# Fundamentals of Computer Animation

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1 Fundamentals of Computer Animation Principles of Traditional Animation How to create maximum impact page 1

2 How to create maximum impact Early animators worked from scratch to analyze and improve upon silence live action films. page 2

3 Conventional Animation Draw each frame of the animation great control tedious Reduce burden with cel animation layer keyframe inbetween cel panoramas (Disney s Pinocchio)... ACM 1997 Multiperspective panoramas for cel animation page 3

4 Traditional Techniques ACM 1997 Multiperspective panoramas for cel animation A multiperspective panorama incorporates many perspectives into a single locally coherent image A moving window slides across the panorama, selecting frames for the animation page 4

5 Computer-Assisted Animation Keyframing automate the inbetweening good control less tedious creating a good animation still requires considerable skill and talent Procedural animation describes the motion algorithmically express animation as a function of small number of parameteres Example: a clock with second, minute and hour hands hands should rotate together express the clock motions in terms of a seconds variable the clock is animated by varying the seconds parameter ACM 1987 Principles of traditional animation applied to 3D computer animation page 5

6 Computer-Assisted Animation Physically Based Animation Assign physical properties to objects (masses, forces, inertial properties) Simulate physics by solving equations Realistic but difficult to control Motion Capture Captures style, subtle nuances and realism You must observe someone do something page 6

7 Computer Animation ACM 1988 Spacetime Constraints page 7

8 KEYS & Inbetweens Animators first draw key drawings, follow by inbetween drawings to keep the continuity of action in shape and form. page 8

9 Keyframing ACM 1987 Principles of traditional animation applied to 3D computer animation st () Describe motion of objects as a function of time from a set of key object positions. In short, compute the inbetween frames. page 9

10 Computer Animation as Animation Lassiter, John "Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to 3D Computer Animation, SIGGRAPH '87, pp (check web site) Thomas, F. and Johnson, O., "The Illusion of Life," Abbeville Press, page 10

11 Simulating Physics 1. Squash & Stretch 2. Timing 3. Secondary Actions 4. Slow In & Slow Out 5. Arcs The visual path of action for natural movement Motion in straight lines is not organic. Most human motion happens on curved trajectories or arcs page 11

12 Simulating Physics 1. Squash & Stretch defining the rigidity and mass of an object by distorting its shape during an action page 12

13 Simulating Physics 1. Squash & Stretch Squash: flatten an object or character by pressure or by its own power Stretch: used to increase the sense of speed and emphasize the squash by contrast page 13

14 Simulating Physics 1. Squash & Stretch Here is an example where the ball on the right has been stretched and so looks more "natural". page 14

15 Squash and stretch Human bodies squash and stretch when performing different actions. Heavier characters Squash more than thin ones. Squashing and stretching gives the character a sense of weight. page 15

16 Characters move at different speeds Tall guys move slowly than short guys fat characters slower than thin ones. Small characters will have to take more steps to keep up with taller characters. page 16

17 Simulating Physics 2. Timing Timing affects weight: Light object move quickly Heavier objects move slower Timing completely changes the interpretation of the motion. Because the timing is critical, the animators used the draw a time scale next to the keyframe to indicate how to generate the inbetween frames. Spacing actions to define the weight and size of objects and the personality of characters page 17

18 Simulating Physics 2. Timing & Motion If the ball rebounds from the box, and the box is unmoved, we have the illusion that the box is much heavier than the ball clip If the ball knocks the box aside, then the effect is that the box is much lighter than the ball clip page 18

19 Simulating Physics 3. Secondary Actions The action of an object resulting from another action page 19

20 Simulating Physics 3. Secondary Actions A secondary action is an action that results directly from another action. Important in heightening interest and adding a realistic complexity to the animation. The secondary action of Luxo Jr's forward motion is the rippling of his power cord. page 20

21 Secondary action A secondary action is like a chain reaction. Secondary actions are a beat behind the main action. page 21

22 Simulating Physics 4. Slow In & Slow Out The spacing of the inbetween frames to achieve subtlety of timing and movement. Rather than having a uniform velocity for an object, it is more appealing, and sometimes more realistic, to have the velocity vary at the extremes. page 22

23 Simulating Physics 4. Slow In & Slow Out The ball on the left moves at a constant speed with no squash/stretch. The ball in the center does slow in and out with a squash/stretch. The ball on the right moves at a constant speed with squash/stretch. page 23

24 Simulating Physics 5. Arcs Visual path should be an arc Rather than a straight line Can be a problem for typical computer methods: Fast movement = straight lines Solution: Use independent curves for position interpolation and speed control page 24

25 Designing Aesthetic Actions 1. Exaggeration Accentuating the essence of an idea via the design and the action 2. Appeal Creating a design or an action that the audience enjoys watching 3. Follow Through/Overlapping Action Follow through is the termination part of an action. Overlapping establishes the next action's relationship by starting it before the first action has completely finished. This keeps the interest of the viewer, since there is no dead time between actions. page 25

26 Designing Aesthetic Actions 3. Follow Through page 26

27 Follow through Follow through is when a secondary action runs its course. For example the pooch with long ears leans forwards and stop but the ears continue swinging back and forth. page 27

28 Overlapping Action page 28

29 Anticipation An action breaks down into: Anticipation Action Reaction Anatomical motivation: a muscle must extend before it can contract. Prepares audience for action so they know what to expect. Directs audience s attention. Amount of anticipation can affect perception of speed and weight. page 29

30 Anticipation-1-17 Frames page 30

31 Anticipation-2-3 to 10Frames page 31

32 Anticipation-3-3 Frames page 32

33 Production Technique 1. Straight Ahead Action In hand drawn animation is when the animator starts at the first drawing in a scene and then draws all of the subsequent frames until he reaches the end of the scene. This creates very spontaneous and zany looking animation and is used for wild, scrambling action. 2. Pose to Pose Action Is when the animator carefully plans out the animation, draws a sequence of poses, i.e., the initial, some in-between, and the final poses and then draws all the in-between frames (or another artist or the computer draws the inbetween frames). This is used when the scene requires more thought and the poses and timing are important. page 33

34 Interpolation Many parameters can be interpolated to generate animation Position Color Orientation Shape Camera. More complicated inbetweening will require a more complicated model of animated object and simulation page 34

35 Interpolation Interpolating splines are smooth curves that interpolate their control points Perfect for keyframe animation Typically, time is directly associated with the parameter value, controlling speed Keyframes Animation page 35

36 More Interpolation Anything can be keyframed and interpolated Position, Orientation, Scale, Deformation, Patch Control Points (facial animation), Color, Surface normals Special interpolation schemes for things like rotations Use quaternions to represent rotation and interpolate between quaternions Control of parameterization controls speed of animation page 36

37 Animation of a Juggler use of: overlapping action, anticipation follow-through techniques The clown is tossing the ball with his right hand in cel 7*, catching it with his left in cel 5, and transferring it back to the right hand in cel 3. The cycle has only one toss and catch, yet the clown is juggling two balls, because at least one ball is always held. Can you see the anticipation and follow-through used in each action? Little touches like the tapping foot and the loose hat add a lot of life to the piece. page 37

38 Use in Computer Games Use of: Ease-in/out Timing overlapping action, anticipation follow-through techniques page 38

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