How the Columbine High School Tragedy Could Have Been Prevented

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "How the Columbine High School Tragedy Could Have Been Prevented"

Transcription

1 How the Columbine High School Tragedy Could Have Been Prevented Elliot Aronson Abstract The author reviews motivations of students who commit violent acts in schools. He recommends the use of "jigsaw groups," an intervention originally developed to ease the tensions of desegregation in Texas schools. This model involves grouping students multiculturally and encouraging collaboration and interdependence instead of competition. The intervention has had a positive effect on standardized test scores and self-esteem. In 1999, at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, two students (Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold), heavily armed and very angry, went on a rampage, killing a teacher and 14 students (including themselves). It was the most lethal school shooting in U.S. history, but it was not unique. It was merely the most dramatic and most devastating of 15 such incidents that took place in U.S. schools in four years. What drove these kids over the edge? After an intensive study of the incident (Aronson, 2000), 1 concluded that the rampage killings are just the pathological tip of an enormous iceberg: The poisonous social atmosphere prevalent at most high schools in this country an atmosphere characterized by exclusion, rejection, taunting and humiliation. In high school, there is an iron-clad hierarchy of cliques with athletes, class officers, cheerleaders, and "preppies" at the top. At the bottom are kids who those at the top refer to as nerds, goths, geeks, loners, homos kids who are too fat, too thin, too short, too tall, who wear the wrong clothes or simply don't fit in. The teenagers near the top of the hierarchy are constantly rejecting, taunting, and ridiculing those near the bottom. Those in the middle join in the taunting as a way of differentiating themselves from those at the bottom and showing those at the top that they are different from the geeks and the loners. My interviews with high school students indicate that almost all of them know the rank ordering of the hierarchy and are well aware of their own place in that hierarchy. Experiments by Twenge, Baumeister, Tice, and Stucke (2001) demonstrate that being rejected produces a wide range of negative effects, not the least of which is a dramatic increase in aggressiveness. What Twenge was Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, No. 4, Winter 2004 O2004 by the University of Texas Press, P.O. Box 7819, Austin, TX Editorial office located in the College of Education at Georgia State University.

2 356 Elliot Aronson able to do to participants in her laboratory was, of course, much more pallid than the day-to-day rejections faced by teenagers in high school. For example, in one of her experiments, college students met in a work group. They were then asked to indicate which of their fellow students they would want to collaborate with in the future. A random sample of the participants received information that nobody wanted to work with them. When subsequently provided with an opportunity to aggress, the "rejects" expressed far more intense hostility (against those who rejected them as well as against neutral individuals) than those who had not been excluded. In the helter-skelter world of high school, my research reveals that rejection and the accompanying humiliation was the dominant issue underlying every one of the rampage killings in the United States. At Columbine, for example, Harris and Klebold made this graphically clear. In a videotape they produced just prior to the rampage, they specifically railed against the ingroup who had rejected and humiliated them. Their rejection and humiliation was confirmed by a student in the Columbine in-group a football player who was wounded in the attack who, when interviewed a few weeks after the tragedy, justified his own behavior by saying: Most kids didn't want them there. They were into witchcraft. They were into voodoo. Sure we teased them. But what do you expect with kids who come to school with weird hairdos and horns on their hats? If you want to get rid of someone, usually you tease 'em. So the whole school would call them homos... (Reported in 77me Magazine, December 20, 1999) Of course, not all students who are rejected and taunted go on a murderous rampage.thebehaviorof the shooters was pathological in the extreme, but it is certainly not unfathomable. My educated guess is that there are hundreds of thousands of students undergoing similarly stressful experiences who suffer in silence, but they do suffer. Some become depressed; others contemplate suicide; others simply long for the day when they will graduate and be relieved of the angst of this unpleasant social situation. This guess is based on my interviews with high school students as well as statements from Internet chat rooms, which in the weeks following the Columbine massacre were flooded with postings from unhappy teenagers. Although not condoning the behavior of the shooters, the overwhelming majority made it clear that they understood it and empathized with the shooters. They expressed their own anxiety, hurt, and anger about being rejected and taunted. A great many of these students made statements that can best be summarized as, "Of course, I would never shoot anybody, but I sure have had fantasies about doing it!" Our data indicate that the problem is widespread and is far broader than the shootings themselves. Moreover, it has been going on for a very

3 Preventing School Violence 357 long time at least since I was in school some 55 years ago! It is akin to the proverbial elephant in the living room that has been ignored for so long that, prior to Columbine, most people failed to notice that it was there. Is there anything we can do to change the social atmosphere in our schools? Can we find a way to teach students to respect and empathize with one another? Fortunately, such a strategy has been developed and tested and has been around for more than 30 years. It is called the jigsaw technique and was developed as a way of easing racial tensions in the Austin, Texas, school system following desegregation. The city of Austin had been residentially segregated ever since its founding. Desegregation was not an easy thing for that community to swallow. Accordingly, in response to a court order, when ethnic minority children were bused into previously White schools, it was not surprising that all hell broke loose. African American, White, and Mexican American youngsters were in open conflict; fistfights broke out in the corridors and schoolyards. At the time, I was a professor at the University of Texas, doing research on prejudice and exploring ways to reduce prejudice. Because he knew of my research, Austin's school superintendent asked for my help in finding a way to create a more harmonious classroom environment. After spending a few days observing the dynamics of several classrooms, my students and I were struck bythe highly competitive nature of the typical classroom and realized that this could contribute to the tensions among the students. Within a few days, we invented a way to change the social dynamics of the classroom so that the structure encouraged students to cooperate with each other rather than compete. We called our technique the jigsaw classroom because it resembled the assembling of a jigsaw puzzle, with each student having a vital piece of the puzzle (Aronson, 1978; Aronson & Bridgeman, 1979; Aronson & Patnoe, 1997; Walker & Crogan, 1998). Here is how the jigsaw classroom works: Students are placed in diverse six-person learning groups. The day's lesson is divided into six paragraphs so that each student is assigned one segment of the written material. For example, if the students are to learn the life of Eleanor Roosevelt, her biography is broken into six parts and distributed to the six students, each of whom has possession of a unique and vital part of the information. Each piece, like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, must be put together before anyone can view the whole picture. Each student must learn his or her own section and teach it to the other members of the group who do not have any other access to that material. Therefore, if Debbie wants to do well on the exam about the life of Eleanor Roosevelt, she must pay close attention to Carlos (who is reciting on Roosevelt's girlhood years), to Shamika (who is reciting on Roosevelt's years in the White House), and so on. At the end of the session, the teacher administers a quiz on Eleanor

4 358 Elliot Aronson Roosevelt. Each student takes the exam individually and is responsible for the entire lesson. Thus, the students quickly learn that their grade is dependent on their ability to learn from one another. Unlike the traditional classroom, where students are competing against each other, the jigsaw classroom has students depending on each other. Consider Carlos, a Mexican American student who is uncomfortable in a classroom that, for the first time in his experience, is dominated by Anglos. In the traditional classroom, if Carlos is having difficulty reciting because of anxiety and discomfort, theother students can easily ignore him or poke fun at him. In their zeal to show the teacher how smart they are, they are motivated to show up other students; Carlos is seen as their enemy. Because of his anxiety, his performance suffers and he is seen as stupid, therefore confirming the existing stereotype. However, in the jigsaw classroom, if Carlos is having difficulty reciting, it is now in the best interests of the other students in his group to be patient, make encouraging comments, and even ask friendly, probing questions to make it easier for Carlos to bring forth the knowledge within him. To the extent that each student can help Carlos recite more effectively, then each student will do that much better on his or her exam. Through the jigsaw process, the children find it essential to pay more attention to each other; in the process of paying attention they begin to gain more respect for each other. A student like Carlos quickly responds to this treatment by simultaneously becoming more relaxed and more engaged; this would inevitably produce an improvement in his ability to communicate. In fact, after a couple of weeks, the other students were struck by their realization that Carlos was a lot smarter than they had thought he was. They began to like him. Carlos began to enjoy school more and began to see the Anglo students in his group not as tormentors but as helpful and responsible teammates. Moreover, as he began to feel increasingly comfortable in class and started to gain more confidence in himself, Carlos's academic performance began to improve. As his academic performance improved, so did his self-esteem. The vicious circle had been broken; the elements that had been causing a downward spiral were changed, and the spiral moved dramatically upward. The formal data gathered from the jigsaw experiments are clear and striking: Compared to students in traditional classrooms, students in jigsaw groups showed a decrease in prejudice and stereotyping and an increase in their liking for their groupmates, both within and across ethnic boundaries. In addition, children in the jigsaw classrooms performed better on standardized exams and showed a significantly greater increase in selfesteem than children in traditional classrooms. Children in the jigsaw classrooms also showed far greater liking for school than those in traditional classrooms (absenteeism was significantly lower in jigsaw classooms).

5 Preventing School Violence 359 Moreover, children in schools where the jigsaw technique was practiced showed substantial evidence of true integration. For example, in the schoolyard, there was far more intermingling among the various races and ethnic groups than in the yards of schools using more traditional classroom techniques. One reason for the success of this technique is that the process of participating in a cooperative group breaks down in-group versus out-group perceptions and allows the individual to develop the cognitive category of "oneness" where no one is excluded from group membership. In addition, the process of working cooperatively encourages the development of empathy. Here's why: In the competitive classroom, the goal is simply to show the teacher how smart you are. Therefore, it is not necessary to pay much attention to the other students in your classroom. To participate effectively in the jigsaw classroom, however, each student needs to pay close attention to the member of the group who is reciting. In doing so, the participants begin to learn that great results can accrue if each of their classmates is approached in a way that is tailored to fit his or her special needs. For example, Alicia may learn that Carlos is a bit shy and needs to be prodded gently, while Joshua is so talkative that he might need to be reined in occasionally. Maria can be joked with, but Darnell responds only to serious suggestions. If our analysis is sound, then it should follow that working in jigsaw groups would lead to the sharpening of a youngster's general empathic ability a change that enables youngsters to put themselves in the shoes of their fellow students. To test this notion, Diane Bridgeman conducted an experiment with 10-year-old children. Just prior to her experiment, half of the children had spent two months participating in jigsaw classes and half in traditional classrooms. In her experiment, Bridgeman (1981) showed the children a series of cartoons aimed at testing a child's ability to empathize to put themselves in the shoes ofthe cartoon characters. For example, in one cartoon, the first panel shows a little boy looking sad as he waves goodbye to his father at the airport. In the next panel, a letter carrier delivers a package to the boy. In the third panel, the boy opens the package, finds a toy airplane inside, and bursts into tears. Bridgeman asked the children why they thought the little boy burst into tears at the sight of the airplane. Nearly all ofthe children could answer correctly because the toy airplane reminded the boy of how much he missed his father. Then Bridgeman asked the crucial question: "What did the letter carrier think when he saw the boy open the package and start to cry?" Most children of this age make a consistent error; they assume that everyone knows what they know. Thus the youngsters in the control group thought that the letter carrier would know the boy was sad because the gift reminded him of his father leaving. But the children who had participated

6 360 Elliot Aronson in the jigsaw classroom responded differently. Through their experience with jigsaw, they had developed the ability to take the perspective of the letter carrier to put themselves in his shoes. They realized that he would be confused at seeing the boy cry over receiving a nice present because. the letter carrier hadn't witnessed the farewell scene. The extent to which children can develop the ability to see the world from the perspective of another human being has profound implications for interpersonal relations in general. When we develop the ability to understand what another person is going through it increases the probability that our heart will open to that person. Once our heart opens to another person, it becomes virtually impossible to feel prejudice against that person, to bully that person, to taunt that person, or to humiliate that person. It is our guess that if the jigsaw strategy had been used in Columbine High School and in the elementary and middle schools feeding into Columbine, the tragedy would have been avoided. References Aronson, E. (1978). The Jigsaw classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Aronson, E. (2000). Nobody left to hate: Teaching compassion after Columbine. New York: Henry Holt. Aronson, E., & Bridgeman, D. (1979). Jigsaw groups and the desegregated classroom: In pursuit of common goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 5(4), Aronson, E., & Patnoe, S. (1997). Cooperation in the classroom: The Jigsaw method. New York: Longman. Bridgeman, D. (1981). Enhanced role-taking through cooperative interdependence: A field study. Child Development, 52, Twenge, J., Baumeister, R., Tice, D., & Stucke, T. (2001). If you can't join them, beat them: Effects of social exclusion on aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 87(6), Walker, I., & Crogan, M. (1998). Academic performance, prejudice, and the Jigsaw classroom: New pieces to the puzzle. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 8,

7

ACTION. What if Your Child IS the One Showing Bullying Behavior? PACER CENTER. So who does it? What is bullying? Bully versus child who bullies

ACTION. What if Your Child IS the One Showing Bullying Behavior? PACER CENTER. So who does it? What is bullying? Bully versus child who bullies PACER CENTER ACTION INFORMATION SHEETS What if Your Child IS the One Showing Bullying Behavior? The word bullying often conjures up an image of a schoolyard scene, with a big, intimidating student towering

More information

Video games are in the news

Video games are in the news Issue Video games 1. What s the issue? Video games are in the news Grand Theft Auto 5 is a game full of violence and mayhem. You can drive and run through a fictional city, shooting people, running them

More information

Using coping statements to avoid common thinking traps

Using coping statements to avoid common thinking traps Using coping statements to avoid common thinking traps Did you know that your thoughts affect how you see yourself and the world around you? You may look at a situation one way, even though there are many

More information

Practicing Interventions: Role Playing

Practicing Interventions: Role Playing Practicing Interventions: Role Playing You cannot simply explain an intervention technique to students and expect them to use it. They need practice these skills using multiple scenarios, before we can

More information

Lesson Plans K-3. Bullying Response Lesson Plan Grades K-3

Lesson Plans K-3. Bullying Response Lesson Plan Grades K-3 Lesson Plans K-3 Bullying Response Lesson Plan Grades K-3 Estimated Time of Completion: Two to three classroom periods, or stretched out throughout the school year. Each activity will take between 15-30

More information

MATERIALS: Chart paper/markers; pens; Student handouts: A Day in the Life of a Popular Person, Don t Talk to Her, and Mix It Up

MATERIALS: Chart paper/markers; pens; Student handouts: A Day in the Life of a Popular Person, Don t Talk to Her, and Mix It Up LESSON PLAN: ARE YOU PART OF THE IN-CROWD? OVERVIEW: Students think about the impact of group labels and social hierarchies on their sense of identity, self-esteem, and the way they socialize with others.

More information

T e a c h e r s g u i d e a n d s t u d e n t w o r k s h e e t s

T e a c h e r s g u i d e a n d s t u d e n t w o r k s h e e t s T e a c h e r s g u i d e a n d s t u d e n t w o r k s h e e t s BACKGROUND FOR TEACHERS WHAT IS BULLYING? Bullying is the repeated intimidation of another person. Bullies look for signs of weakness in

More information

a threat made in school

a threat made in school a threat made in school ADAM S BACKGROUND LEADING UP TO THE CRIME Adam, 15, is the youngest of four children. His parents are divorced. He lives with his mother, has regular contact with his father, and

More information

CONSULTATION ON TACKLING BULLYING IN SCHOOLS

CONSULTATION ON TACKLING BULLYING IN SCHOOLS 1 CONSULTATION ON TACKLING BULLYING IN SCHOOLS Respondent s Details Name Dr. Philip Curry Prof. Robbie Gilligan Position (if applicable): Philip Curry, Lecturer/ Research Fellow Robbie Gilligan, Professor

More information

How to Protect Students from Sexual Harassment: A Primer for Schools

How to Protect Students from Sexual Harassment: A Primer for Schools How to Protect Students from Sexual Harassment: A Primer for Schools This fact sheet is part of a series of tools designed by the National Women s Law Center to help schools address the dropout crisis.

More information

WHICH talking therapy for depression?

WHICH talking therapy for depression? WHICH talking therapy for depression? A guide to understanding the different psychological therapies you may be offered to treat your depression 1 Contents Introduction 3 Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

More information

How to teach a good communication?

How to teach a good communication? How to teach a good communication? Communication is the process of giving information or of making emotions or ideas known of someone. Communication requires a sender, a message, and a receiver. The communication

More information

Bullying. Take Action Against. stealing money. switching seats in the classroom. spreading rumors. pushing & tripping

Bullying. Take Action Against. stealing money. switching seats in the classroom. spreading rumors. pushing & tripping switching seats in the classroom stealing money Take Action Against Bullying spreading rumors pushing & tripping U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

More information

Weaving the Pieces Together

Weaving the Pieces Together Weaving the Pieces Together By Annette Unten Life is a woven tapestry. All the people and the events that enter my life become a part of the threads in my tapestry. Bright colors are woven with pastels.

More information

A: We really embarrassed ourselves last night at that business function.

A: We really embarrassed ourselves last night at that business function. Dialog: VIP LESSON 049 - Future of Business A: We really embarrassed ourselves last night at that business function. B: What are you talking about? A: We didn't even have business cards to hand out. We

More information

APA 2003 Poster Session Proposal. Preventing Bullying in Schools: A Community Action Research Approach

APA 2003 Poster Session Proposal. Preventing Bullying in Schools: A Community Action Research Approach School Bullying 1 Running head: ACTION RESEARCH AND SCHOOL BULLYING APA 2003 Poster Session Proposal Preventing Bullying in Schools: A Community Action Research Approach School Bullying 2 In recent years,

More information

A leaflet about death, bereavement and grief for young people

A leaflet about death, bereavement and grief for young people A leaflet about death, bereavement and grief for young people www.rd4u.org.uk What is bereavement? Bereavement simply means losing someone through death. It could be one of your parents, grandparents,

More information

MATERIALS: Chart paper/markers; pens; Student handouts: Instant Replay and Staying SAFE

MATERIALS: Chart paper/markers; pens; Student handouts: Instant Replay and Staying SAFE LESSON PLAN: INSTANT REPLAY OVERVIEW: Students discuss and practice safe and realistic responses to name-calling and bullying by role-playing fictional scenarios. They use the instant replay technique,

More information

Critical Incidents. Information for schools from Derbyshire Educational Psychology Service

Critical Incidents. Information for schools from Derbyshire Educational Psychology Service Critical Incidents Information for schools from Derbyshire Educational Psychology Service Introduction to Critical Incidents A critical incident (CI) is any event that is unexpected, acute, stressful and

More information

Bullying 101: Guide for Middle and High School Students

Bullying 101: Guide for Middle and High School Students Bullying 101: Guide for Middle and High School Students A guide to the basics of bullying, what it is and isn t, the role of students, and tips on what you can do. 952.838.9000 PACERTeensAgainstBullying.org

More information

When a Parent Has Mental Illness Helping Children Cope

When a Parent Has Mental Illness Helping Children Cope When a Parent Has Mental Illness Helping Children Cope World Fellowship for Schizophrenia and Allied Disorders 124 Merton Street, Suite 507 Toronto, Ontario, M4S 2Z2, Canada Email: info@world-schizophrenia.org

More information

The Academic Language of Tests

The Academic Language of Tests Teaching Your Secondary English Language Learners The Academic Language of Tests Focusing on English Language Arts Contents I. Introduction...1 II. Teaching the Language of the Reading-Objective Questions...3

More information

Their stories are tragic. A new chapter starts now. now.

Their stories are tragic. A new chapter starts now. now. ! Their stories are tragic. A new chapter starts now. now.! Bully is a movie that tells powerful stories about children and their families dealing with extreme pain and tragic consequences related to bullying.

More information

Mental Health Role Plays

Mental Health Role Plays Mental Health Role Plays Goals: To discuss various mental health issues and mental illnesses. To discuss stigma, support and treatment options surrounding mental health issues and mental illnesses. Requirements:

More information

Cyberbullying. Understanding and Addressing Online Cruelty. Students Handouts and Supporting Materials for Teachers

Cyberbullying. Understanding and Addressing Online Cruelty. Students Handouts and Supporting Materials for Teachers Cyberbullying Understanding and Addressing Online Cruelty Students Handouts and Supporting Materials for Teachers Elementary Level Lesson: Building a Foundation for Safe and Kind Online Communication Resources

More information

www.education.alberta.ca/mentalhealthmatters Activity

www.education.alberta.ca/mentalhealthmatters Activity www.education.alberta.ca/mentalhealthmatters Activity Poster: Manage Level: Junior High Grades 7 9 Taken from the Mental Health Kit: Be Kind to Yourself and Others, developed in partnership with Community

More information

Bullying Prevention. When Your Child Is the Victim, the Bully, or the Bystander

Bullying Prevention. When Your Child Is the Victim, the Bully, or the Bystander Bullying Prevention When Your Child Is the Victim, the Bully, or the Bystander What Is Bullying? Bullying is not a conflict or a fight. Bullying is physical, verbal, or emotional abuse that is deliberate,

More information

PARENTS GET TOGETHER TO SUPPORT EACH OTHER: Group helps parents of teens cope

PARENTS GET TOGETHER TO SUPPORT EACH OTHER: Group helps parents of teens cope PARENTS GET TOGETHER TO SUPPORT EACH OTHER: Group helps parents of teens cope By Dawn Frasieur The Berkeley Voice, April 2, 1992, p. 3 and 12. The conversation moved from subject to subject: the crisis

More information

Self Awareness: My Place on the Tree Purpose of activity: To develop children's self-awareness about their present lives.

Self Awareness: My Place on the Tree Purpose of activity: To develop children's self-awareness about their present lives. Self Awareness: My Place on the Tree Purpose of activity: To develop children's self-awareness about their present lives. Life skills: Self-awareness, critical thinking, creative thinking Important points:

More information

Second Step Program. Scope and Sequence: Early Learning. Objectives Children Will Be Able To UNIT 1: SKILLS FOR LEARNING UNIT 2: EMPATHY

Second Step Program. Scope and Sequence: Early Learning. Objectives Children Will Be Able To UNIT 1: SKILLS FOR LEARNING UNIT 2: EMPATHY Scope and Sequence: Early Learning WEEK 1 Welcoming Weekly Concepts UNIT 1: SKILLS FOR LEARNING There are many ways to welcome someone new to class. Welcoming someone is a way to show you care. Welcoming

More information

Chapter 13. Prejudice: Causes and Cures

Chapter 13. Prejudice: Causes and Cures Chapter 13 Prejudice: Causes and Cures Prejudice Prejudice is ubiquitous; it affects all of us -- majority group members as well as minority group members. Prejudice Prejudice is dangerous, fostering negative

More information

A family s journey into Asperger Syndrome A film by M A RIA NNE KA PLA N

A family s journey into Asperger Syndrome A film by M A RIA NNE KA PLA N Our goal is to ensure students with special needs reach their full potential, academically and socially. Teachers will be able to use the film to create awareness and empathy for the unique social challenges

More information

Teens and Cyberbullying

Teens and Cyberbullying Teens and Cyberbullying EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF A REPORT ON RESEARCH Conducted for NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION COUNCIL (NCPC) Released February 28, 2007 By the National Crime Prevention Council Survey conducted

More information

I C C R. Gain Attention/Interest: Effects of Violent Video Games: Do They Doom Kids To Mortal Kombat? Goals: Basic Idea:

I C C R. Gain Attention/Interest:  Effects of Violent Video Games: Do They Doom Kids To Mortal Kombat? Goals: Basic Idea: Effects of Violent Video Games: Do They Doom Kids To Mortal Kombat? Sources: Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive

More information

Mental Illness and Suicidal Behavior

Mental Illness and Suicidal Behavior Mental Illness and Suicidal Behavior Alberta Education Health & Life Skills Programs of Studies Outcomes 8Grade The student will R 8.1 Describe the characteristic of persistent negative feeling states,

More information

Raising Awareness About Bullying

Raising Awareness About Bullying Raising Awareness About Bullying What is Bullying? Bullying is the deliberate and often repeated attempt to intimidate, embarrass, or harm another person. Bullying is a widespread and serious problem that

More information

Dallas Police Department Computer Crimes Unit Cyber-Bullying Sexting And Criminal Consequences

Dallas Police Department Computer Crimes Unit Cyber-Bullying Sexting And Criminal Consequences Dallas Police Department Computer Crimes Unit Cyber-Bullying Sexting And Criminal Consequences Prepared by Detective Russell Stephens Computer Crimes Unit Dallas Police Department 214-671-3545 Cyber-bullying

More information

CHILD NEGLECT. Types of Neglect

CHILD NEGLECT. Types of Neglect CHILD NEGLECT At 64%, child neglect is the most frequently identified type of child maltreatment in the United States. It is estimated at 917,200 cases or an estimated incidence rate of 14.6 per 1,000

More information

Cyberbullying. Activity. Overview. Materials. Follow-Up. Time. Introduction. Social Networking Middle School

Cyberbullying. Activity. Overview. Materials. Follow-Up. Time. Introduction. Social Networking  Middle School Overview Students watch the NetSmartz video Terrible text and discuss different kinds of cyberbullying. In groups, they read about real-life cyberbullying cases and give group presentations explaining

More information

What Can Help Improve Social Interaction and Development?

What Can Help Improve Social Interaction and Development? What Can Help Improve Social Interaction and Development? Supporting social interaction is an important piece of the student s educational plan, as increasing social interaction and competency are vital

More information

50 Character Traits Every Firefighter Candidate Should Possess

50 Character Traits Every Firefighter Candidate Should Possess 50 Character Traits Every Firefighter Candidate Should Possess Are You a Good Fit For The Department? There is no one-size fits all candidate that is a best fit for a fire department. However, there are

More information

THEME: God desires for us to demonstrate His love!

THEME: God desires for us to demonstrate His love! Devotion NT320 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: The Gift of Love THEME: God desires for us to demonstrate His love! SCRIPTURE: 1 Corinthians 13:1-13 Dear Parents Welcome to Bible Time

More information

The Power of Words LESSON PLAN UNIT 1. Essential Question What should you do when someone uses mean or scary language on the Internet?

The Power of Words LESSON PLAN UNIT 1. Essential Question What should you do when someone uses mean or scary language on the Internet? LESSON PLAN The Power of Words UNIT 1 Essential Question What should you do when someone uses mean or scary language on the Internet? Lesson Overview Students consider that while they are enjoying their

More information

Online Rumors. Lauren didn t think much of it when a classmate came. Lauren didn t have to ask where on the Internet;

Online Rumors. Lauren didn t think much of it when a classmate came. Lauren didn t have to ask where on the Internet; Carol Adams Huntington Junior College Literary Material Marked in 20 Word Groups Online Rumors Lauren didn t think much of it when a classmate came into the band hall and said, Hey, Lauren, did you 1 hear

More information

THE TRUTH ABOUT BULLIES

THE TRUTH ABOUT BULLIES THE TRUTH ABOUT BULLIES OVERVIEW: The goal of this activity is to inform and educate students about bullying. The lesson plan asks students to consider a list of statements about bullies and to decide

More information

BULLYING. Most definitions include the idea that an imbalance of power exists between a bully

BULLYING. Most definitions include the idea that an imbalance of power exists between a bully BULlYing Y BULLYING WhYbe concerned about bullying in your child s life? After many years of research, we have learned that bullying in our schools and in our society is a much more damaging and dangerous

More information

Understanding Playful vs. Hurtful Teasing and Bullying behavior. Current Research

Understanding Playful vs. Hurtful Teasing and Bullying behavior. Current Research Understanding Playful vs. Hurtful Teasing and Bullying behavior This pamphlet is designed to help parents and students navigate the unclear roadways of behaviors that can be seen as hurtful teasing or

More information

Suggested APA style reference:

Suggested APA style reference: Suggested APA style reference: Preventing school shootings: A summary of a U.S. Secret Service Safe School Initiative report. (2002, March). National Institute of Justice Journal, 248, 11-15. Available

More information

Anxiety and breathing difficulties

Anxiety and breathing difficulties Patient information factsheet Anxiety and breathing difficulties Breathing is something that we all automatically do and we often take this for granted. Some chronic health conditions, for example asthma

More information

So you want a letter of recommendation?

So you want a letter of recommendation? So you want a letter of recommendation? T I P S O N A N I M P O R T A N T S T E P T O W A R D G A I N I N G A D M I S S I O N T O T H E G R A D U A T E P R O G R A M O R J O B O F Y O U R D R E A M S M

More information

STOP BULLYING Pocketbook

STOP BULLYING Pocketbook STOP BULLYING Pocketbook 2nd edition By Michele Elliott Cartoons: Phil Hailstone Contents Page What Do We Know About Bullying? Teacher Tips Creating a Bully-free School Awarenessraising for Pupils Understanding

More information

Guidelines for Preventing and Dealing with Bullying Issues

Guidelines for Preventing and Dealing with Bullying Issues Guidelines for Preventing and Dealing with Bullying Issues Stapleford School aims to value all its members, to give all the opportunity to learn, act fairly and celebrate differences between individuals.

More information

Why Do Some Children Bully Others? Bullies and Their Victims

Why Do Some Children Bully Others? Bullies and Their Victims Family Development Fact Sheet Call your county Extension office for more information Why Do Some Children Bully Others? Bullies and Their Victims Is bullying serious? Bullying is often considered to be

More information

Start with easier situations for your child and then make them more challenging (she may need to do each more than once for practice):

Start with easier situations for your child and then make them more challenging (she may need to do each more than once for practice): Teach Your Kids How to Talk to Strangers Gavin de Becker, Family Safety Expert Practice Talking to Strangers It's your worst nightmare. You're in a crowded mall -- shopping for back-toschool clothes --

More information

Self-Acceptance. A Frog Thing by E. Drachman (2005) California: Kidwick Books LLC. ISBN 0-9703809-3-3. Grade Level: Third grade

Self-Acceptance. A Frog Thing by E. Drachman (2005) California: Kidwick Books LLC. ISBN 0-9703809-3-3. Grade Level: Third grade Self-Acceptance A Frog Thing by E. Drachman (2005) California: Kidwick Books LLC. ISBN 0-9703809-3-3 This Book Kit was planned by Lindsay N. Graham Grade Level: Third grade Characteristic Trait: Self Acceptance

More information

School Authority: 9879- Society For Treatment of Autism (Calgary Region)

School Authority: 9879- Society For Treatment of Autism (Calgary Region) Project ID:30156 - Art Therapy for Autistic Preschool Kindergarten School Authority: 9879- Society For Treatment of Autism (Calgary Region) Scope: 60 Students, Grades prek to K, 1 School PROJECT PLAN Project

More information

WORKSHEET ONE FIRST ACTIVITY. Treating others with respect. List of ideas for treating others with respect

WORKSHEET ONE FIRST ACTIVITY. Treating others with respect. List of ideas for treating others with respect WORKSHEET ONE FIRST ACTIVITY Have the group brainstorm what they think it means to treat other people with. Write the answers on the whiteboard, if it helps use this list on the worksheet as a guide. List

More information

AUTISM AND LIFE PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE. John Simpson autism.west midlands

AUTISM AND LIFE PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE. John Simpson autism.west midlands AUTISM AND LIFE PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE A John Simpson autism.west midlands About me Currently aged 25. Live at home with parents. Brother just graduated from university. Diagnosed at age 16. Hospitalised

More information

Adjusting to Spinal Cord Injury

Adjusting to Spinal Cord Injury Adjusting to Spinal Cord Injury After a spinal cord injury, everyone copes differently with the journey toward psychological healing and adjustment. The topics below will explore common issues and concerns

More information

Janet E. Helms, Ph.D. Augustus Long Professor, Department of Counseling, Boston College

Janet E. Helms, Ph.D. Augustus Long Professor, Department of Counseling, Boston College Janet E. Helms, Ph.D. Augustus Long Professor, Department of Counseling, Boston College Interviewed by Carlos P. Zalaquett, Ph.D., L.M.H.C Department of Psychological & Social Foundations University of

More information

Lethal Violence in Schools A National Study Final Report

Lethal Violence in Schools A National Study Final Report To order a copy email: news@alfred.edu Lethal Violence in Schools A National Study Final Report Edward Gaughan, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology Principal Investigator Jay D. Cerio, Ph.D. Professor of School

More information

Dealing with student conflict and

Dealing with student conflict and Dealing with student conflict and incivility in the online classroom Classroom Incivility, what is it? The official word, CCCOnline s policies Responding to specific kinds of uncivil behavior Questions?

More information

Emotionally Disturbed. Questions from Parents

Emotionally Disturbed. Questions from Parents 1 Emotionally Disturbed Questions from Parents Characteristics that may be reflective of ED:* an inability to learn which cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. an inability to

More information

the warhol: resources & lessons

the warhol: resources & lessons Art & Activities / Diversity of Voice: Views on Guns in the United States Overview: This lesson uses the artworks of Andy Warhol as a springboard for discussing diverse points of view about gun ownership,

More information

What does compassion look like?

What does compassion look like? Lesson One: What does compassion look like? Learning Objectives: Students will: Demonstrate an understanding of the concept compassion. Identify elements of compassion shown in various images. Begin to

More information

Private Today, Public Tomorrow

Private Today, Public Tomorrow Estimated time: 45 minutes Essential Question: How can you respect the privacy of others online? Learning Overview and Objectives Overview: Students reflect on their responsibility to protect the privacy

More information

Parent Newsletter 1. [School Letterhead]

Parent Newsletter 1. [School Letterhead] Parent Newsletter 1 [School Letterhead] Dear Parent/Guardian: In recent years, there has been a growing concern around the country about student safety. Behaviors that had traditionally been allowed to

More information

3 Everyone has the right to be treated with dignity and respect at work. This policy explains:

3 Everyone has the right to be treated with dignity and respect at work. This policy explains: Dignity at Work Why do we have a Dignity at Work Policy? 1 Harassment, bullying and victimisation are not allowed at the GMC. Harassment and bullying can have very serious consequences for individuals.

More information

Bullying Awareness Lesson Plan Grades 4-6

Bullying Awareness Lesson Plan Grades 4-6 Bullying Awareness Lesson Plan Grades 4-6 1 Estimated Time of Completion: Two to three classroom periods, or stretched out throughout the school year. Each activity will take between 15-30 minutes. Bullying

More information

Character Education with the P.E. Gang Grades 3-5

Character Education with the P.E. Gang Grades 3-5 Character Education with the P.E. Gang Grades 3-5 Hi, my name is Anthony Vekich I am the author of the book The Adventures of the P.E. Gang. I have been teaching elementary physical education for eleven

More information

Why Not Have a Bullying Prevention Week?

Why Not Have a Bullying Prevention Week? Why Not Have a Bullying Prevention Week? The FIRST State to officially declare an Official Bullying Prevention Ed Week, (2006), through Proclamation, as Bullying Awareness Week was IDAHO Below is the 2006

More information

BUILD TRUST, END BULLYING, Improve Learning. HIGHLIGHTS Evaluation of The Colorado Trust s Bullying Prevention Initiative

BUILD TRUST, END BULLYING, Improve Learning. HIGHLIGHTS Evaluation of The Colorado Trust s Bullying Prevention Initiative BUILD TRUST, END BULLYING, Improve Learning HIGHLIGHTS Evaluation of The Colorado Trust s Bullying Prevention Initiative ABOUT THE COLORADO TRUST The Colorado Trust has worked closely with nonprofit organizations

More information

Anger. Proverbs 29:11 Matthew 5:21-26 Genesis 4:1-16. Main Point - The wise child, who trusts in God, learns to control his/her anger.

Anger. Proverbs 29:11 Matthew 5:21-26 Genesis 4:1-16. Main Point - The wise child, who trusts in God, learns to control his/her anger. 101 K-5 Joint Group Time Anger Proverbs 29:11 Matthew 5:21-26 Genesis 4:1-16 Main Point - The wise child, who trusts in God, learns to control his/her anger. Memory Verse Ephesians 4:32 This verse can

More information

WRITING PROMPTS INTRODUCTION. Assertiveness

WRITING PROMPTS INTRODUCTION. Assertiveness INTRODUCTION The Random Acts of Kindness Foundation (RAK) has created writing prompts for teachers to use as a supplement to their writing curriculum. These narrative and opinion writing prompts reinforce

More information

COVERING: THE IDENTITY PROJECT HONORS THESIS. Presented to the Honors College of Texas State University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

COVERING: THE IDENTITY PROJECT HONORS THESIS. Presented to the Honors College of Texas State University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements COVERING: THE IDENTITY PROJECT HONORS THESIS Presented to the Honors College of Texas State University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Graduation in the Honors College by Caitlin Eve Rodriguez

More information

Related KidsHealth Links

Related KidsHealth Links Grades 9 to 12 Health Problems Series KidsHealth.org/classroom Teacher s Guide This guide includes: Standards Related Links Discussion Questions Activities for Students Reproducible Materials Standards

More information

My name is. I am going to court because I am a witness.

My name is. I am going to court because I am a witness. My name is I am going to court because I am a witness. KIDS GO TO COURT Written by: Illustrations by: Staff in the District Attorney Offices in the State of Alaska who meet with the children who come to

More information

ParentingClass.net Parenting Your Child. Learning to Manage Anger

ParentingClass.net Parenting Your Child. Learning to Manage Anger ParentingClass.net Parenting Your Child Learning to Manage Anger Introduction...2 Anger in Children...2 Why teach anger management to our children?...3 Learning to Relax...4 Teaching Your Child to Communicate...4

More information

LCSW Exam Study Tips With Sample Questions and Rationales

LCSW Exam Study Tips With Sample Questions and Rationales LCSW Exam Study Tips With Sample Questions and Rationales Authors Bethany Vanderbilt, LCSW Amanda Rowan, LCSW Bethany is the Director of Social Work Programs at the Therapist Development Center. In addition

More information

WELCOMING SCHOOLS WORDS THAT HURT AND WORDS THAT HEAL. SUGGESTED GRADE LEVEL: K 4 LENGTH OF TIME: One minute session.

WELCOMING SCHOOLS WORDS THAT HURT AND WORDS THAT HEAL. SUGGESTED GRADE LEVEL: K 4 LENGTH OF TIME: One minute session. WORDS THAT HURT AND WORDS THAT HEAL WELCOMING SCHOOLS www.welcomingschools.org SUGGESTED GRADE LEVEL: K 4 LENGTH OF TIME: One 45 60 minute session. GOALS For students to consider the importance of words

More information

RESOURCE PACK REFLECTIVE EXERCISES & TOP TIPS

RESOURCE PACK REFLECTIVE EXERCISES & TOP TIPS FAMILY SUPPORT NETWORK RESOURCE PACK REFLECTIVE EXERCISES & TOP TIPS for Peer Led Family Support Groups April 2010 Introduction This resource pack is for members of family support groups and family support

More information

Social Justice in Professional School Counseling. Riley Drake, Sawyer Elementary Dr. Bengu Erguner-Tekinalp, Drake University

Social Justice in Professional School Counseling. Riley Drake, Sawyer Elementary Dr. Bengu Erguner-Tekinalp, Drake University Social Justice in Professional School Counseling Riley Drake, Sawyer Elementary Dr. Bengu Erguner-Tekinalp, Drake University Nice Counselor Syndrome The purpose of this presentation is to make you less

More information

2/2/2012. The Triad Of Bully, Victim, and Bystander: A DEFINITION OF BULLYING AN ANALYSIS OF BULLYING. Components of Bullying

2/2/2012. The Triad Of Bully, Victim, and Bystander: A DEFINITION OF BULLYING AN ANALYSIS OF BULLYING. Components of Bullying A DEFINITION OF BULLYING The Triad Of Bully, Victim, and Bystander: Long-term Implications and Immediate Interventions Presented at LPSA Conference November 1-4, 2011 BULLYING AT SCHOOL IS DEFINED AS AGGRESSIVE

More information

Bullying. Introduction

Bullying. Introduction Bullying 1 Introduction In recent years, bullying has become a topic of greater public concern. Research has shown the damaging long-term effects that bullying behavior can have on its victims. Approximately

More information

CYBER BULLYING CYBERBULLYING CYBERBULLYING CYBERBULLYING. Read this CYBERBULLYING CYBERBULLYING CYBERBULLYING CYBERBULLYING

CYBER BULLYING CYBERBULLYING CYBERBULLYING CYBERBULLYING. Read this CYBERBULLYING CYBERBULLYING CYBERBULLYING CYBERBULLYING Read this CYBER BULLYING An initiative of the Department of Basic Education If you re like most teenagers, you spend a lot of time on a cell phone or instant messenger chatting with friends and uploading

More information

Related KidsHealth Links

Related KidsHealth Links Grades 3 to 5 Health Problems Series KidsHealth.org/classroom Teacher s Guide This guide includes: Standards Related Links Discussion Questions Activities for Students Reproducible Materials Standards

More information

Here are some tips that may help when talking to a child about mental illness and answers to some commonly asked questions.

Here are some tips that may help when talking to a child about mental illness and answers to some commonly asked questions. Helping Children Understand Mental Illness: A Resource For Parents And Guardians Mental illness can be frightening -- not only to the person who has it but also to people around them. If you are a child

More information

A Guide for Enabling Scouts with Cognitive Impairments

A Guide for Enabling Scouts with Cognitive Impairments A Guide for Enabling Scouts with Cognitive Impairments What cognitive impairments are discussed in this manual? Autism Spectrum Disorder Attention Deficit Hyper Activity Disorder Depression Down Syndrome

More information

Teasing, Harassment, and Bullying A Lesson Plan from Rights, Respect, Responsibility: A K-12 Curriculum

Teasing, Harassment, and Bullying A Lesson Plan from Rights, Respect, Responsibility: A K-12 Curriculum A Lesson Plan from Rights, Respect, Responsibility: A K-12 Curriculum Fostering respect and responsibility through age-appropriate sexuality education. NSES ALIGNMENT: By the end of 5th grade, students

More information

Case Study: Jane Dhillon. 2. Why do I think Jane has a non-verbal learning disability?

Case Study: Jane Dhillon. 2. Why do I think Jane has a non-verbal learning disability? Case Study: Jane Dhillon 1. Background information on Jane Dhillon 2. Why do I think Jane has a non-verbal learning disability? Three issues in this course that relate to Jane: 3. Memory 4. Peer relationships

More information

OPENING ACTIVITY BALL OF STRING FLING

OPENING ACTIVITY BALL OF STRING FLING NWAC Youth Violence Prevention Workshop Bullying OPENING ACTIVITY BALL OF STRING FLING Acknowledgements Recognizing and Responding to Violence against Women in Aboriginal Communities created in conjunction

More information

Taking Perspectives on Cyberbullying

Taking Perspectives on Cyberbullying LESSON PLAN Taking Perspectives on Cyberbullying GRADES 9-12 UNIT 3 Essential Question How does online cruelty affect the people involved? Lesson Overview Students learn about the dynamics of online cruelty

More information

Behavior-Management Techniques for Safe Schools

Behavior-Management Techniques for Safe Schools Behavior-Management Techniques for Safe Schools Each new school year brings high hopes, great expectations and challenges for both new and seasoned educators. Th e American Federation of Teachers (AFT)

More information

Why do we stereotype?

Why do we stereotype? Why do we stereotype? by Krystle Lagein Version 1 (12/04/07 04:00 PM) Reviewer: Nadine Tepper Reviewed on: 12/05/07 09:41 AM Project Description Research and Teach about an Issue in Multicultural Education

More information

WITS LEADS Connection: Look and Listen, Explore Points of View, Act, Seek Help

WITS LEADS Connection: Look and Listen, Explore Points of View, Act, Seek Help THE HUNDRED DRESSES By Eleanor Estes Wanda Petronski, is ridiculed by her classmates for wearing the same faded blue dress every day. Wanda claims she has one hundred dresses at home, but everyone knows

More information

Teen Depression: A Guide for People in the Lives of Youth

Teen Depression: A Guide for People in the Lives of Youth (Copied from http://helpguide.org/mental/depression_teen.htm -- May 2010) Authors: Melinda Smith, M.A., and Suzanne Barston, with contributions by Jeanne Segal, Ph.D. Helping a depressed teenager If you

More information

A story of Nick Vujicic -- no arms, no legs

A story of Nick Vujicic -- no arms, no legs A story of Nick Vujicic -- no arms, no legs 沒手沒腳的 Nick Vujicic 之故事 My name is Nick Vujicic and I give God the Glory for how He has used my testimony to touch thousands of hearts around the world! I was

More information

A Non Punitive, Student Directed Approach To Bullying Prevention and Intervention

A Non Punitive, Student Directed Approach To Bullying Prevention and Intervention A Non Punitive, Student Directed Approach To Bullying Prevention and Intervention Common Language Program 2012 2013 1 BULLYING ACROSS THE USA The United States has some of the highest levels of student

More information

Schooled in the Moment Introducing Mindfulness to High School Students and Teachers

Schooled in the Moment Introducing Mindfulness to High School Students and Teachers Schooled in the Moment Introducing Mindfulness to High School Students and Teachers Richard Brady Sidwell Friends School. Independent School, Vol. 64, No. 1, 82-87 (2004) I grew up on Chicago s Northshore,

More information

WHEN DATING TURNS DANGEROUS CFE 3320V

WHEN DATING TURNS DANGEROUS CFE 3320V WHEN DATING TURNS DANGEROUS CFE 3320V OPEN CAPTIONED SUNBURST COMMUNICATIONS 1995 Grade Levels: 9-13+ 33 minutes 3 Instructional Graphics Enclosed DESCRIPTION Zach and Lucy are involved in a romantic relationship.

More information