1 BICYCLE PLAN melbourne.vic.gov.au/bicycleplan
2 2 The Bicycle Plan is the City of Melbourne s plan for bicycle infrastructure and programs to make Melbourne safer and more attractive for current and future cyclists.
3 CONTENTS FOREWORD 4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5 INTRODUCTION 6 PURPOSE OF THE PLAN 6 BACKGROUND 10 CONNECTING THE BICYCLE NETWORK 13 OPPORTUNITIES 17 ACTIONS 19 FACILITIES 24 OPPORTUNITIES 27 ACTIONS 28 CYCLING SAFELY 29 OPPORTUNITIES 32 ACTIONS 32 GROWING PARTICIPATION 33 OPPORTUNITIES 34 ACTIONS 34 EVALUATION 35 OPPORTUNITIES 36 ACTIONS 36 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 37 APPENDICES 38 APPENDIX A PRINCIPAL BICYCLE NETWORK 38 APPENDIX B LOCAL BICYCLE NETWORK 39 APPENDIX C EXISTING BICYCLE ROUTES 40 APPENDIX D ACHIEVEMENTS OF BICYCLE PLAN REFERENCES 43 BIBLIOGRAPHY 43
4 FOREWoRD Melbourne a cycling city Melbourne is well on its way to becoming a cycling city with more residents, workers and visitors alike getting on bikes to move about our city. It is one of the most convenient and sustainable ways to experience Melbourne, as well as a lot of fun. The Bicycle Plan builds upon the work started during the 1980s to link comfortable and convenient bicycle routes across Greater Melbourne. We are continuing to invest in bicycle facilities and programs as Melbourne moves closer to becoming a city for people, a connected city and an eco-city. Today a significant number of Melburnians are riding bikes. Melburnians take about 81,500 bike trips in the municipality each week day and more than 29,000 trips on the weekend. Although numbers continue to grow, there is still more that needs to be done if we are to realise our target of more than 122,000 daily bicycle trips by In a cycling city, riders of all ages and abilities need to feel safe and comfortable. This plan outlines how this can be achieved, enabling Melbourne to realise its potential as a true cycling city. Dr Kathy Alexander CEO, City of Melbourne 4
5 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Melbourne is committed to becoming a cycling city with a safe and connected network of bicycle-friendly routes. The draft Bicycle Plan is the City of Melbourne s plan for bicycle infrastructure and programs to make Melbourne safer and more attractive for current and future cyclists. The plan focuses on creating a strong bicycle network and improving links between existing routes, particularly in the central city, and encouraging people of all ages and abilities to take up cycling or cycle more frequently for local trips. The plan provides a status on current cycling and lists potential strategies and actions to achieve the vision of a cycling city. It outlines actions for infrastructure, facilities, services and programs for investment by the City of Melbourne and partners. The goals of the Bicycle Plan are to: 1. Plan and deliver a connected cycling network 2. Build high quality routes for local cycling trips 3. Increase participation in cycling 4. Make cycling safer. Actions More than 50 large and small-scale projects are proposed in the plan to strengthen the bike network both on- and off-road over the next four years. The City of Melbourne will construct and upgrade a number of significant on-road routes, such as La Trobe Street, Princes Bridge, St Kilda Road, and Elizabeth, Exhibition and Clarendon streets. The plan also identifies off-road works that will improve transitions from off-road to on-road paths and particularly from the popular Yarra River Trail to the central city. The plan commits to increasing bicycle parking throughout the municipality and working with peak groups and businesses to improve end-of-trip facilities to encourage more people to cycle to work. The City of Melbourne will continue to support vehicle and bicycle safety campaigns that encourage responsible road use and promote Melbourne as a cycling city. Additional research will help the City of Melbourne to better understand traffic conditions, cycling behaviour and crashes and monitor our performance.
6 INTRODUCTION PURPOSE OF THE PLAN Everyday cycling 1. Melbourne is one of the world s most liveable cities 1. Cycling supports our liveability status by taking pressure off public transport, reducing congestion and noise and supporting a zero carbon future. Local cycling trips help people to be healthy and active. The purpose of the Bicycle Plan is to outline actions that will assist people of all ages and abilities to cycle more often. 2. A significant investment in time and resources is required to encourage more people to ride a bicycle. While there has been a comprehensive effort to make Melbourne a bicycle-friendly city, further work is needed if cycling is to become a more dominant mode of travel within the municipality Cyclists need to feel legitimate, safe and supported. In cities such as Melbourne, over half of the population is interested, but has some concerns, about riding a bicycle 3. Figure 1 Types of cyclists and potential cyclists (Source: Geller, R 2010 Portand Bureau of Transportation, Oregon) 1% Strong and fearless 7% Enthused and confident 33% No way, no how 59% Interested but concerned 4. Consistent with the City of Melbourne s Transport Strategy, support will be given to walking, cycling and public transport as the dominant modes of transport in the municipality. This is in preference to (in order of priority) freight, multiple-occupancy vehicles and single-occupancy vehicle movements. Figure 2 Priority of transport mode Walking Cycling Public Transport Freight and service vehicles Multipleoccupancy vehicles Singleoccupancy vehicles 6
7 Melbourne cycling a snapshot 5. The municipality of Melbourne is 37.6 km 2 and shares its border with seven other local government areas. The distance from east to west and north to south is approximately seven kilometres. The generally flat topography and mild climate make conditions ideal for cycling. Each weekday, about 800,000 people travel to the municipality to work, study or visit. By 2016, it is expected close to 900,000 people will travel into the expanding central city and suburbs daily. 6. The bicycle network in the City of Melbourne is made up of approximately 120 kilometres of bicycle routes. Approximately 52 kilometres are on-road and 68 kilometres are off-road. 7. The on-road cycling environment provides the capacity for cyclists to use all roads as well as a variety of dedicated bicycle lanes with different road treatments. These include: 7.1. separated kerbside lanes such as those in Albert Street and Swanston Street (north) 7.2. Queensberry Street where chevron markings separate bike lane from moving traffic 7.3. Spring Street where green paint markings and bicycle stencils are in use. 8. The off-road environment includes well used shared paths and cycling trails such as the Yarra Trail, Moonee Ponds Creek Trail and the Maribyrnong River Trail. The Capital City Trail starts and ends in the City of Melbourne and circumnavigates Melbourne s inner suburbs for approximately 32 kilometres. Many of Melbourne s parks contain cycling routes. Cycling in Melbourne - the numbers 9. In the City of Melbourne both the number and mode share for bicycles in the morning peak have increased considerably since Lower numbers in 2011 can be attributed to poor weather conditions for cycling. In March 2012, 11 per cent of all vehicles travelling into the City of Melbourne during the morning peak between 7am and 10am were bicycles 5. The challenge is to increase the number of cycling trips and the mode share of trips by bicycle. Figure 3 Cyclists entering the central city at key locations during the morning peak 7-9am (Source: Super Tuesday counts, Bicycle Network Victoria) Albert Street, Corner of Gisborne Street Footscray Road, Corner of Docklands Drive Swanston Street, Corner of Flinders Street Canning Street, Corner of Princes Street Yarra River, North Bank adjacent to Gosch s Paddock Yarra River, South Bank under Punt Road
8 10. A high proportion of trips to, from and within the City of Melbourne are taken as a driver or passenger of a car or by public transport. For weekday trips between two and seven kilometres 44 per cent of people travel in cars and 40 per cent of people travel by public transport. For trips seven to 20 kilometres, 50 per cent of people travel in cars. Trips by bicycle are popular between two and seven kilometres. Figure 4 Vehicles entering the central city at key locations during the morning peak 7-10am in March 2012 (Source: Cycling counts, City of Melbourne) 2% Motorcycles and scooters 11% Commercial vehicles and trucks 11% Bicycles 76% Cars Table 1 Mode of trips to, within and from the city by cumulative travel distance on weekdays (Source: VISTA 2009) 0-2 km 2-7 km 7-20 km > 20 km TOTAL CAR 12% 44% 50% 45% 40% BICYCLE 2% 10% 4% 0% 4% WALKING 79% 6% 0% 0% 19% PUBLIC TRANSPORT 7% 40% 46% 55% 37% 8
9 Vision 11. Our Vision is that the City of Melbourne becomes a cycling city. Goals 12. The goals of the Bicycle Plan are to: Plan and deliver a connected cycling network Build high quality routes for local cycling trips Increase participation in cycling Make cycling safer. Targets 13. It is intended that by 2016: There will be a 50 per cent increase in bicycle trips to, from and within the municipality on weekdays There will be a 15 per cent change in the number of local trips under seven kilometres from car and public transport to bicycle per cent of all vehicles entering the central city during the morning peak will be bicycles There will be a reduction of serious injury crashes by a minimum of 10 per cent relative to the number of cyclists per year Two safe, high quality east-west and two north-south bicycle routes will be designed within the central city.
10 BACKGROUND Figure 5 - Strategic framework Vision Future Melbourne Council Plan Active Melbourne Municipal Strategic Statement Active Melbourne Strategy Transport Strategy Bicycle Plan Pedestrian Plan Car Share Plan Parking Plan Implementation Local IMAP - Inner Melbourne Action Plan Network Operating Plan Victorian Cycling Strategy SmartRoads (VicRoads) National National Cycling Strategy Transport Integration Act
11 Understanding cycling in Melbourne 14. Cyclists ride for either recreation or for transport. The main difference is that transport trips have a purpose and are generally direct trips. Recreation trips are more flexible in time and distance. 15. Within the transport group, there are two main types of cyclists. The first sub-grouping includes very experienced cyclists who use a bicycle to commute to work, often ride fast and are confident enough in their ability to choose the most direct routes to work. A high intensity transport trip could be a distance of 12 kilometres or more with the rider likely to be seeking a shower at the workplace. The second group ride more slowly and will only travel to work, university or undertake local trips using safer on- or off-road routes. This group of cyclists is especially concerned about safety and comfort. 16. Recreational cycling is popular with young families and seniors and can occur on weekdays as well as weekends. Within this group there are some more experienced riders who will travel up to 30 kilometres per hour using recreational cycling as a means of keeping fit. The challenge of increasing cycling numbers 17. Since 2006 the number of bicycles has more than doubled (from 4 per cent) as a mode share of all vehicles moving into the central city in the morning. In March 2012, bicycles comprised 11 per cent of vehicle movements to the central city in the morning peak Increasing the number of bicycle trips to, from and within the municipality by 50 per cent in the next four years is achievable. The challenge is to find ways to move people from cars and public transport to bicycles. For trips less than two kilometres, walking is the preferred mode of transport although bikes can easily be used for short trips. For trips longer than two kilometres, cycling is ideal as it reduces congestion and pollution and takes pressure off the public transport system. The average trip length travelling to and from the City of Melbourne is about seven kilometres. Trips within the municipality average around two kilometres. 11
12 19. Cyclists travelling to the City of Melbourne come primarily from the north-eastern suburbs. The top six suburbs for commuting to Melbourne by bike are Northcote, Brunswick, Fitzroy North, Kensington, Coburg and Hawthorn. See Figure 6 below for further details. Figure 6 Density of cyclists travelling to the City of Melbourne by postcode (Source: Bike Scope, Bicycle Network Victoria 2010) Prioritising less experienced cyclists 20. The Bicycle Plan concentrates on creating an environment that encourages cycling by less experienced and novice cyclists. The City of Melbourne will also support people to take local cycling trips of less than seven kilometres. This approach taps into a latent desire to cycle by those people who require the presence of a strong network of cycling routes before they are prepared to ride their bicycle. 12
13 CONNECTING THE BICYCLE NETWORK The bicycle network 21. A bicycle network is made up a number of different route options. These include: physically-separated bicycle lanes off-road paths for cyclists only or shared paths with pedestrians bicycle lanes with green pavement, profiled edge-lines or chevrons bicycle lanes with paint only roads with no bicycle treatments. Figure 7 Bicycle lane designs in the City of Melbourne. Physically-separated route Swanston Street (north) and green pavement and profiled edge-line treatments in Rathdowne Street 22. The bicycle network is comprised of three different levels. These are: The Principal Bicycle Network (PBN) which is a planned interconnecting network of on and off-road routes developed by VicRoads in consultation with local government authorities. VicRoads has the responsibility for managing the PBN and building key routes on arterial roads. Not all routes have been completed. VicRoads has identified priority routes on the PBN that will achieve the greatest return on investment by delivering the greatest number of cyclists to the central city (see Appendix A). They have also identified nine critical routes that have the highest priority for completion The Inner Municipality Action Plan (IMAP) which coordinates growth and development across the inner metropolitan area. As a part of IMAP, a bicycle network map was adopted to coordinate bicycle infrastructure investment across the inner councils of Melbourne, Yarra, Stonnington, Port Phillip and partner organisations. The City of Melbourne uses the IMAP network map to help plan its bicycle infrastructure investments. It is especially useful for planning routes that cross municipal boundaries. The City of Melbourne is working towards implementing the routes in yellow to complete the local bicycle network (see Figure 8). The green routes are in place and the pink routes will be built or upgraded during the life of this plan. The outstanding gaps in yellow will be projects for completion after These routes are largely consistent with the PBN Local area planning which is comprised of bicycle routes developed within the municipality. Some of these routes connect to other municipalities. 23. The road network is managed according to the SmartRoads program which balances the competing demands for limited road space through Network Operating Plans. Network Fit Assessments are completed to guide decisions about the allocation of space to different transport modes.
14 14 Figure 8 Local bicycle network, existing and proposed routes
15 24. The development of this network is delivering results for cyclists. As an example, the construction of physically-separated bicycle facilities in Albert Street has lead to 64 per cent increase in city bound cyclists in the morning peak (7-10am). Seasonalised volumes indicate that there is an overall 116 per cent increase to and from the central city in peak periods (in the peak directions). See Figure 9 below. Total movements of other vehicles on the road have slightly increased despite the addition of a separated bicycle route. Figure 9 Numbers of bicycles before and after separated bicycle lanes installed on Albert Street (Source: City of Melbourne counts) July May December October February 2010 (before) Number of cyclists per hour (morning peak) June October July February 2010 (before) Number of cyclists per hour (afternoon peak)
16 Cycling and urban planning 25. The City of Melbourne, through the Municipal Strategic Statement, has detailed plans for accommodating future residential and business growth within Melbourne. This includes cycling infrastructure in new residential or mixed-use developments. As the areas of Arden-Macaulay, City North and Fishermans Bend are developed, cycling infrastructure will be included. The bicycle network is likely to be required to provide transport options for a projected population increase particularly in the west of metropolitan Melbourne. Figure 10 Urban renewal areas in City of Melbourne 16
17 Off-road cycling routes 26. Cycling numbers on off-road routes are also growing. City of Melbourne bicycle counts undertaken on weekdays between 7am and 10am show that between September 2007 and September 2011 numbers have more than doubled from 209 to 470 for cyclists commuting from the east on the Yarra Trail and from 204 to 500 for cyclists coming from the west on Footscray Road. Bicycle Network Victoria s Super Sunday counts show recreational cyclist numbers now total between 700 and 800 cyclists at the intersection of the Capital City Trail and Yarra Trail (north). 27. The Gardiners Creek-Yarra Trail has become more popular since an underpass was completed at Warrigal Road. The connection from the Yarra Trail to the on-road environment or shared zones along the river banks is constricted and potentially dangerous for pedestrians. 28. Royal Park, Yarra Park and Fawkner Park provide shared bicycle routes. In gardens in the municipality, such as Carlton Gardens and Fitzroy Gardens, the City of Mebourne currently has a policy to restrict cycling to families with children under 12. This policy will be reviewed as management plans are updated. OPPORTUNITIES Urban planning 29. The expected increase in cyclist numbers over the next four years is likely to be due in part to the expected development of urban renewal areas. Detailed plans for Southbank, Docklands, City North and Arden- Macaulay use best practice design guides to incorporate cycling into streets and other open spaces. These long-term plans are intended to guide activation of cycling in areas of high population growth and renewal. Make all roads safer 30. The City of Melbourne endeavours to make all of the roads it manages suitable for cycling so that people can easily get to their destination by bicycle. Speed limits, traffic calming, line marking, early starts at signalised intersections and the exclusion of heavy vehicles from heavily built-up areas are an important means of making the cycling environment safer on all roads. 31. Safety can also be enhanced by providing visual cues for vehicles to slow down or stay in allocated traffic lanes. Bicycle storage boxes, green pavement, profiled edge-lines and chevron separator treatments all provide improved delineation between the cyclist and adjacent vehicle and pedestrian spaces. Bicycle pavement symbols and regulatory signage also provide visual cues. Build and upgrade on-road bicycle routes 32. The principles used by engineers at the City of Melbourne to build or upgrade routes as part of the connected local network are: address gaps provide access to the central city from all directions provide access to high demand areas, public facilities, student nodes, retail and entertainment precincts cater for the highest current and predicted volumes provide a reasonable density of high quality routes to be consistent with Network Operating Plan (for example Lonsdale Street is a priority bus street) ensure permeablilty for cyclists minimise impacts on pedestrians and/or public transport be consistent with the direction people desire to travel wherever possible. 33. Physically-separated bicycle lanes are favoured on major roads that have vehicles travelling faster than 40 km/h 12 and higher volumes of traffic because they provide a safer environment for cyclists.
18 Routes in the central city 34. A priority of this plan is to connect routes through the central city. Through the Transport Strategy 2012, the City of Melbourne has committed to developing three new physically-separated bicycle routes within the central city by The development of physically-separated routes within the central city has been problematic due to high intensity land use and competing demands for space with other modes of transport. 35. Swanston Street will provide a cycling route separated from general traffic from north to south by the end of An east-west physically-separated bicycle route on La Trobe Street will be built in 2013 and peak hour bicycle lanes are proposed on Exhibition Street to connect quality routes in Rathdowne Street in the north to off-road paths to the Yarra River in the south. 36. These plans complement north-south quality routes at Spring, William and Market streets and east-west routes at Bourke Street and bicycle refuges in Collins Street. 37. Little streets in the central city including Flinders Lane, Little Collins Street, Little Bourke and other smaller north-south lanes have traditionally been used to service businesses and provide vehicle delivery access. Research has found that the incident of bicycle crashes, particularly with car doors is much lower in little streets. Investigations will be undertaken to see if these streets can be reconfigured over the longer term to make them viable east-west links through the central city as alternatives to Collins Street where the space for cyclists is constricted by other uses. 38. The City of Melbourne will collaborate with VicRoads to endeavour to make major north-west and south roads leading directly into the central city more bicycle-friendly. These include Royal Parade, Flemington Road, Elizabeth Street north and St Kilda Road. Build and upgrade off-road bicycle routes 39. The City of Melbourne will continue to maintain and improve off-road routes. Developing links, effective signage and wayfinding is especially important to cater for recreational cyclists that may travel to unfamiliar locations and visitors to the city. 40. The development of major off-road routes involves working in collaboration with the Victorian Government and delegated authorities. An opportunity exists to upgrade the Capital City Trail, which begins and ends in the central city. The City of Melbourne will seek funding to upgrade signage and improve the design of high priority off-road routes. Regular maintenance 41. Cyclists need strong visual cues when riding. Stencils, green pavement and profiled edge-line eventually wear or can be dug up by contractors or third parties. These need to be reinstated as quickly as possible so as safety is maintained. Debris must be promptly removed and uneven surfaces repaired. The City of Melbourne has a comprehensive customer service system for reporting hazards and requesting repairs. Work with partners 42. The City of Melbourne will continue to lead and participate in the development of priority bicycle projects as part of the IMAP bicycle network. Bicycle infrastructure investments that are close to municipal borders will be completed in collaboration with adjoining councils. 43. Opportunities often arise to improve facilities when other Victorian Government departments or agencies complete projects. The City of Melbourne will continue to work closely with VicRoads, the Department of Transport and Yarra Trams to incorporate bicycle network improvements into other streetscape and transport improvement works. 18
19 ACTIONS Build or upgrade high priority on-road routes 44. High priority on-road routes will be built and upgraded in to improve connections and safety and support cyclists to travel to, from and within the central city. The development of each project is subject to a community engagement process. Location Project and rationale Cost Timing a) La Trobe Street Construct a physically-separated bicycle route from Victoria Street to Adderley Street. This will provide east-west access across the city and improve linkages to Docklands and the western suburbs of Melbourne. b) Swanston Street, Princes Bridge c) Elizabeth Street (north) Install chevron-separated lanes on Princes Bridge by removing one lane of traffic. This will increase the capacity of a major link into the central city, improve safety and reduce pedestrian/cyclist conflict. Construct a physically-separated (northbound) and chevron-separated (southbound) route connecting Royal Parade and Flemington Road to the central city with improved intersection design at Victoria Street. This link will provide access from the north to the central city and the Queen Victoria Market. It will be completed in collaboration with VicRoads. d) Exhibition Street Establish a bicycle route during peak hours, northbound from Flinders Street to La Trobe Street and southbound from La Trobe Street to Flinders Lane. This will provide a north-south link to the Yarra Trail. e) St Kilda Road (southbound) f) Clarendon Street, East Melbourne g) Cecil Street to Whiteman Street to Normanby Road Construct a separated bicycle route between Princes Bridge and Linlithgow Avenue and Southbank Boulevard intersection. This will increase the safety and quality of this major north-south route. Construct a chevron-separated bicycle route between Victoria Parade and Wellington Parade. This route will connect Albert Street bicycle lanes to the Yarra Trail and reduce the desire of cyclists to ride through Fitzroy Gardens. Install an improved bicycle route by adding ramps and removing parking in Whiteman Street and connecting cyclists to the median in Normanby Road. This project will be completed in consultation with stakeholders and connect to the Cecil Street separated route within the City of Port Phillip. $2.4 million January 2013 $150,000 May 2013 $605,000 February 2013 $490,000 February 2013 $330,000 May 2013 $400,000 September 2012 $50,000 April 2013
20 Build or upgrade high priority off-road routes 45. High priority off-road routes will be built and upgraded in to improve connections and support cyclists travelling to and from the central city. Location Project and rationale Cost Timing h) Alexandra Gardens and Queen Victoria Gardens i) Lorimer Street to Webb Bridge Upgrade a shared path from Henley Landing to St Kilda Road on the south side of Alexandra Gardens. Establish signage, line marking and bicycle lanterns to assist cyclists to enter St Kilda Road. This will provide a convenient and safe link to the central city from the Yarra Trail and the south-east. Remove left turn slip lane from Linlithgow Avenue and establish signage and bicycle lanterns from Linlithgow Avenue shared path to Southbank Boulevard. This will give cyclists an alternate off-road route to travel to Southbank from the Yarra Trail. Formalise a bicycle route along the riverfront by sealing the existing gravel path and improving directional signage. This will provide a safer route and assist cyclists to find their way to and from the city to Fishermans Bend and the Westgate punt. j) Northbank Support the Victorian Department of Planning and Community Development to construct the Jim Stynes Bridge for cyclists and pedestrians under Charles Grimes Bridge. This will link Harbour Esplanade paths and Spencer Street. $25,000 November 2012 $30,000 April 2013 $800,000 February 2013 Routes on arterial roads 46. The City of Melbourne will work with VicRoads to design, build and upgrade routes on or adjacent to arterial roads they control. The development of each project is subject to a community engagement process and extensive collaboration with VicRoads. Location k) St Kilda Road (south of Southbank Boulevard) Project and rationale Construct a separated lane along St Kilda Road over the longer term. This upgrade will increase capacity and attract cautious cyclists. l) Royal Parade Construct a separated bicycle route over the longer term. This will support cycling to the University of Melbourne, City North and the central city. m) Flemington Road Construct a separated lane on Flemington Road over the longer term. This upgrade will provide access to the central city from the north-west and attract cautious cyclists. n) Peel Street Investigate options for a separated or quality route from Dudley Street to Royal Parade and Flemington Road. This route will also service the Queen Victoria Market and Flagstaff Gardens. o) Epsom Road (west of Smithfield Road) and Smithfield Road Construct an on-road quality route to connect from the north-west to the local road section of Epsom Road. This will link routes from the west to Racecourse Road. p) Lorimer Street Upgrade the shared off-road path on south side of Lorimer Street from Todd Road to CityLink underpass. This will be a key route as Fishermans Bend develops and connects to the Westgate punt service. q) Olympic Boulevard Construct separated bicycle route on part of Olympic Boulevard. This will connect Swan Street to Yarra Trail and the central city to and from the south-east. r) Footscray Road Upgrade off-road path and intersections, Maribyrnong crossing and signage. This upgrades a key route to and from the west. 20