1 WP/11/52 How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers? Ethan Ilzetzki, Enrique G. Mendoza and Carlos A. Végh
2 2011 International Monetary Fund WP/11/52 IMF Working Paper Research Department How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers? Prepared by Ethan Ilzetzki, Enrique G. Mendoza and Carlos A. Végh Authorized for distribution by Prakash Loungani March 2011 This Working Paper should not be reported as representing the views of the IMF. The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF or IMF policy. Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to further debate. Abstract We contribute to the intense debate on the real effects of fiscal stimuli by showing that the impact of government expenditure shocks depends crucially on key country characteristics, such as the level of development, exchange rate regime, openness to trade, and public indebtedness. Based on a novel quarterly dataset of government expenditure in 44 countries, we find that (i) the output effect of an increase in government consumption is larger in industrial than in developing countries, (ii) the fisscal multiplier is relatively large in economies operating under predetermined exchange rate but zero in economies operating under flexible exchange rates; (iii) fiscal multipliers in open economies are lower than in closed economies and (iv) fiscal multipliers in high-debt countries are also zero. JEL Classification Numbers: Key Words: Author s Address: and We thank Giancarlo Corsetti, James Feyrer, Guy Michaels, Phillip Lane, Roberto Perotti, Carmen Reinhart, Vincent Reinhart, Luis Serven, Todd Walker, Tomasz Wieladek and participants at several conferences and seminars for their useful comments. We thank numerous o cials at.nance ministries, central banks, national statistical agencies, and the IMF for their assistance in compiling the dataset. Giagkos Alexopoulos and Daniel Osorio-Rodriguez provided excellent research assistance.
3 Contents Pages I. Introduction Methodology Identification of Fiscal Shocks Estimation Methodology Fiscal Multipliers: Definitions Lag Structure Data Are Innovations to Government Consumption Foreseen? Results High-income and Developing Countries Exchange Rate Regimes Openness to Trade Financial Fragility Government Investment Multivariate Regressions Conclusions References Data Appendix Tables Table 1 Optimal Number of Lags Based on Specification Tests Table A1 Government Consumption Table A2 Government Investment Table A3 Episodes of De-Facto Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates Table A4 Open and Closed Economies (Average tariff rates greater than or smaller than 4%) Table A Open and Closed Economies (De-facto: Economies with a ratio of exports+ Imports to GDP greater than or less than 60%) Figures Figure 1. Quarterly Government Consumption Figure 2. Quarterly Government Consumption and Commodity Prices Figure 3a.Central Bank Estimation Errors and VAR Residuals Figure 3b.Central Bank Estimation Errors and VAR Residuals Figure 4. Impulse Responses in High-Income Countries Figure 5. Impulse Responses in Developing Countries Figure 6. Cumulative Multiplier-High Income and developing Countries Figure 7. Cumulative Multiplier-Predetermined (fixed) and Flexible (flex) Exchange Arrangememnt Figure 8a. Responses to a 1% shock to government consumption Figure 8b. Responses to a 1% shock to government consumption i
4 2 Contents Pages Figure 8c. Responses of the Policy Interest Rate to a 1% shock to Government Consumption Figure 9. Responses of Private Investment and Consumption to a 1% shock to Government Consumption Figure 10a.Cumulative Multiplier Open and Closed Economies Figure 11. Cumulative Multiplier. Highly Indebted Countries Figure 12. Cumulative Government Investment Multiplier Figure 13. Responses to a 1% Government Investment Shock Figure 14. Cumulative Multiplier to a pure government investment shock: Highincome and Developing Countries Figure 15. Cumulative Multiplier to a pure Government Investment Shock: Predetermined (fixed) and Flexible (flex) Exchange Arrangements Figure 16. Cumulative Multiplier to a pure Government Investment Shock: Open and Closed Economies Figure 17. Cumulative Multiplier High Income and developing Countries (Multivariate Regression) Figure 18. Cumulative Multiplier Predetermined (fixed) and Flexible (flex) Exchange Rates (Multivariate Regression) Figure 19. Cumulative Multiplier Open and Closed Economies (Multivariate Regression Figure 20. Cumulative Multiplier- Highly Indebted Countries (Multivariate Regression) ii
6 Table A1: Government Consumption Country Start End Source Series and Comments Argentina 1993q1 2006q4 MECON Real General Government Consumption. Seasonally Adjusted and deflatedby MECON Australia 1960q1 2008q4 OECD Belgium 1991q1 2008q4 National Bank of Belgium Real General Government Consumption, in chained 2008 Euros, seasonalized at th source using the TRAMO-SEATS method Botswana 1993q3 2008q4 Statistical Agency Brazil 1995q1 2008q4 IBGE Bulgaria 1999q1 2008q2 Finance Ministry Canada 1961q1 2008q4 OECD Chile 1989q1 2009q1 Hacienda Colombia 2000q1 2008q4 Central Bank (Constant Prices) Real General Government Consumption. Calculated as the sum of compensation of public employees, social benefits provided in kind that were purchased from the private sector, and final consumption of the public sector (both indivudual and collective) expenditure, chained volume estimates, Seasonally adusted Real Central Government Consumption Real General Government Consumption Croatia 2000q1 2009q4 Eurostat Czech Republic 1999q1 2009q1 Eurostat Denmark 1999q1 2009q1 Eurostat Ecuador 1990q1 2007q2 Central Bank (Constant Prices)
7 El Salvador 1994q1 2007q4 Ministry of Finance Central Government Consuption. Caclulated as the sum of public renumeration and purchases and goods and services. Estonia 2000q1 2009q1 Eurostat Finland 1998q1 2008q4 Statistics Finland France 1978q1 2008q4 Eurostat Germany 1991q1 2008q4 OECD Greece 2000q1 2009q1 Eurostat Hungary 1995q1 2009q1 Eurostat Iceland 1997q1 2007q4 Eurostat Ireland 1999q1 2009q1 Eurostat Israel 1999q1 2008q4 Central Bank Italy 1999q1 2009q1 Eurostat Latvia 1999q1 2009q1 Eurostat, seasonally adjusted using the X-11 method in the source. Real General Government Consumption, Chain- Valued Real General Government Consumption Lithuania 1995q1 2008q4 Statistics Lithuania Malaysia 1999q1 2008q1 Central Bank Central Government Consumption. Calculated the sum of compensation of public employees (including both emoluments and pensions); and supplies and services of the central government.
8 Mexico 1991q1 2008q4 Finance Ministry Netherlands 1988q1 2009q1 Statistical Agency Central Government Consumption. Calculated as the sum of wages and sallaries and acquisitions. Real. Public compensation and purchases of goods and services are deflated separately and seasonally adjusted by the statistical agency. Norway 1996q1 2009q1 Eurostat Peru 1995q1 2008q2 Ministry of Finance Central Government Consumption. Calculated as public renumeration and final consumption of goods and services Poland 1999q1 2009q1 Eurostat Portugal 1995q1 2009q1 Eurostat Romania 1998q1 2008q4 Eurostat Slovak Republic 1999q1 2008q2 International Monetary Fund Central Government Consuption. Calculated as the sum of compensation of public employees and purchases and goods and services. Slovenia 1995q1 2008q4 Eurostat South Africa 1993q1 2009q1 Statistics South Africa Real Spain 1995q1 2009q1 Eurostat Sweden 1993q1 2008q4 Statistics Sweden Central Government Consumption Thailand 1993q1 2006q4 Central Bank Real. Central government data collected at quarterly frequency; some regional statistics are estimates. Turkey 1998q1 2009q1 Central Bank United Kingdom 1960q1 2008q4 OECD Real, Chain Valued, Seasonally Adjusted United States 1960q1 2008q4 OECD Real, Chain Valued, Seasonally Adjusted Uruguay 1988q1 2008q4 Central Bank Real
9 Table A2: Government Investment Country Start End Source Series and Comments Argentina 1993q1 2006q4 INDEC Central government investment. Australia 1959q3 2009q3 OECD Belgium 1991q1 2009q2 Eurostat Canada 1961q1 2009q3 OECD Chile 1990q1 2008q1 Central Bank Colombia 1994q1 2007q2 DANE Real general government investment. Seasonally adjusted. Real general government investment. Seasonally adjusted. Central governmentl Inversión pública + Transferencias de capital. Obras civiles. Real and seasonally adjusted in original series. Czech Republic 1999q1 2009q2 Eurostat Denmark 1999q1 2009q2 Eurostat El Salvador 1994q1 2007q4 Central Bank Central government gross investment. Estonia 1995q1 2009q2 Eurostat Finland 1998q1 2009q3 Statistics Finland Gross fixed capital formation France 1991q1 2008q4 Eurostat Germany 1999q1 2008q4 Eurostat Hungary 1999q1 2009q2 Eurostat Ireland 1999q1 2009q1 Eurostat Italy 1999q1 2009q2 Eurostat Latvia 1999q1 2009q2 Eurostat
10 Lithuania 1999q1 2009q3 Statistics Lithuania General government capital investments. Mexico 1991q1 2009q1 Netherlands 1988q1 2009q1 Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público Central Bureau of Statistics - Netherlands Central government investment. Real fixed capital formation by general government. Norway 1996q1 2009q2 Eurostat Romania 1995q1 2009q2 Eurostat South Africa 1993q1 2009q1 Statistics South Africa Real Sweden 1993q1 2009q2 Statistics Sweden Central government investment Turkey 1987q1 2006q4 Central Bank Public Sector Investment (index) United Kingdom 1991q1 2009q3 Eurostat United States 1960q1 2009q3 OECD Real general government investment. Current prices. Seasonally adjusted. Millions of national currency. Uruguay 1992q1 2009q3 Central Bank Real general government investment.
11 Table A3: Episodes of De-Facto Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates Country Fixed Flex Argentina 1993q1:2001q4; 2003q2:2006q4 - Australia 1960q1:1982q4 1983q1:2007q4 Belgium 1991q1:2007q4 (Euro since 1999) - Botswana 1993q3:2001q4 2002q1:2007q4 Brazil q1:2007q4 Bulgaria 1999q1:2007q4 - Canada 1961q1:2002q2 2002q3:2007q4 Chile q2:1998q2, 1999q4:2007q4 Colombia q1:2007q4 Croatia q1:2007q4 Czech Republic 1999q1:2001q4 2003q1:2007q4 Denmark 1999q1:2007q4 - Ecuador 2000q2:2007q4 1990q1:2000q1 El Salvador 1994q1:2007q4 - Estonia 2000q1:2007q4 - Finland 1998q1:2007q4 (Eurozone from 1999) - France 1978q1:2007q4 (Eurozone from 1999) - Germany 1999q1:2007q4 (Eurozone) 1991q1:1998q4 Greece 2000q1:2007q4 (Eurozone from 2000) - Hungary 1995q1:2007q4 - Iceland 1997q1:2000q3 2000q4:2007q1 Ireland 1999q1:2007q4 (Eurozone) - Israel q1:2007q4 Italy 1999q1:2007q4 (Eurozone) - Latvia 2001q4:2007q4 1999q1:2001q3
12 Lithuania 1995q2:2007q4 - Malaysia 1999q1:2007q4 - Mexico q1:2007q4 Netherlands 1988q1:2007q4 (Eurozone from 1999) - Norway q1:2007q4 Peru 1995q1:2007q4 - Poland q1:2007q4 Portugal 1995q1:2007q4 (Eurozone) - Romania q1:2007q4 Slovak Republic 1999q1:2007q4 - Slovenia 1995q1:2007q4 - South Africa q1:2007q4 Spain 2000q1:2007q4 (Eurozone) - Sweden q1:2007q4 Thailand 1993q1:1997q2 1997q3:2007q4 Turkey q1:2007q4 United Kingdom 1960q1:1972q2 1972q3:2007q4 United States 1960q1:1971q3 1971q3:2007q4 Uruguay 1995q4:2001q4; 2005q3:2007q4 1988q1:1990q4; 1992q1:1995q3; 2002q1:2005q2 Total Observations
13 Malaysia , 1991, 1993, , Mexico , 1995, Netherlands , Norway 1988, 1993, Peru , Poland , Portugal , Romania , Slovak Republic , Slovenia , South Africa , , Spain , Sweden , Thailand , Turkey United Kingdom , United States Uruguay ,
14 Table A6: Episodes of High Debt (Gross Debt of Central Government Exceeding 60% of GDP) Country High Debt Episodes Argentina Belgium Brazil , Bulgaria Denmark Ecuador , Finland Greece Ireland Israel Italy Malaysia Netherlands Poland Portugal , Sweden Uruguay Total Observations 1501
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