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1 Seminar Prevention campaigns Tallinn Organisers: National Council for Crime Prevention, Finland Ministry of Justice, Estonia

2 CONTENTS 1. Seminar Program (in English) 3 2. Conclusions: Margus Kurm & Markus Alanko 5 2. Crime Prevention Campaings: Theory through to practice... 6 Irene Cole & Sharon Shawers (in English) 3. The Possibilities of the risk communication in Estonian society.. 11 Triin Vihalemm (in English) 4. Did it make a difference Steen Hansen (in English) 5. Violence against women.. 22 Eija Kyllönen-Saarnio (in Finnish) 6. Do I have the courage to intervene; do I know how to act? 31 Sanna Pylkkänen & Veijo Kokkola (in Finnish, summary in English) 7. Know what to do when it comes to violence.. 44 Judith Scheepstra (in English) 8. Crime Prevention campaigns Regina Järg (in Estonian, in Finnish) page WORKSHOPS Workshop 1 (Estonian Finnish) 65 I. Traffic Safety Campaign. 67 Anneli Ohvril II. The strategic planning of social campaigning in Estonia The example of the risk behaviour of Estonian youngsters. 78 Liis Ruussaar Workshop 2 (English).. 82 I. Crime Prevention in Strip Comics. 82 Riitta Koivisto II. Campaign to prevent drunk driving.. 84 Laura Hämäläinen 2

3 Seminar Prevention campaigns Pirita TOP SPA Moderator of the first day: Margus Kurm (Ministry of Justice of Estonia) coffee break Opening of the seminar Crime Prevention Campaigns: Theory through to Practice Irene Cole, United Kingdom The possibilities of the risk communication in Estonian society Triin Vihalemm, Estonia lunch Did it make a difference? Steen Hansen, Denmark Violence against women Eija Kyllönen-Saarnio, Finland coffee break Do I have the courage to intervene; do I know how to act? Veijo Kokkola and Sanna Pylkkänen, Finland Know what to do when it comes to violence Judith Scheepstra, The Netherlands Crime prevention campaigns Regina Järg, Finland The discussion and closing the first day dinner 3

4 Moderator of the second day: Markus Alanko (Finnish Crime Prevention Council) coffee break Information for workshops workshops Crime prevention campaigns (one in English the other in Estonian- Finnish with translation) lunch The presentations from the workshops Discussion in plenary The evaluation and closing the second day Workshops: Estonian- finnish: Leader of the workshop: Anu Leps (Ministry of Justice of Estonia) Traffic safety campaign Anneli Ohvril, Estonia (in Estonian) questions "The strategic planning of the social campaigning in Estonia the example of the risk behaviour of Estonian youngsters Liis Ruussaar, Estonia (in Estonian) questions Workshop discussion English: Leader of the workshop: Jukka- Pekka Takala (Finnish Crime Prevention Council) Campaign to prevent drunk driving Laura Hämäläinen, Finland (in English) questions Crime prevention comic strip Riitta Koivisto, Finland (in English, comic strips in Finnish) questions Workshop discussion 4

5 Conclusions: Margus Kurm 1) kampaania peab olema kooskõlas organisatsiooni üldiste eesmärkide ja prioriteetidega; 2) tabuteemasid ei ole, st et kõikide teemade käsitlemisel tuleb leida oma vaatenurk ja keskkond, kuid käsitleda võib ka väga tundlikke teemasid, nagu nt perevägivald kampaania vormis; 3) oluline kampaania puhul on see, mis stiilis ta on tehtud (kas kasutatakse profinäitlejaid, kas kasutatakse huumorit, kas multikategelasi, jne); 4) kampaania tegemisel - katseta, prioritiseeri, mõõda tulemusi; 5) mõõtmist vaja teha juba enne kampaaniat ja vajalikud ka järel-uuringud. Markus Alanko - Saimme kuulla seminaarin aikana monia hyviä esimerkkejä läpiviedyistä kampanjoista, perustietoa kampanjoiden rakenteesta ja niistä asioista, jotka tulisi ottaa huomioon kampanjoita suunniteltaessa. - Jotta kampanja voitaisiin suunnitella mahdollisimman tehokkaaksi, tulee meillä olla tarkkaa, tutkittua tietoa siitä ongelmasta, johon kampanjan avulla pyritään vaikuttamaan. Tämä mahdollistaa myös laadukkaan arvioinnin, sillä silloin meillä on tarkkaa tietoa ongelman laadusta ennen ja jälkeen kampanjan. Kampanjaa arvioitaessa tulisi ottaa myös huomioon se miten kampanjan ulkopuoliset tekijät ovat vaikuttaneet tähän kyseiseen ongelmaan. - Kun meillä on tarkkaa tietoa ongelmasta, voi rahoituksen saaminen kampanjaan helpottua. - Olemme myös kuulleet kuinka suuria eroja kampanjoiden budjeteissa on. Kampanjoiden rahoitustarpeeseen vaikuttavat mm. valittu media sekä kampanjan laajuus ja kesto. Raha ei kuitenkaan takaa toimivaa tulosta. Tässä tulee jälleen esille suunnittelun tärkeys. - Kampanjan tavoitteena on saada viesti perille kohderyhmälleen. Kohderyhmä vaikuttaakin käytettävän media valintaan. Esimerkiksi kohderyhmän ollessa vanhukset ei internet ole välttämättä paras media. - Kampanjoiden toimivuutta onkin hyvä testata kohdeyleisöllä ennen sen toteuttamista. Näin kampanjoihin voidaan tarvittaessa tehdä muutoksia ajoissa. - Kuten seminaarissa tulikin muutamaan kertaan esille pyörää ei kannata keksiä uudelleen. On olemassa paljon hyviä käytäntöjä, jotka ovat osoittautuneet toimiviksi tämä ei siis ole varastamista. Tässä tulee kuitenkin olla varovainen ja ottaa mahdolliset tekijänoikeudet huomioon. - Kampanjoiden toteuttamiseksi vaadittavaa työpanosta ei tulisi aliarvioida. - Lopuksi mainitsisin vielä, että kampanjaa suunniteltaessa tulee varoa ettei kampanja sivuvaikutuksena kasvata rikospelkoa. 5

6 Irene Cole & Sharon Sawers Crime Prevention Campaigns: Theory Through to Practice Where to start? CRIME PREVENTION CAMPAIGNS: THEORY THROUGH TO PRACTICE UK Presentation by Irene Cole & Sharon Sawers Identify the Issues political imperatives? public concerns, based on real / imagined rising crime? statistical evidence? Identify the Objectives to reduce crime nationally / locally? to deliver a measure / activity which will contribute to reduced crime? What resources are available? Crime Prevention A practical example of identifying the issues 1. Home Office strategic aims Drivers: 2. Policy unit targets Public Concern? Political imperatives? Enforcement issues. More effective criminal justice processes, police powers etc Crime Reduction 3. Public concerns Home Office crime reduction aims Crime reduction policy unit targets People ARE and FEEL more secure in their homes and daily lives PSA 1 Reduce crime by 15% and further in high crime areas by 2008 PSA 2 Reassure the public, reduce fear of crime and build confidence in the Criminal Justice System Reduce burglary by 25% ( ) Reduce car crime by 30% ( ) Reduce street robbery by 14% ( ) Roll for Comms Making people, places and property less vulnerable to opportunistic crime 6

7 Public polling identified a perception gap The strategic approach Nationally, total crime has fallen by 25% since 1997 However public polling shows that 60% of adults believe crime has increased nationally Your chances of becoming a victim of burglary are at their lowest in 20 years However burglary is still the crime that adults feel most at risk from Statement of Purpose what is the overall aim? Definition what do we actually mean? Context what other Government initiatives are relevant? how does it fit with the overall strategic plan? Components what elements need to be achieved to achieve the purpose? These are Critical Success Factors (CSFs), i.e. measurable outcomes which provide a structure. Critical Success Factors Must contain a number of products and processes that can form actual deliverables For each CSF we need to identify: what is already available / what are we already doing? what more can we do? what needs to be done to make this happen? Evaluation - Always set the criteria at the beginning, not at the end of a campaign Products and Processes Target audience - Who? Professionals / Voluntary groups / Offenders / Members of the public? Prioritise these in order of importance What are we trying to do? Education / inform/ train raise awareness Change behaviour Strengthen relationships How? Toolkits Training packages and courses Leaflets /poster / media campaigns Guidance / handbooks Distil the data into a media buying currency Vehicle Crime Burglary Robbery Who Who Where Where Urban centres London, Midlands & North Students, Low income households North West, Yorks., London & Humberside School kids, Students & Young Professionals London, Birmingham & Manchester When When Insight Insight Nov-Jan People need reminding to take defensive action at the key moment Summer 05 There are certain types of houses around here at risk, mine is one of them Pre & Post Xmas Thieves strike at certain times Strategy Strategy Optimum moments Down my street, in my home Optimum mode (time and place) 7

8 BURGLARY VEHICLE CRIME 82 % of acq crimes happen in 4 TV regions North London Midlands HTV Midlands ROBBERY The role for communications AIM Burglary 35% Robbery 40% Car Crime 25% Motivate people to take precautions to make themselves and their property less vulnerable to opportunistic crime Prompt people to feel more empowered and therefore less afraid about crime by showing how easy it is to outwit criminals INSIGHT Not taking precautions is like advertising your belongings to a thief SOLUTION Use humour to dramatise the way in which people make life easy for criminals School route posters Commuter & high street posters Washroom posters (near urinals, backs of toilet doors) 8

9 Car park Pay and display ticket backs Beer mats in pubs and bars Stickers for washroom mirrors (bars and pubs) Examples of positive campaign evaluation result Home Office - Vehicle Crime Reduction campaign Evaluation criteria Attitudes to crime, risk and fear of crime (specifically vehicle crime) Perceptions of who is responsible for crime prevention Recall of publicity/activity, related to vehicle crime Awareness and recognition of specific communications Behavioural and attitudinal shift in relation to crime Figure 16: Spontaneous Awareness of Advertising Related to Vehicle Crime Spontaneous awareness of vehicle crime messages increased from 21% to 49% % m 3.7m 3.5m 1.4m 2.3m 2.0m W W W W W W W W W W Sep-00 Oct-00 Nov-00 Dec-00 Jan-01 Feb-01 Mar-01 Apr-01 May-01 Jun-01 Jul-01 Aug-01 Sep-01 Oct-01 Nov-01 Dec-01 Jan-02 Feb-02 Mar-02 Apr-02 May-02 Jun-02 Jul-02 Aug-02 Sep-02 Oct-02 Nov-02 Dec-02 Jan-03 Feb-03 Mar-03 Spend Have you seen or heard any advertising related to vehicle crime recently? Source: QV2 Base: All respondents Monitoring attitudinal change Claimed behavioural change Agree Wave 1 Agree wave 12 % Change Removing from view one of best deterrent % Public have a responsibilty to help reduce car crime % There are things you can do to reduce risk % More is being done to reduce car crime % Wave one of the tracking was undertaking before any advertising and is used as a baseline throughout the tracking studies Sometimes Always How often do you leave your car unlocked in a public place, even for a short time? 9

10 Claimed behavioural change The desired outcome Sometimes Always Table 1: British Crime Survey 2003/1999 shows a 23.1% reduction in vehicle crime % change All vehicle thefts (000 s) % Source: Home Office Statistical Bulletin, Crime in England and Wales 2002/2003, July How often do you leave your car unlocked in a public place, even for a short time? Thank you Irene Cole Crime Strategy and Resources Unit Home Office Sharon Sawers Strategic Communications Adviser Home Office 10

11 Triin Vihalemm Risk Prevention Social Preparedness to Receive Campaigns Context of the presentation Risk Prevention: Social Preparedness to Receive Campaigns Triin Vihalemm,, PhD Tartu University > Dilemmas for communication of risk topics > Individual behavior and social cohesion > Directing of campaigns in media >Short-term and long-term perspectives in Estonian society > Formation of the meaning of social advertising in Estonian society > Pilot research findings > To scare or to encourage? > Values in the Estonian transition society compared to the Swedish society of > well-being > Connections between accepted value systems and reception of social campaigns Estonia atomized society Power and Meaning of Media > Important sources of information Media phrames are > about life in Estonia individual-focused. > ---personal impressions 10% (anti)heroes, > acquaintances 15% personal responsibility > media 78% > Important sources of information a social cohesion diminishing approach? > about local events... e.g safety, trust > Estonia as society in transition > Artificially cohesive society during the Soviet Union period > Swift turn to market economy after the collapse of the Soviet Union > Global trends > Global and social risks > Fragmentation > Consequences > Atomization of the society > Weak civic society, social networks > Estrangement from policies (health policy, educational policy etc) > Individualistic, hedonistic values > Social helplessness, big dependency on state institutions > Dilemmas for Communication of Risk Topics Individual behaviour Social cohesion, social relations (low) risk awariness of people Risk behavior as result of social environment > Warning, frightening deprivation > Formation of new norms generational culture shift family cohesion > Should the personal behavior or social relations be changed? Mõjutada personaalset käitumist või sotsiaalseid suhteid? 11

12 Communication Aiming at Social Cohesion > New direction (Wallack et al) > Instead of influencing the behavior of individuals support to social cohesion, participation skills and develpoing of networks > Risk behavior and social cohesion connented to each other thus the responsibility for the occurred cultural shift cannot be laid (only) on the individuals > Low efficiency of informative campaigns > Do people need more information to cope in a more risky environment or rather participation skills and other types of social `capitali` to help to reduce the risk level? Strategic Choices > Informative > Message, ready-made system, media as means of delivering information > Techniques from marketing are taken over to disseminate information > Presumes positive or neutral attitudes in target group(s) > Surpassing psychological barriers, creating new behavior patterns > The content and form of the message has been fixed in the `marketing` key > The conflict (tension) is mainly between the hedonistic & short term orientated and the responsible & long term orientated Hierarchy of Message Impacts > In the form of campaign even such advertising which is related to everyday life - a la a well-known person explaining about his accident etc, - hearing such advertising on the radio still remains aloof. > (---) He stopped the fast drivers and he had got that pack of photoes with pictures of those madmen killed or traffic accidents and dead people scattered around the field or smashed and stuck. He made those violators of traffic rules to look through the pack of photoes. He had been standing beside them and his feed-back was that the violators were pretty depressed seeing all that and that the message got through to them. > I do know that I tend to overspeed and I have my internal control not to exeed over a certain level. After being stopped and paying the penalty that level has become considerably lower. Directing Individual Behavior Through Media > How to decode messages delivered in the form of advertising in comparison to other `traditional`ways? > Do risk topics through a campaign become lighter? > How should stories, heroes, images used in campaigns relate to the ones used in conventional media? > Which kind of approach analytic or normative should be more reasonable to choose? Context of a Media Campaign >Media is an ambivalent environment. >Different messages are circulating >Carriers`of media campaign messages >analytical, utilitarian stories >Movies, video films >human interest, the yellow press > Different messages get mixed in the heads of listeners, spectators Different Expectations towards Different Media Channels > The traditional massmedia is expected to set down certain norms > The idea that the Press should frighten young people more against drug addiction is supported, the propaganda of this topic in films is encouraged: > it `s just like a side topic, it`s about the same as someone somewhere in the background passes behind the main character. In those films a certain life- style is depicted, drugs belong to it. 12

13 Choices of the Communication Style > Style enabling independent analysis > Safety and risk problem is delivered as something concerning every one > Creates a certain background of shared interests (agenda setting) > Should also favour independent analysis of information, receiving of more complicated messages > Printed adveritising with problem-focused structure is more suitable > Normative style > Explicitly rather the normative approach using clear separate images is recommended > (TV) advertising using visual images and focused on emotions is more suitable 39% The (Re)introduction of Norms is Problematic in Reality 7% Normiga nõustuvad väited 54% Normiga mittenõustuvad väited Väited kampaania teostuse kohta > Caught on violation drivers` esseys written about How can the safety belt protect me and my copassengers? > The acceptance of offered (better) norm for traffic behavior always fasten your seat belt is various > The form of communication in itself does not raise any particular response II Formation of the Meaning of Social Campaigns in Estonian Society II Formation of the Meaning of Social Campaigns in Estonian Society Indiviidi või ühiskonna tasandil sotsiaalse kapitali taastamine ja võrgustike loomine, mis on individualismi, moderniseerumise ja kommertsialiseerumise tagajärjel lõhutud. RMK miljoni puu Heateo Sihtasutus Vaata maailma Ühine, kaudne heaolu, millest ei saada ise koheselt osa I IV II Plastpudel ei ole prügi Heategevuskampaaniad III Maanteeamet: Traksid peale Ühekordne aktsioon, mille eesmärgiks on indiviidi käitumise korrigeerimine Insufficient Network Kills the Good Will > About a year or half ago that foundation of good deeds opened their portali where benefactors and people who need help can find each other. There was an organisation od visually impaired seeking for people who could read out and record some books for the blind. I responded offering help but no-one contacted me. After that i had some busy time for a couple of months. Then I thought that I should call them myself but actually I was quite mad about them not having reacted. Earlier there was that other time also when I had joined a charity network. I sent them my contact adress and then received an answer that they where not that active all and perhaps received a couple of letters per year. Allikas: Mariliis Vahe (2004) Sotsiaalturunduse ja sotsiaalse vastutuse võimalikud tõlgendusviisid Eestis, magistritöö, TÜ Isiklik kasu 13

14 The Foundation of Good Deeds > Participation (wish): few participants as the requests to help are similar and many of these are about money. The small number of participants may be due to the fact that people do not benefit directly, it is considered to be the task of the state etc. The issue of credibility is strong. > Assessment : weakness of the third sector Planting of One Million Trees by National Forest Board > Participation (wish): the achieving of joint aim and shared benefit was perceived hence the big number of participants. > Assessment: a successful campaign, connection to the national song and dance festival was also a precondition of success. Allikas: Mariliis Vahe (2004) Sotsiaalturunduse ja sotsiaalse vastutuse võimalikud tõlgendusviisid Eestis, magistritöö, TÜ Allikas: Mariliis Vahe (2004) Sotsiaalturunduse ja sotsiaalse vastutuse võimalikud tõlgendusviisid Eestis, magistritöö, TÜ Plastic Bottles Is Not Waste > Participation (wish): people are aware of the need to sort waste, but it is too inconvenient and the necessary infrastructure is missing. > Assessment:the campaign draw attention to the waste managment issues and made people think about it. With a proper infrastructure the possible number of peole changing their behavior might have been bigger. Reception is Dependent on Age and Social Relations > People with small children certainly think differently. If you havent yet got a child of your own you don`t think about where and how it is going to live. It is very difficult to think about that, because it is very abstract. Most certainly people with children think differently, in a more environment friendly way. > For example I think more about the future after my child was born. Allikas: Mariliis Vahe (2004) Sotsiaalturunduse ja sotsiaalse vastutuse võimalikud tõlgendusviisid Eestis, magistritöö, TÜ Allikas: Mariliis Vahe (2004) Sotsiaalturunduse ja sotsiaalse vastutuse võimalikud tõlgendusviisid Eestis, magistritöö, TÜ EMT Ladybird`s Christmas Wish > Participation (wish): the impetus for participation can be desire to do something good, redemption or wish to win an award. > Assessment: The company profits, let it profit then See the World > Participation (wish): several big companies supported the idea, more than participants in internet training courses. > Assessment:a campaign with win-win solution, wher the company gains through added social responsibility and individuals by reproduction of social capital. Allikas: Mariliis Vahe (2004) Sotsiaalturunduse ja sotsiaalse vastutuse võimalikud tõlgendusviisid Eestis, magistritöö, TÜ Allikas: Mariliis Vahe (2004) Sotsiaalturunduse ja sotsiaalse vastutuse võimalikud tõlgendusviisid Eestis, magistritöö, TÜ 14

15 Road Transport Board Put the Braces On! > Participation (wish): people go along only if they can see a personal need or benefit. > Assessment: An effective campaign but the message needs to be constantly reinforced. Scary Campaigns Are Considered To Be More Effective > Look, if there is such a harsh campaign going on with crash pictures shown, then at the time of exeeding the speed limit you remembre it, visualise a picture and fasten the belt. Naturally. > There are some people who thanks to the Zebra campaign saw a car wreck at Viru Street, because someone had driven without fastened seat belt and I do think that people when they now fasten their seat belts recall that picture and that is why they fasten it. Allikas: Mariliis Vahe (2004) Sotsiaalturunduse ja sotsiaalse vastutuse võimalikud tõlgendusviisid Eestis, magistritöö, TÜ Pilot Reserch Findings Interpretation of Social Campaigns Is Connected Sith the Value Systems of People Domineerivad kollektivistlikud väärtused Sotsiaalset võrgustikku arendavad ja inimeste tegevuskeskkonda kujundavad programmid mõistatavamad, vastuvõetavamad. Domineerivad individualistlikud väärtused Normide järgimine seotud tarbimisliku hedonismi, osalt ka moraalse lunastuse vajadusega. III To Scare Or To Encourage? Values and Social Campaigns tehnika areng puhas keskkond Values in Estonia and Sweden % of the respondents who considered a value to be of `very high` or `rather high` impotance Individualistlikhedonistlikud Rootsi Eesti väärtused mugav elu huvitav elu enes eteostus kaunis maailm rahu maailmas tugev perekond sisemine harmoonia vabadus armastus riigi julgeolek meeldiv elu lunastus eneseaustus tarkus ausus tervi s 15

16 Safe Environment is Valued (1) Safe Environment Is Valued (2) ENESEÜLETAMINE > At the top of the list are mostly the values connected with physical well-being and of people and safety of the environment > Health, strong family, the world peace, clean environment, national security AVATUS MUUTU- SELE enesemääratlemine (4,59) stimulatsioon (4,01) kõikehaaravus (4,5) heasoovlikkus (4,63) traditsioon (4,34) turvalisus (4,76) ALAL- HOID- LIKKUS hedonism (4,36) saavutus (4,43) võim (3,78) ENESEUPITAMINE üksikväärtuste keskmiste keskmised Schwartzi süsteemis steemis Yet Individualism Prevails > Public sphere strongly individualistic > In evaluating hedonism and stimulationon has increased. > Tendency towards more individual values among younger generations >Among young people: self-realization, comfortable life, interesting life, posession of power are of bigger importance >Among older people: health, the world peace, clean environment, national security, integrity, inner harmony, wisdom, justice, beautiful world, equality, redemption are more important > Hedonistic-individualistic values dominate among people with higher education and bigger income Example from the Pilot Reserch > Do you think that in your circle of acquaintances people rather have the feeling of solidarity than think just about themselves? > I think they are more individualistic. It is also right to be so because if you do not cause any direct harm to society yourself why to bother what other people are doing. Everyone lives their own lives at their own lifetime. It is understandable why people do not try too hard to develop the society. Allikas: Mariliis Vahe (2004) Sotsiaalturunduse ja sotsiaalse vastutuse võimalikud tõlgendusviisid Eestis, magistritöö, TÜ F 4 Structures of Value Consciousness Estonia 1 Self-respect, happiness, honesty, mature love, wisdom, family security, self-realization, true friendship, justice, pleasant life, national security, freedom, inner harmony 2 Clean environment, health, technical development, world at peace 3 Salvation, equality, world of beauty Comfortable life, wealth 5 Power, social recognition, exciting life Sweden World at peace, freedom, family security, national security, honesty, health, mature love, inner harmony, clean environment, justice, world of beauty, equality Exciting life, pleasant life, self-realization, happiness, comfortable life Self-respect, wisdom, true friendship Wealth, power, technical development Salvation, social recognition F 4 Different Context of Values (1) Eesti 1 eneseaustus, õnn, ausus, armastus, tarkus, tugev perekond, eneseteostus, tõeline sõprus, õiglus, meeldiv elu, riigi julgeolek, vabadus, sisemine harmoonia 2 puhas keskkond, tervis, tehnika areng, rahu maailmas 3 lunastus, võrdsus, kaunis maailm mugav elu, jõukus 5 võimu omamine, ühiskondlik tunnustus, huvitav elu Rootsi rahu maailmas, vabadus, tugev perekond, riigi julgeolek, ausus, tervis, armastus, sisemine harmoonia, puhas keskkond, õiglus, kaunis maailm, võrdsus huvitav elu, meeldiv elu, eneseteostus, õnn, mugav elu eneseaustus, tarkus, sõprus jõukus, võimu omamine, tehnika areng lunastus, ühiskondlik tunnustus 16

17 Different Context of Values (1) > A separate spiritual segment of values (the influence of Russian culture) > Safety clearly connected with technology ( in Sweden technology is clearly in modern value segment) > Hedonism is connected with money ( in Sweden abstract individual relatedc connections) Redemption and Money > What does it give to people to participate in such campaigns? > They want to somehow save themselves. Redeem their sins. For example the rich, for example Soros or such. They feel that they have a kind of a burden because they are so rich. That they have taken somethindg away from the others. Constant Perception of Risk Versus Instrumental Introduction of Norms > I think that was something temporary, because it was the carrot and the stick method. It only functioned once. You knew that you could get a benefit if you behaved well. I do not think that because of that you continue to act the same in the future. It is rather the Road Transport Board type of campaigns with serious consequences brought out as examples that influence long term behavior patterns. These make you think more. Social Control(2) > Is it possible to change the value consciousness of people with the help of a social campaig? > Drunk driving if in your society there is constant reminding that drunk driving is equal to killing another person, it does bring in a new dimension. If media keeps blowing the horns that it is a tabo media has power. If your friend tells you not to drive it won t work. But if you feel that society won t approve of it and you are taking the risk... Otherwise you may not even perceive the risk. If you are aware that something may happen, there is the risk and you will be punished. So that you are afraid of it. Allikas: Mariliis Vahe (2004) Sotsiaalturunduse ja sotsiaalse vastutuse võimalikud tõlgendusviisid Eestis, magistritöö, TÜ Socia Controll (1) > I guess there are very few people who never litter the surroundings. If I have something in my hands I need to throw away... People are more afraid that someone might see, you`ll be caught, ashamed, have to pay the penalty. Yet I believe that if circumstances allow the person may totally convert in a second and without any pangs of remorse. I have noticed that it works in the same way also in other countries. In Sweden and Finland, the countries with a very strong social control. Allikas: Mariliis Vahe (2004) Sotsiaalturunduse ja sotsiaalse vastutuse võimalikud tõlgendusviisid Eestis, magistritöö, TÜ Awariness and Reaction of Target Groups > Interesting life connected with selfassertion teadlikkus Allikas: kõrge madal Kirk Hallahan, Journal of Public Relations Research 13:1, 2001 madal Teadlik ( valvel ) aktiivsus Väheaktiivne tunnetab probleemi info-otsimine kõrge Aktiivne Ärritatud probleemile hakatakse otsima lahendust 17

18 teadlikkus Communicating Strategies for Different Target Groups kõrge madal Adapteeritud: Kirk Hallahan, Journal of Public Relations Research 13:1, 2001 madal Teadlik ( valvel ) hariv strateegia Väheaktiivne ennetavnormatiivne strateegia aktiivsus kõrge Aktiivne konsulteeriv, koostöö strateegia Ärritatud osalusstrateegia Short-term and Long-term Perspestives in Estonian Society > In short-termperspective it is more tempting to influence the behavior of individuals > Value systems > Weak social capital > Easy to envolve with mass mediamassimeedia kaudu hästi haaratav > Eternal `following the tail of others`? > In long-term perspective integration strategy is more reasonable > Recognized long- term campaigns > Fits with norm-setting approach Conclusions Which Approach to Choose? >Conclusions made from the pilots >Analytical approach >Start a public debate, make people think, reflect >Safety as shared value individual risk prevention of small effect >Normative approach >Possibility to get close to target groups with more individualistic value consciousness >Individual pleasure of taking the risk versus fear to loose social recognition >Participating, cohesive approach >Connection with collective value consciousness and life curb (social relations) >Participation as redemption? >Attention to supporting infrastructure! 18

19 Information in Content I nform at ion out Steen Hansen Did We Make A Difference? Did We Make A Difference? A view on Danish crime preventive efforts and campaigns aimed at youngsters Crime prevention in Denmark How we organise it Examples of efforts and campaigns Websites concerning chat on the Internet and rape prevention The police as guest teachers Efforts aimed at juvenile criminals Steen Hansen, Communication Consultant - Tallinn 3 November 2004 Advice How do we proceed? Crime prevention in Denmark How we organise it Crime prevention in Denmark How we organise it General advice General public Lawyers (+ others) Heads of Police Lord mayors Crime Prevention Council Insurance companies Police officers Social workers Consumer stores Crime Prevention Council (Examples) Schools Social servicies Local police Specific advice Adults Government Researchers Technicians Youngsters Children Specific groups Websites SafeChat POD Examples of efforts and campaigns Website concerning chat on the Internet Webs ites Saf echat SI TE Examples of efforts and campaigns Website concerning chat on the Internet Web site: Advice: Point of departure: Efforts: New media Gab in knowledge No foundation A few criminal cases Communicate through the media Raise awareness Personal advice Multilateral approach 1: Don t reveal identity 2: Inform parents 3: Bring an adult 4: You decide (+ other channels) 19

20 W ebs ite s Sa f echa t R ESUL TS Examples of efforts and campaigns Website concerning chat on the Internet W ebs ite s AvoidR ape s SI TE Examples of efforts and campaigns Website concerning rape prevention Evaluations and results: Children in the 7th grade Focus groups (children and youngsters) Teachers Visibility in the media Websites AvoidRapes RESULTS Examples of efforts and campaigns Website concerning rape prevention Pop up resonse: Guest teachers Examples of efforts and campaigns The police as guest teachers Respondents Number Male Female No answer % 59% 12% Reference Printed media Internet School Work Friend Other or no answer 16% 21% 31% 8% 24% Demand Advice Educational tools and info Knowledge Other or no answer 14% 24% 31% 31% J uve ni c rimina ls POD Examples of efforts and campaigns Efforts aimed at juvenile criminals Project initiated in 2000 by Ministry of Housing: 11 local projects in parts of towns with a high crime rate Efforts at three levels: 1 - Initiatives aimed directly at the perpetrator 2 - Improvement of the physical environment in the area 3 - Guidance to most likely victims --> Evaluation Juvenile criminals RESULTS Examples of efforts and campaigns Efforts aimed at juvenile criminals Evaluation: 3 out of 11 were successful: reduction of crime 8 out of 11 had no effect on the crime rate Lack of success: Unstructured project Lack of theoretical foundation Unrealistic goals Lack of regular evaluation Solely focus on the criminals 20

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