1 Causality Then and Now: A1 Ghaziili and Quantum Theory Karen Harding Ate appearances deceiving? Do objects behave the way they do because God wills it? Ate objects impetmanent and do they only exist because they ate continuously created by God? According to a1 Ghazlli, the answers to all of these questions ate yes. Objects that appear to be permanent are not. Those relationships commonly tefemed to as causal are a result of God s habits rather than because one event inevitably leads to another. God creates everything in the universe continuously; if He ceased to create it, it would no longer exist. These ideas seem oddly naive and unscientific to people living in the twentieth century. They seem at odds with the common conception of the physical world. Common sense says that the universe is made of teal objects that persist in time. Furthermore, the behavior of these objects is reasonable, logical, and predictable. The belief that the univetse is understandable via logic and reason harkens back to Newton s mechanical view of the universe and has provided one of the basic underpinnings of science for centuries. Although most people believe that the world is accutately described by this sort of mechanical model, the appropriateness of such a model has been called into question by recent scientific advances, and in particular, by quantum theory. This theory implies that the physical world is actually very different from what a mechanical model would pdct. Quantum theory seeks to explain the nature of physical entities and the way that they interact. It atose in the early part of the twentieth century in response to new scientific data that could not be incorporated successfully into the ptevailing mechanical view of the universe. Due largely Karen H dhg is chair of the Department of Chemistry, Pierce College, Tacoma, Washington. The author wishes to thank the National Endowment for the Humanities for partial funding of this research.
2 166 The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 102 to the theory's abstract, mathematical nature, there has been great disagreement over its correct physical interpretation ever since it was first proposed. The most widely accepted is the Copenhagen Interpretation. Similarities between this interpretation of quantum theory and the thought of al GhaiGli will be the focus of this paper. Initially, it might appear unlikely that there would be any significant similarities between the thought of a1 Ghaziili (eleventh century CE) and the ideas of quantum theory in the twentieth century. Although separated by culture as well as several centuries, many of the same ideas are incorporated into these two bodies of thought. Important similarities a seen in the role of causality in the natural world, the nature of physical objects, and the extent to which the behavior of objects is predictable. Western thought has long made a distinction between the study of objects and the study of God. Science is the study of objects and of natural phenomena; the study of God more properly belongs to philosophy or theology. There is, however, an increasing awareness that this separation raises difficulties of its own. Although many scientists would prefer to restrict their research analysis to the study of the behavior of objects, quantum theory has caused many of them (as opposed to philosophers of science) to address questions about the metaphysics of science. The data supporting quantum theory is so strong that the theory cannot be ignored. Acceptance of the theory brings with it ideas that force many scientists to reexamine the ideas that underlie the scientific enterprise. The fact that scientific advances and emerging theories are prompting scientists to look at the metaphysics of science makes it less surprising to find that both a1 Ghadli and quantum theorists ask many of the same questions. This is not meant to imply that the questions asked are identical in tone or context, or that there was ever a question of influence in any shape or form. What concerned a1 Ghaziili and his contemporaries were such questions as: "What is the role of God in everyday events?" or "How is it possible for miracles to occur?" Quantum physicists, on the other hand, ask "Is there a causal link between these two events?" or "To what extent is the behavior of physical objects predictable?" Even though the wording and the context of these questions are different, the underlying questions are similar. In both cases, the questions revolve around the causes behind events in the natural world and the extent to which these events are predictable. Both ask whether one event causes another or whether events occur due to some other, outside force. The object of this paper is to investigate the similarities that one encountets between these two bodies of thought. The extent of the commonalities is striking. For example, both deny that the regularities in the behavior of objects should be attributed to the existence of causal laws.
3 Harding: Causality Then and Now 167 Further, they agree that events in the world ate not strictly pdctable. Both accept the idea that unexpected, unpredictable things can and do occut. According to a1 GhaEli's explanation, God is omnipotent and involved in the worfd at every moment and can, therefore, cause anything to happen. The Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum thmty says that it is impossible to predict the exact behavior of an object based on physical laws. As a result, while one might expect a lead ball to fall when it is dropped, there is a defdte possibility that the ball will rise instead. The independent existence of teal objects is doubted by both a1 Gha- Eli and the Copenhagen Interpretation. It is useful, therefore, to consider what is meant by the term "object." In everyday language, *object" refets to something that takes up space and has a set of properties that enables one to differentiate it from its sumundings. For example, an object such as a lead ball has certain properties that govern its behavior. Furthermore, it is assumed that these properties petsist and that the ball continues to behave according to the same set of laws over time. A lead ball falls when it is dropped because it is the nature of heavy objects to do so. In order to more fully discuss the similarities to which I have tefetted, it is necessary for the reader to have some familiarity with al Ghadli's ideas as well as with some of the basic ideas of quantum theory. Providing this background is the function of the next portion of this paper. The final pottion highlights the similarities between a1 Gha- Eli's ideas and the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum theory. A1 Ghaziili Abii Ham-d al GhazPli ( CE) was one of the most influential thinkers of medieval Islam. Among his many writings, the primary soutce of information on his ideas about the nature of the physical world is the Tahdfit a1 Fallisifah (The Incoherence of the Philosophers) (a1 GhaGli 1958). Of particular importance to this discussion is Problem 17, entitled "Refutation of Their Belief in the Impossibility of a Departure from the Natural Course of Events." Here, he addresses such questions as: What is the tole of God in everyday events?; How is it possible for miracles to occur?; and, Do objects have a nature that causes them to behave in certain ways? This work was written to refute the claims of such philosophers as Ibn Sing ( CE, aka Avicenna) about how and why ~tura1 events occur (ibid.). At the time a1 GhaEli wrote this book, Ibn S-EG and others believed that the physical world contained teal objects that were independent of one another. One event was thought to cause another, and objects were thought to possess an inherent "nature" that
4 168 The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 102 governed their behavior. These ideas were disputed by a1 Ghazlli, for he thought that such a completely causal world would limit the power of God. He was particularly concerned that the continuing interaction of God with everyday events be acknowledged. God's central role in everyday events is clearly seen in al Ghazlli's idea of continuous creation or, in other words, that everything in the universe is created every moment. In order for an object to continue to exist, God must create it anew each moment. Objects, then, have nothing in their own nature that causes them to endure over time (Wolfson 1976). What we perceive as the continuing existence of an object is due to the fact that God has decided to create that object over and over again. For a1 GhazZli, a ball of lead that is seen testing on a table for a period of time only appears to persist in that behavior. In fact, it is continuously recmted every moment by God. If the physical universe is created anew each moment, why is there any unifotmity to what is seen? Why is it that one particular object appears to persist over time? For al Ghaziili, these conditions arise because it is God's "custom" to do the same things over and over again. God could, for example, choose to have a lead ball exist at one moment and not at the next. But it is His custom, once an object has been created, to continue to create it over and over again. Thus it is not the independent existence of an object that caws it to persist. Rather, an object persists because it is God's custom to bring that same object into existence over and over again. This idea of custom applies to the behavior, as well as to the existence, of objects. For example, a lead ball falls when it is released. For al Ghaziili, God is responsible for creating this succession of events: release of the ball and a subsequently falling ball. In addition, it is His custom to create the same sequence of events over and over again. According to Wolfson (1976), al Ghazili believed that ever since the creation of the world, whenever God creates certain events in succession to other events, He creates in men the knowledge or the impression that, batring miracles, the same events will continue to be created by Him in the future in the same order of succession. Thus it is possible for us to predict the usual behavior of objects because God MchooSes'' to do the same things over and over again. This should in no way be construed as limiting the choices that God has. He notmally follows His custom, but there is nothing that quires that He do so (Mirza and Siddiqui 1986). Thus it is easy for a1 Ghazili to ex-
5 Hardii: Causality Then and Now 169 plain miracles. Since God brings everything into existence, He can bring anything He chooses into existence at any time. He is just as able to bring about an unexpected event as He is to bring about an expected one. It is al Ghadli's conviction that just as the lead ball will usually fall when released, God is perfectly capable of causing it to tise instead if He so chooses. God's power is without limit, and human beings should not presume to limit their conception of what God is able to do. Things to which God's power extends include mysterious and wonderful facts. We have not obsetved all those mysteries and wonders. How, then, can it be ptoper on our part to deny their possibility, or pitively assert their impossibility? (a1 GWli 1958) An example used by al Ghadli to illustrate the power of God is that of placing a piece of cotton in a fire (ibid.). It is God's custom to allow the cotton to bum when it comes into contact with fire. But, a1 GhazZli argues, this does not mean that the fire causes the cotton to bum: it is God who is responsible for making the cotton bum when it is brought into the ptesence of fire. God is equally able to cause the cotton to not bum when in such a situation. We admit the possibility of a contact between the two which will not result in burning, as also we admit the possibility of the transformation of cotton into ashes without coming into contact with fire. (ibid.) The fact that God seldom causes this to happen is a result of His habit and has nothing to do with the nature of the fire or the nature of the cotton or even with the nature of the interaction of fire with cotton. It is God who is responsible for the resulting blackness of cotton when it comes into contact with fire. The fire is not the agent of the blackness. Fire and the burning of cotton arise together but, "observation only shows that one is with the other, not that it is by it and has no other causes than it" (ibid.). Therefote what we might perceive to be a causal connection is really only a comlation-"with does not equal "by." In the wotds of al Ghadli... the connection between what ate believed to be the cause and the effect is not necessary.... If one follows the other, it is because He has created them in that fashion, not because the connection in itself is necessary and indissoluble. (ibid.)
6 170 The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 102 Correlations between events can be readily observed, but since it is not possible to actually observe causal relationships, a1 Ghaziili argues that we a= not justified in supposing that they exist. For al Gkli, then, the world and all events are created by God every moment. God has complete freedom to create whatever He wishes at any time. Any uniformity or regularity of objects or of behavior is due to the fact that it is God s custom to create the same things over and over again. Causality is not a principle that governs the world. The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory In the early part of the twentieth century, in response to an increase in the number of conflicts between scientific data and the prevailing Newtonian view of the physical world, a new theory was developed. This new theory, known as quantum theory, describes the structure of the objects that make up the material world. In order to appreciate its significance, it is important to see how fundamentally different it is from a mechanical- Newtonian view. The world described by a mechanical model is composed of independently existing objects, each of which has a set of qualities that make that object what it is, The objects continue to exist over time based on their inherent properties. Objects persist until they undergo a change in response to the actions of an outside force. For example, a lead ball is an object and it continues to exist until it is destroyed by some outside force. It will fall when released because it is acted upon by an outside force (gravity). Furthermore, it is inherent in a lead ball to behave in this fashion. In addition, a mechanical view assumes the existence of natural laws that can predict the behavior of objects. If a ball is dropped from a height of ten feet, not only is it certain that it will fall, it is also possible to predict exactly how fast it will be moving when it hits the ground and exactly where it will land. In such a world, there is no room for surprises or miracles, for every event has a rational explanation. Quantum theory arose as scientific data accumulated that could not be explained by this mechanical model (Crease and Mann 1986). An illustrative case is the behavior of electrons. Present in all physical objects, they, along with protons and neutrons, are the three so-called fundamental particles that make up all physical objects. When first discovered in 1897, electrons were assumed to be very small particles (i.e., objects with a
7 Harding: Causality Then and Now 17 1 definite size and a definable location in space'). Upon further study, however, it was noted that although electrons sometimes behaved as if they were particles, at other times they behaved as if they were waves. As waves do not have a size or a position, a fundamental contradiction arose: how was it possible for an electron to be a particle and have a position and, at the same time, be a wave and not have a position? A further complication became apparent when it was learned that the behavior of the electron (i.e., as a particle or as a wave) depended not on the electron itself, but on the actions of an observer. It was found that if an observer set up an experiment to study the wave properties of an electron, it would act like a wave. If, on the other hand, the experiment were set up to study particle properties, the electron would behave like a particle. Thus, in some sense, an electron's nature is dependent upon the actions of the observer. Quantum theory was developed to address such problems. It is a highly abstract, mathematical theory that completely defines the behavior of such entities as electrons2 This theory has been widely accepted by scientists, for it is able to produce accurate predictions of beha~ior.~ Ever since the development of quantum theory, however, arguments have raged over the correct physical interpretation of such an abstract theory. The most widely accepted (although by no means the only potential) interpretation is known as the Copenhagen Interpretation, so named in honor of one of its founders and proponents: Niels Bohr, the director of the Copenhagen Institute of Theoretical physic^.^ In quantum theory, the electron is formally and completely described by a wave function. This mathematical function precisely defines such properties of electrons as their energy. It does not, however, define the electron's exact location or its precise movements. According to quantum theory, it is not possible, even theoretically, to define these attributes. It is only possible to define the potential that an electron has of being found at a certain location. To make matters even more confusing, it appears that the electron does not actually exist at any one location until an observer interacts with 'Size and pasition are attributes that we typically associate with objects. 21t can also be applied to larger and more familiar objects, such as a lead ball, for this object is composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. 3As will be described in the following paragraphs, these predictions are quite different in scope and meaning from the predictions produced by a mechanical-newtonian model. 4Althoufih many descriptions of the Copenhagen Interpretation exist, the reader is refered to Helsenberg (1958). chapter 3.
8 172 The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 102 it. In other words, an electron is a particle that has a position only when an observer determines its position. Without this interaction, the electron does not have a position. Instead, it has the "potential" to behave in a number of different positions. It does not, however, exist at any one of these places until an observer interacts with it to determine its position. This is contrary to the behavior expected of particles. Quantum theory, when expanded to objects of familiar size, implies that objects have properties that are very different from what one might expect. For example, it implies that a lead ball, if left on a table when everyone leaves the mom, does not exist in the way that one might expect. The lead ball has the potential to continue to exist on the table, but it also has the potential to exist in a number of other places as well. Further, it does not actually exist in any one place unless someone interacts with it (i.e., looks at it to see where it is). This idea of potentials is crucial to quantum theory. To more fulty understand this, it is useful to discuss the structure of an atom. Protons and neutrons reside in the nucleus at the center of an atom, while electrons are found outside this nucleus. Although it is impossible to predict exactly where outside the nucleus an electron will be found, it is known that the electron has a very high probability of being found close to the nucleus. It has a much lower, but still definable, probability of being found far from the nucleus. It is not possibte to predict exactly where an electron will be found when an observer looks for it, because it has the potential to be anywhere in the universe. It is, however, possible to predict with a very high degree of accuracy the probability of finding an electron at any particular location (Heisenberg 1962). Although an electron has no definable location prior to an observer interacting with it, there is a high probability that when its location is determined, it will be very close to the nucleus.?here is a much lower probability associated with finding the electron far from the nucleus. To take a concrete example, consider a brick wall. This wall is a solid object made of atoms held together by the interactions of their electrons. If, at one instant of time, all of the electrons were exhibiting very improbable behavior (i.e., were far away from their nucleus), there would be nothing holding the wall together and it would therefore cease to exist. In other words, there is a high probability that the electrons will be close to the nucleus and that the wall will behave normally. If one attempts to walk through this wall, there is a very high probability that one will be stopped by the wall. However, there is still a small (but, according to quantum theory, real) probability that, when attempting to
9 Hading: Causality Then and Now 173 walk through a wall, all of the electtons will be behaving in such a way that one can walk through the wall unscathed? The concept of probability is related to one of the most surprising aspects of quantum theory: the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Suggested by Heisenberg in 1927, it states that there is a mathematical limit to what can be known about an object, and that cettain attributes of an electron are so fundamentally connected to one another that the knowledge of one affects knowledge of the other (Davies 1989). Two such attributes are position and momentum, the latter of which is based on the ditection of motion and the velocity of a particle. According to the Uncertainty Principle, the mote that is known about the momentum of a particle, the less it is possible to know about its position. For example, if the speed and ditection (momentum) of an electron are precisely known, it is impossible to determine where the electron is located (Bohr 1934). If, on the other hand, the exact location of an electron is known, nothing whatsoever can be learned about its momentum. What, then, is the nature of an object in a quantum world? An object, as described by quantum theory, does not have an existence independent of an observer s interaction with it. The set of qualities that adhere to an object depend on the way that an observer intetacts with that obje& In addition, it is not possible to predict exactly what an object will do in any given instance, but only to predict the probability of any particular occurrence. Furthermore, since one attribute seems to influence another, there is a strict limit to what can be known about an object. This Uncertainty Principle limits the individual s ability to understand the world tationally. Even though these ideas of quantum theory are not easy to accept, scientists have come to believe them because, when quantum theory is applied, it gives accutate, testable predictions about the probability of any occurrence. Similarities As can be seen from the foregoing, there ate many similarities between the ideas of a1 Ghadli and the Copenhagen Intetptetation of quantum theory. For example, consider the nature of objects in the world. It was a1 GhazZli s belief that all things ate created by God and, in order for them to endure, it is necessary for God to create them continuously. %e mechanical-newtonian model, in contrast, states very clearly that no matter how many times one walks into the wall, one will never walk thugh it unscathed. Quantum theory states that although the chances of doing so are exceedmgly mall, they are still real and, moreover, can be calculated exactly.
10 174 The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 10:2 There are no attributes inherent in the objects themselves, for any qualities or attributes that might be associated with an object are only the result of God's actions. For example, a lead ball does not have an inherent property of "heaviness," for "heaviness'' is not a result of the lead in the ball. Rather, it is the result of God causing the ball to fall when dropped and causing the concept of "heaviness" to arise in the mind of the individual observing the event. The presence of lead in the ball is not what causes the ball to fall; it is the action of God that causes the ball to act as it does. It is also the action of God that causes the individual to interpret this behavior as "heaviness." Like al Ghadli, the Copenhagen Interpretation questions whether objects have any inherent qualities. For example, an electron has neither meaningful size nor a position until an observer interacts with it. All it has is the abstract mathematical description known as a wave function. This defines the properties of an electron once it is interacted with, but it also implies that an electron has no inherent properties prior to this interaction. Since larger objects, such as lead balls, are made up of electrons (along with protons and neutrons), quantum theory implies that a lead ball has no inherent properties that cause it to act as it does. Any properties exhibited by a lead ball arise from the interaction of the lead ball and the observer and are not properties inherent in the lead ball itself. This lack of properties adhering to objects calls into question the very existence of objects. It would be al Ghadli's contention that objects have no existence independent of God because He is responsible for creating each object every moment. Were it not for God, the object would not exist at all. Similarly, the Copenhagen Interpretation says that an object has no existence independent of an observer. If no observer is present, the object has no attributes and cannot be said to exist.6 For al Ghadli, then, God is responsible for the existence of objects as well as for all of the properties that adhere to them. In quantum theory, it is the observer who causes the object to have specific properties. Although al GhazZli sees the source of properties as the actions of God and quantum theory sees properties arising as a result of an interaction with an observer, the disagreement over exactly how properties arise is much less profound than the basic agreement that the properties are not inherent in the object itself. Another area of agreement is found in the interpretations of causality and the predictability of events. If events in the world are causally connected, it is possible, if enough is known about initial conditions, to pre- To sa that an object exists but has no attributes contradicts the common understanding dthe term "object" as described in the introduction to this paper.
11 Hardihg: Causality Then and Now 175 dict the exact course of future events. However, both al G M i and the Copenhagen Interpretation deny that events am causally connected to this extent. They also deny that events are completely predictable. In the words of al GWli, causal relationships are impossible because God creates everything at every moment, Everything that happens depends on decisions made by God. There may be a correlation between two events, such as the presence of fire and the burning of cotton, but that correlation does not imply a causal relation. The Copenhagen Interpretation also questions the existence of causal links between events, based on the fact that objects in the world are made up of entities (i.e., electrons) that do not themselves behave according to cause/effect relationships. In the Copenhagen Interpretation, causal relationships are not meaningful at the subatomic level because there are no "objects" there in the normal sense of the term. Electrons have only the potential to do certain things and do not manifest any of these potentials unless interacted with. If objects have only potentials and no attributes, it is meaningless to say that the objects themselves can interact causally. Although al Ghazili and the Copenhagen Interpretation question causality, neither denies that regularities exist in nature. These regularities are, according to al Ghazili, attributed to God's "custom" (Qur'an 33:62). It is God's custom to correlate the presence of fire with the burning of cotton. But since God is omnipotent, He could, if He chose, prevent the cotton from burning in the presence of fire. The probability of cotton not burning when placed in fire is small, because it is not God's custom to not allow it to bum in such a situation. The Copenhagen Interpretation also acknowledges that regularities are seen in the physical world. These regularities are due to the fact that some events have higher probabilities of occurring than others. Events are therefore predictable, but only in a general way. For example, an electron has a high probability of being found in a position close to the nucleus. This high probability is similar, in many respects, to al Ghazili's concept of "custom." It is possible to predict where the electron will probably be found, but impossible to predict exactly where it will be found. Similarly, it is possible to predict that cotton will probably turn black when it is placed in fire, but it impossible to say that it will always turn black in the presence of fire. If these ideas are applied to a large object such as a lead ball, we find that the lead ball will tend to fall when it is released. But there is also the probability that it will rise. The chances of the latter, as defined by quantum theory, are very small but are still definably real. It is not possible to predict exactly what the lead ball will do in any given instance: it might rise or it might fall. It is only possible to say that the probability of it falling is much higher than the probability of it rising.
12 176 The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 102 If a quantum theorist and al GhazZli were to see a lead ball being released and then rising instead of falling, there would be many similarities in their explanations. For a1 Ghaziili, it would have risen because God chose, in this case, not to follow His custom of making it fall. We seldom see this happem, because God normally does follow His custom. There is, however, nothing to insist that God must cause the ball to fall, for He has complete freedom to do whatever He wishes. A quantum theorist who witnessed the same event would painstakingly and exhaustively work to eliminate all other potential scientific explanations. Once this arduous task was completed and no rational expianation remained, the rising of the lead ball would be explained by stating that an event for which the probability is exceedingly small (but still real) had been seen. Conclusion Although separated by culture and by nearly ten centuries, the similarities between a1 Ghazdi and the Copenhagen Interpretation are remarkable. In both cases, and contrary to common sense, objects are viewed as having no inherent properties and no independent existence. In order for an object to exist, it must be brought into being either by God (a1 Ghazili) or by an observer (the Copenhagen Interpretation). In addition, the world is not entirely predictable. For al Ghadli, God has the ability to make anything happen whenever He chooses. In general, the world functions in a predictable manner, but a miraculous event can occur at any moment. All it takes for a miracle to occur is for God to not follow His "custom." The quantum world is very similar. Lead balls fall when released because the probability of their behaving in that way is very high. It is, however, very possible that the lead ball may "miraculously" rise rather than fall when released. Although the probability of such an event is very small, such an event is, nonetheless, still possible. Both a1 Gkiili in the eleventh century and quantum theory in the twentieth century imply that the world is very different from what common sense would lead one to believe. The appearance of objects is deceiving. Objects do not have an independent existence, as one has come to expect. Objects BT~ cwted each moment, either by God or by an act of observation. Furthermore, it is not possible, even in principle, to predict the exact behavior of objects, but only the probability of occurrences. Such a view of the physical world is, then, both new and old.
13 Hardii: Causality Then and Now 177 References Bohr, Niels. "The Atomic Theory and the Fundamental Principles Underlying the Description of Natwe." In Atomic meory and the Description of Nature. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, Crease, Robert P. and Charles C. Mann. The Second Creation. New York: Macmillan Co., Davies, Paul. The New Physics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, A1 Ghazzili, Abii H5mid. The Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahiifut a1 Falkifah), translated by S. A. Kamali. Lahore: Pakistan Philosophical Society, Heisenberg, Werner. Physics and Philosophy. New Yo& Harper and Row, _. On Modern Physics. New York: Collier Books, Mim, Mohammad, and Mohammad I. Siddiqi. Muslim Contributions to Science. Lahore: Kazi Publications, Wolfson, Harry A. The Philosophy ofthe Kalam. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976.
UNIT 1: RATIONALISM HANDOUT 5: DESCARTES MEDITATIONS, MEDITATION FIVE 1: CONCEPTS AND ESSENCES In the Second Meditation Descartes found that what we know most clearly and distinctly about material objects
Michael Lacewing Descartes arguments for distinguishing mind and body THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT In Meditation II, having argued that he knows he thinks, Descartes then asks what kind of thing he is. Discussions
How does the problem of relativity relate to Thomas Kuhn s concept of paradigm? Eli Bjørhusdal After having published The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962, Kuhn was much criticised for the use
DO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS Quantum Mechanics or wave mechanics is the best mathematical theory used today to describe and predict the behaviour of particles and waves.
Aquinas Third Way Last time we had arrived at the following provisional interpretation of Aquinas second way: 1. 2. 3. 4. At least one thing has an efficient cause. Every causal chain must either be circular,
Perspectives in Philosophy Rene Descartes Descartes Philosophy is the search for certainty the search to know, for yourself, what is really true and really false to know which beliefs are reliable. However,
P AUL A. M. DIRAC Theory of electrons and positrons Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1933 Matter has been found by experimental physicists to be made up of small particles of various kinds, the particles of
1. Descartes, Locke and Berkeley all believe that Introduction to Philosophy, Fall 2015 Test 2 Answers a. nothing exists except minds and the ideas in them. b. we can t ever be justified in believing in
Harvard College Program in General Education Faculty of Arts and Sciences Harvard University A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 Professor Jay M. Harris
Pascal s wager So far we have discussed a number of arguments for or against the existence of God. In the reading for today, Pascal asks not Does God exist? but Should we believe in God? What is distinctive
1/9 Locke 1: Critique of Innate Ideas This week we are going to begin looking at a new area by turning our attention to the work of John Locke, who is probably the most famous English philosopher of all
Democritus (460 B.C.E.) and the Greek Philosophers Before we discuss the experiments and evidence that have convinced scientists matter is made up of atoms, it is only fair to credit the man who proposed
Skepticism about the external world & the problem of other minds So far in this course we have, broadly speaking, discussed two different sorts of issues: issues connected with the nature of persons (a
Joshua Baker Philosophy 123 Professor Slinker Laplace's Demon By finishing the work began by Sir Isaac Newton in mathematics, and further applying it to physics and astronomy, French physicist and mathematician
The Slate Is Not Empty: Descartes and Locke on Innate Ideas René Descartes and John Locke, two of the principal philosophers who shaped modern philosophy, disagree on several topics; one of them concerns
Preface The only way to learn physics is to do physics. However, almost all physics textbooks leave a huge gap between the level of the problems that they solve as examples, and the level of the problems
Split brains, teletransportation, and personal identity phil 20229 Jeff Speaks February 14, 2008 1 What is a theory of personal identity?....................... 1 2 Parfit s example of teletransportation........................
Michael Lacewing Substance dualism A substance is traditionally understood as an entity, a thing, that does not depend on another entity in order to exist. Substance dualism holds that there are two fundamentally
Critical and creative thinking (higher order thinking) refer to a set of cognitive skills or strategies that increases the probability of a desired outcome. In an information- rich society, the quality
HUNTER COLLEGE READING/WRITING CENTER THE WRITING PROCESS Invention: Annotating a Text Annotating a text, or marking the pages with notes, is an excellent, if not essential, way to make the most out of
The quantum understanding of pre-university physics students Gren Ireson Department of Education, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK Students in England and Wales wishing
Hume on identity over time and persons phil 20208 Jeff Speaks October 3, 2006 1 Why we have no idea of the self........................... 1 2 Change and identity................................. 2 3 Hume
John R. Searle Why I Am Not a Property Dualist I have argued in a number of writings 1 that the philosophical part (though not the neurobiological part) of the traditional mind body problem has a fairly
Honours programme in Philosophy Honours Programme in Philosophy The Honours Programme in Philosophy offers students a broad and in-depth introduction to the main areas of Western philosophy and the philosophy
Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2010 Class 2 - Meditation One Marcus, Modern Philosophy, Spring 2010, Slide 1 Five dogmas undermined by the new
ON EXTERNAL OBJECTS By Immanuel Kant From Critique of Pure Reason (1781) General Observations on The Transcendental Aesthetic To avoid all misapprehension, it is necessary to explain, as clearly as possible,
Subject area: Ethics Title: Injustice causes revolt. Discuss. 1 Injustice causes revolt. Discuss. When we explain phenomena we rely on the assertion of facts. The sun rises because the earth turns on its
Table of Contents Introduction...4 Meeting and Setting Goals...6 Week 1: The Great Human Questions...9 Week 2: Examining the Ways We Know...15 Week 3: The Christian Worldview...24 Appendix A: The Divine
The Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God What is one trying to prove? Traditionally, the cosmological argument was intended to prove that there exists a being which is distinct from the universe,
Positive Philosophy by August Comte August Comte, Thoemmes About the author.... August Comte (1798-1857), a founder of sociology, believes aspects of our world can be known solely through observation and
How Rockets Work Whether flying a small model rocket or launching a giant cargo rocket to Mars, the principles of how rockets work are exactly the same. Understanding and applying these principles means
254 Free Will: The Scandal in Philosophy Illusionism Determinism Hard Determinism Compatibilism Soft Determinism Hard Incompatibilism Impossibilism Valerian Model Soft Compatibilism The Separability of
#2 Claims and Reasons 1 Argument Mapping 2: Claims and Reasons We ll start with the very basics here, so be patient. It becomes far more challenging when we apply these basic rules to real arguments, as
Religion and Science: The Emerging Relationship The Quantum Enigma X The atoms or elementary particles themselves are not real; they form a world of potentialities or possibilities rather than one of things
Unit 1: Atoms Level 3 Achievement Scale Can state the key results of the experiments associated with Dalton, Rutherford, Thomson, Chadwick, and Bohr and what this lead each to conclude. Can explain that
1 CHAPTER 7 TIME In this chapter we briefly discuss the several time scales that are in use in astronomy, such as Universal Time, Mean Solar Time, Ephemeris Time, Terrestrial Dynamical Time, and the several
Where is Fundamental Physics Heading? Nathan Seiberg IAS Apr. 30, 2014 Disclaimer We do not know what will be discovered. This is the reason we perform experiments. This is the reason scientific research
Ask a dozen people to name a genius and the odds are that 'Einstein' will spring to their lips. Ask them the meaning of 'relativity' and few of them will be able to tell you what it is. The ABC of Relativity
J. T. M. Miller, Department of Philosophy, University of Durham 1 Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research Much of the apparent difficulty of interdisciplinary research stems from the nature
Why Islam I think Islam is the most misunderstood religion in the world. Not just by non-muslims, but by Muslims as well. Mainly, non-muslims information on Islam is based on what they see on television
Michael Lacewing The ontological argument St Anselm and Descartes both famously presented an ontological argument for the existence of God. (The word ontological comes from ontology, the study of (-ology)
Time and Causation in Gödel s Universe. John L. Bell In 1949 the great logician Kurt Gödel constructed the first mathematical models of the universe in which travel into the past is, in theory at least,
Chapter 7 Newton s Laws of Motion 7.1 Force and Quantity of Matter... 1 Example 7.1 Vector Decomposition Solution... 3 7.1.1 Mass Calibration... 4 7.2 Newton s First Law... 5 7.3 Momentum, Newton s Second
Philosophy 110W - 3: Introduction to Philosophy, Hamilton College, Fall 2007 Russell Marcus, Instructor email: email@example.com website: http://thatmarcusfamily.org/philosophy/intro_f07/course_home.htm
No God, No Laws Nancy Cartwright Philosophy LSE and UCSD Introduction. My thesis is summarized in my title, No God, No Laws : the concept of a law of Nature cannot be made sense of without God. It is not
Descartes : The Epistemological Argument for Mind-Body Distinctness Detailed Argument Introduction Despite Descartes mind-body dualism being the most cited aspect of Descartes philosophy in recent philosophical
Aquinas on Essence, Existence, and Divine Simplicity Strange but Consistent In the third question of the Summa Theologiae, Aquinas is concerned with divine simplicity. This is important for him both theologically
Atomic structure This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,
Lecture 17 Newton on Gravity Patrick Maher Philosophy 270 Spring 2010 Introduction Outline of Newton s Principia Definitions Axioms, or the Laws of Motion Book 1: The Motion of Bodies Book 2: The Motion
Writing Thesis Defense Papers The point of these papers is for you to explain and defend a thesis of your own critically analyzing the reasoning offered in support of a claim made by one of the philosophers
Chapter 15 Generally Covariant Quantum Mechanics by Myron W. Evans, Alpha Foundation s Institutute for Advance Study (AIAS). (firstname.lastname@example.org, www.aias.us, www.atomicprecision.com) Dedicated to the Late
On the Psychology of Teaching Mathematics Arash Rastegar Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran It is evident to any able mathematics teacher that the process of mathematical education of students
Lecture Twelve: The Free Will Problem Philosophy 200 November 27, 2012 I. Administration A. Roll B. Schedule C. Extra credit opportunity D. Long paper discussion E. Thoughts on SF#2 F. Questions? II. The
1 The Atom Unit 3 Atomic Structure And Nuclear Chemistry What are the basic parts of an atom? How is an atom identified? What is nuclear chemistry? How is a nuclear equation written? Atom Smallest particle
PHY1020 BASIC CONCEPTS IN PHYSICS I Jackson Levi Said 14 lectures/tutorials/past paper session Project on one of the interesting fields in physics (30%) Exam in January/February (70%) 1 The Course RECOMMENDED
Philosophy 1100: Introduction to Ethics WRITING A GOOD ETHICS ESSAY The writing of essays in which you argue in support of a position on some moral issue is not something that is intrinsically difficult.
Contrarian investing and why it works Definition Contrarian a trader whose reasons for making trade decisions are based on logic and analysis and not on emotional reaction. What is a contrarian? A Contrarian
HOW TO WRITE A CRITICAL ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY John Hubert School of Health Sciences Dalhousie University This handout is a compilation of material from a wide variety of sources on the topic of writing a
1 The Gospel & The Scholars William K. Lewis Fairmont Presbyterian Church College Ministry Team For most of us, our college days are a time in our lives centered around study, research, and learning. We
DESCARTES SCIENCE MINDS, BODIES, AND GEOMETRY Perhaps the most important feature of Descartes ontology is his belief that there are only two kinds of things in the universe: corporeal bodies and minds:
Quantum Phenomena and the Theory of The Mechanics of the Very Small Waseda University, SILS, Introduction to History and Philosophy of Science . Two Dark Clouds In 1900 at a Friday Evening lecture at the
Trials@uspto.gov Paper 96 Tel: 571-272-7822 Entered: July 11, 2014 UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD CORNING INCORPORATED Petitioner v. DSM IP ASSETS B.V.
Book Report: Predestination by Gordon H. Clark John Robbins in his Forward states that false ideas of God prevail in many socalled Christian churches. He states, Nominally Christian churches teach that
Approaches to Apologetics By John McClean Matthias Media (The Briefing #119; www.matthiasmedia.com.au/briefing). Used with permission. A poverty stricken student reaches the end of her financial resources
Key concepts for working with the Role Behavior Analysis The Role Behavior Analysis (RBA), the companion instrument to the Personal Profile System (PPS), uses specific DiSC behavioral statements for defining,
Chapter 7: Momentum and Impulse 1. When a baseball bat hits the ball, the impulse delivered to the ball is increased by A. follow through on the swing. B. rapidly stopping the bat after impact. C. letting
Fedora GNU/Linux; L A TEX 2ǫ; xfig What does Quantum Mechanics tell us about the universe? Mark Alford Washington University Saint Louis, USA More properly: What do experiments tell us about the universe?
Ronald Dworkin, Religion without God, Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 192, 16.50, ISBN 9780674726826 Simone Grigoletto, Università degli Studi di Padova In 2009, Thomas Nagel, to whom Dworkin s book
Module Five Critical Thinking Introduction Critical thinking is often perceived as a difficult skill separate from the thinking process as a whole. In fact, it is the essence of thinking. It is not enough
CROSS EXAMINATION OF AN EXPERT WITNESS IN A CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE CASE Mark Montgomery Post Office Box 161 Durham, NC 27702 (919) 680-6249 email@example.com Opinion Testimony by a Pediatrician/Nurse/Counselor/Social
THE STATISTICAL TREATMET OF EXPERIMETAL DATA Introduction The subject of statistical data analysis is regarded as crucial by most scientists, since error-free measurement is impossible in virtually all
COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Richard Raatzsch: The Apologetics of Evil is published by Princeton University Press and copyrighted, 2009, by Princeton University Press. All rights reserved. No part of this book may
Composition as Explanation Gertrude Stein First delivered by the author as a lecture at Cambridge and Oxford, this essay was first published by the Hogarth Press in London in 1926 and revived in the volume
Kindergarten to Grade 4 Manitoba Foundations for Scientific Literacy The Five Foundations Manitoba Foundations for Scientific Literacy To develop scientifically literate students, science learning experiences
CHANCE ENCOUNTERS Making Sense of Hypothesis Tests Howard Fincher Learning Development Tutor Upgrade Study Advice Service Oxford Brookes University Howard Fincher 2008 PREFACE This guide has a restricted
Learning Enhancement Team Writing a Dissertation This Study Guide addresses the task of writing a dissertation. It aims to help you to feel confident in the construction of this extended piece of writing,
5.1 Evolution of the Atomic Model Studying the atom has been a fascination of scientists for hundreds of years. Even Greek philosophers, over 2500 years ago, discussed the idea of there being a smallest
DO WE REALLY UNDERSTAND QUANTUM MECHANICS? COMPRENONS-NOUS VRAIMENT LA MECANIQUE QUANTIQUE? VARIOUS INTERPRETATIONS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS IHES, 29 janvier 2015 Franck Laloë, LKB, ENS Paris 1 INTRODUCTION
IMPORTANT: This document contains 100% FREE gambling systems designed specifically for ROULETTE, and any casino game that involves even money bets such as BLACKJACK, CRAPS & POKER. Please note although