages 85 (see Table 12 ad Figure 3) available from school vedig machies are of poor utritioal quality. Low-utritio sacks commoly sold through vedig machies iclude cady, chips, cookies, ad sack cakes. 7,84 Uhealthy beverages commoly sold through vedig machies iclude soda, sports driks, ad sugary fruit driks

42 Figure 4. School Vedig Machie Pyramid 84 The results of a study coducted by the Ceter for Sciece i the Public Iterest i 2003 i which 120 voluteers i 24 states surveyed the cotets of 1,420 vedig machies i 251 middle, juior high, ad high schools. I both middle ad high schools, 75% of beverage optios ad 85% of sacks were of poor utritioal quality. 31

43 Table 11. Sacks Available i Middle ad High School Vedig Machies 84 Sack Type Middle Schools Percet of Total (Number of Slots) High Schools Percet of Total (Number of Slots) Middle Schools, High Schools, & Other Secodary Schools Combied Percet of Total (Number of Slots) Cady 38 (882) 43 (3028) 42 (4062) Chips (regular) 24 (555) 25 (1787) 25 (2391) Cookies, sack cakes, ad pastries 14 (310) 13 (928) 13 (1270) Crackers with cheese or peaut butter 7 (154) 4 (306) 5 (484) Chips (low-fat) or pretzels 7 (152) 5 (332) 5 (489) Crackers or Chex Mix 2 (52) 3 (235) 3 (303) Graola/cereal bars 2 (56) 1 (103) 2 (171) Low-fat cookies ad baked goods 2 (44) 1 (106) 2 (155) Nuts/trail mix 2 (41) 1 (89) 1 (141) Fruit or vegetable <0.5 (8) <0.5 (18) <0.5 (26) Other sacks 2 (39) 3 (178) 2 (231) TOTAL 100 (2,293) 100 (7,110) 100 (9,723) 32

44 Table 12. Beverages Purchased by Studets i Schools Aually Accordig to the America Beverage Associatio 85* Beverage Type Ouces per Elemetary School Studet per Year Ouces per Elemetary School Studet per Week Ouces per Middle School Studet per Year Ouces per Middle School Studet per Week Ouces per High School Studet per Year Ouces per High School Studet per Week No-Diet Carboated Soft Driks Diet Carboated Soft Driks Water Sports Driks % Juice <100% Juice Teas Flavored Milk Other Total , * Assumes 36 weeks per school year. Icludes oly beverages available to studets (for example, excludes beverages available i teachers louges). Sodas ad fruit driks combied costitute the biggest sigle source of calories ad added sugars i the diets of teeagers. 20 Studies show that childre who cosume more soft driks cosume more calories (about 55 to 190 per day) 21,24 ad are more likely to become overweight 22,23 tha kids who drik fewer soft driks. Also, a health-educatio program ecouragig elemetary school studets to decrease soft drik cosumptio reduced rates of overweight ad obesity. 86 Sports driks ad fruit driks are ofte marketed as healthful or better alteratives to soda. While sports driks geerally have 50% fewer calories tha soda, they are little more tha sugar water with added salt, ad childre are over-cosumig both sugars ad salt. Accordig to the USDA Food Guide (based o estimated calorie, utriet, ad food group requiremets ad estimated discretioary calorie allowaces), the estimated maximum added sugars allowace for 4-18 year old girls is 16 to 48 grams a day. 87 The 33

45 average 6-11 year old (boy or girl) cosumes 92 grams a day of added sugars. 88 The average year old girl cosumes 96 grams a day of added sugars. 88 The estimated maximum added sugars allowace for 4-18 year old boys is betwee 16 to 96 grams per day. The average year old boy cosumes 140 grams a day of sugars. 88 Furthermore, the Dietary Referece Itake for sodium for childre (depedig upo their age) is o more tha 1,500 mg to 2,300 mg of sodium a day. 89 However, betwee 75% ad 91% of childre (depedig upo their age) cosume more tha 2,300 mg of sodium a day. 90 A 20-oz. bottle of Gatorade cotais approximately 275 mg of sodium. The America College of Sports Medicie s positio o Exercise ad Fluid Replacemet states that [d]urig exercise lastig less tha oe hour, there is little evidece of physiological or physical performace differeces betwee cosumig a carbohydrate-electrolyte drik ad plai water. 91 Most studets do ot participate i 60-miute high-itesity workouts durig school hours. Fruit driks like Hi-C ad Capri Su are merely sugar water with a tablespoo or two of added juice, ad fruit driks cotai as may calories as soda. Over the course of four years of high school, a studet could gai a extra 9.6 pouds solely from sugary driks cosumed from school vedig machies. The average itake of o-diet carboated soft driks purchased at school by high school studets is 12.5 ouces per week, ad the average itake of all sugary driks (icludig sports driks, juice driks, sweeteed iced teas, ad o-diet soda) from schools by high school studets is 22 ouces per week (Table 12). 85 Thus, the average high school studet cosumes about 8,557 extra calories over a 36- week school year (see Table 13) from sugary beverages purchased at school. If those calories are ot compesated for though physical activity or reduced itake of other calories, the a high school studet would likely gai the equivalet of a extra 2.5 pouds of body fat per year. Over four years of high school, a studet could gai a extra 10 pouds of body fat solely from beverages cosumed from school vedig machies. 34

46 Table 13. Calories from Low-Nutritio Beverage Sales i U.S. Schools G Beverage Type Average Calories per oz. Ouces per High School Studet per Year Calories per High School Studet per Year Ouces per Middle School Studet per Year Calories per Middle School Studet per Year Ouces per Elem. School Studet per Year Calories per Elem. School Studet per Year Carboated soft driks (o-diet) Sports driks Teas <100% Juice driks Total 788 8, , School Vedig Cotracts Promote Soft Drik Marketig ad Cosumptio. School soft drik cotracts usually iclude provisios uder which the district or school ears more reveue as it sells more sugary beverages. I a 2000 survey, about 80% of districts with beverage vedig cotracts received a percetage of sales ad 63% received icetives, such as cash awards or equipmet doatios, tied to sales. 6 Such arragemets create a situatio i which it is i the fiacial iterest of school admiistrators for studets to drik more sugary beverages, ad therefore ca lead schools to make sugary beverages more available to studets i more locatios or for loger periods of time durig the school day. Pealties to schools for breakig the marketig provisios of beverage cotracts are similar to the pealties icurred for ot meetig sales quota. This suggests that compaies value the opportuity to market their products i schools as much as they value the chace to make direct sales to studets durig the school day. I additio, vedig machies ot oly dispese high-calorie, low-utritio foods ad beverages, but the frots ad sides of the machies display soft driks, ad act as billboards i schools, which childre pass by each school day. G To determie the average umber of calories studets cosume each year through sugar-sweeteed beverages sold i school, we calculated the average umber of calories per ouce i such beverages, the multiplied that umber by the average umber of ouces of those beverages cosumed by studets at school. 35

47 School Vedig Reveue. Though some coted that childre will oly purchase juk foods ad soft driks from school vedig machies, USDA ad CDC have foud that Studets will buy ad cosume healthful foods ad beverages ad schools ca make moey from sellig healthful optios. 1 Of 17 schools ad school districts that tracked icome after switchig to healthier optios, 12 icreased reveue ad four reported o chage. The oe school district that did lose reveue i the short term experieced a subsequet reveue icrease after the study was completed. 92 Those schools ad school districts were located i a variety of states, icludig Califoria, Coecticut, Ketucky, Maie, Mississippi, Motaa, New York, North Dakota, Rhode Islad, Texas, ad Wiscosi. Also, eight schools i a pilot program i Arizoa switched to sellig healthier foods via vedig, a la carte, or school stores ad did ot lose moey. 93 See Appedix B for additioal examples. Though school beverage cotracts ofte appear to be lucrative, the fuds raised usually represet oly a small fractio of a school district s overall budget. Eve the most lucrative beverage cotracts usually provide less tha 0.5% of school districts budgets. 83 A 2006 atioal study of 120 school beverage cotracts foud that cotracts raise a average of $18 for schools ad/or districts per studet per year. 3 36

48 I additio, the profitability of school soft drik cotracts vary cosiderably from district to district; the rage of total reveue to schools/districts from beverage cotracts is $0.60 to $93 per studet per year. 3 However, oly oe small school amog the 120 aalyzed cotracts raised more tha $50 per studet per year. Typically, the profit margis o vedig machies are less tha for other types of fudraisers. The average commissio rate to schools o vedig machie beverage sales is 33%. 3 For example, i Austi Idepedet School District, studets spet $504,000 per year o products from school vedig machies, but their schools received oly $90,000 of the proceeds. 94 For other product fudraisers, schools usually keep 45% of sales reveue, though the reveue to the school is determied by the volume sold. The Texas Departmet of Agriculture estimates that Texas schools raise $54 millio per year from vedig sales, while the state s school food service operatios likely lose at least $60 millio per year to the sale of foods sold outside of the meal programs, both from studet sales ad loss of federal reimbursemets. Furthermore, it is questioable whether vedig machies brig ew moey ito schools. School vedig, istead, appears to shift moey away from the utritioally regulated school meal programs to a discretioary accout for the school pricipal or other school admiistrator. The Texas Departmet of Agriculture estimates that Texas schools raise $54 millio per year from vedig sales, while the state s school food service operatios likely lose at least $60 millio per year to the sale of foods sold outside of the meal programs, both from studet sales ad loss of federal reimbursemets. 4 Schools should keep i mid that Coke, Pepsi, ad other juk-food maufacturers that sell their products i schools are ot givig moey to them, they are takig it. The moey raised from fudraisig i schools is ot a charitable doatio from the soft drik ad sack food idustries. The moey comes out of the pockets of childre ad their parets, ad compaies, i the case of beverage vedig, take about two-thirds of the moey back to corporate headquarters. 3 37

49 School Foods Policy May local school districts, icludig Los Ageles, Chicago, New York City, Philadelphia, ad Washigto, D.C., have established policies to improve the utritioal quality of foods sold outside of the school meal programs i recet years. Additioal mometum to improve school foods at the local level has bee sparked by the 2004 Child Nutritio ad WIC Reauthorizatio Act, 95 which required local school districts to develop ad implemet welless policies o utritio ad physical activity by fall I 2005, 200 bills to improve school foods were itroduced i forty states. 96 States such as Ketucky, Nevada, Arkasas, New Mexico, Alabama, Califoria, ad New Jersey have established utritio stadards for foods ad beverages sold through school vedig machies, school stores, a la carte, ad other school veues. However, CSPI s School Foods Report Card shows that the atio has a patchwork of policies addressig school foods ad that two-thirds of states have very weak policies, which were graded as Ds or Fs. 97 For example, oly ie states have saturated fat limits, seve states have tras fat limits, ad just five states have stadards for sodium for foods sold outside of school meals. The atioal utritio stadards for foods sold through vedig, a la carte, school stores, fudraisers, ad other veues outside of school meals are weak ad out of date. USDA limits the sale of foods of miimal utritioal value (FMNV) i.e., foods ad beverages that are composed predomiatly of sugars ad that cotai less tha 5% of the recommeded amouts of eight specified utriets per servig. 98 USDA s stadards do ot address key utritio cocers, such as calories, saturated fat, tras fat, ad sodium. As result, may low-utritio foods are ot cosidered FMNV ad ca be sold aywhere o school campuses aytime durig the school day (see Table 14). USDA s stadards o loger make sese i terms of utritio sciece ad key cocers regardig childre s diets ad health, ad result i a arbitrary desigatio of what is cosidered a low-utritio food ad what is ot. For example, seltzer water caot be sold i school cafeterias, but most sugary fruit driks ca. Jelly beas are out, but chocolate cady bars ca be sold. I additio, FMNV may ot be sold i school cafeterias while meals are beig served. However, they ca be sold outside the cafeteria, icludig i the hallway right outside the cafeteria, at ay time. I oe-half of schools with vedig machies, the machies are located i or ear the cafeteria. 7 38

50 Table 14. May Low-utritio Foods Are Not Cosidered FMNV Despite Their High Cotets of Calories, Saturated Fat, Tras Fat, or Salt ad Thus, May Be Sold Aywhere o School Campuses Aytime Durig the School Day. Allowed by USDA: Fruitades (with little juice) Frech fries Ice cream M&M s Oreos cookies Cheetos Sack cakes FMNV Not Allowed by USDA: Seltzer water Cracker Jacks Popsicles (without fruit or fruit juice) Chewig gum Lollipops Cotto cady Breath mits Douts I April 2006, Seators Tom Harki (D-IA), Arle Specter (R-PA), ad Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) ad Represetatives Ly Woolsey (D-CA) ad Chris Shays (R-CT) itroduced a federal bill to revise ad update USDA s defiitio of FMNV. This bill would require USDA to update its utritio stadards for foods ad beverages sold through vedig machies, a la carte, ad school stores ad apply those stadards to the whole campus for the whole school day. I May 2006, the three largest soft drik compaies ad the Alliace for a Healthier Geeratio aouced that it will work with bottlers ad schools to remove sugary sodas from schools by Soft drik compaies agreed to sell oly water, low-fat ad o-fat milk, ad 100% juice with o added sweeteers i elemetary ad middle schools. I high schools, those beverages plus o or low-calorie driks, sports driks, ad light juices will be sold. At least 50% of beverages i high schools are supposed to be water, o-calorie optios, or low-calorie optios. The ew beverage guidelies are limited i that they are volutary ad, thus, ueforceable. I additio, schools have ot agreed to the beverage guidelies, ad it remais to be see whether ad to what extet schools will accept ad comply with them. Aother limitatio of the guidelies is that they permit the sale of sugary driks, such as sports driks ad fruit driks, i high schools. 39

51 All Rights Reserved. Used with Permissio. I October 2006, Campbell Soup, Dao, Kraft Foods, Mars, ad PepsiCo (paret compay of Frito Lay), i cojuctio with the Alliace for a Healthier Geeratio, aouced volutary utritio guidelies for school foods sold outside of reimbursable meals. 100 It is ecouragig that some segmets of the food idustry recogize their products cotributio to childhood obesity. However, schools ad vedig machie operators are the parties that actually decide which products are placed i school vedig machies, ad it is uclear whether or to what extet they will comply with the sack guidelies. While some argue that it is less problematic to sell sugary beverages ad juk food i high schools, sice the studets are older, it makes little sese to have the weakest policy i schools with the biggest problem. While 46% of primary schools have vedig machies, more tha 90% of high schools have them. 7 Older childre, who still do ot have fully developed logical thikig, have cosiderable spedig moey ad more opportuities to make food choices ad purchases i the absece of paretal guidace tha youger childre. Parets of pretees ad teeagers eed support i their efforts to feed their childre a healthy diet. The Natioal Academies Istitute of Medicie (IOM) 2005 report, Prevetig Childhood Obesity: Health i the Balace, recommeds the developmet of utritio stadards for food ad beverages sold i schools as a immediate step to take i cofrotig the childhood obesity epidemic. 101 Also, atioally, 90% of teachers ad parets support the coversio of school vedig machie cotets to healthy beverages ad foods

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