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1 Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium: Practice Test Scoring Guide Grade 8 Performance Task Published August 26, 2013 Prepared by the American Institutes for Research Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium, 2013 Descriptions of the operation of the Test Delivery System, Test Information Distribution Engine, and related systems are property of the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and are used with permission of AIR.

4 Pennies have also become a great time waster. Jeff Gore, an MIT scientist, has come up with an equation to calculate how much time people spend counting out pennies in stores, giving them back in change and putting them in penny jars. He says each of us on average wastes 2.4 hours per year with the grubby little discs. Pennies are costing each of us nearly \$50 a year given the average wage per hour, he concludes. But let's say the critics have a point and businesses in the U.S. were to round consistently against their consumers. On average, the customer will lose two and a half cents in each transaction. If someone engages in two such transactions per day, over a year they would lose \$18.25 compared with the person given their pennies. That cost is significantly less than the \$50 a year in time wasted for each person, in addition to the \$100 million per year lost to the U.S. Treasury. 1 picayune: of very little importance Source #2 This article comes from a coin collectors' website. The Many Faces of the Penny by J. Wendell Shelton The one-cent piece, commonly referred to as the penny, has been a part of United States history for over two hundred years. The penny was one of the first coins authorized for production by the federal government. In fact, it was the first coin created by the United States Mint in Since then, the one-cent coin has been redesigned twenty-one times. The first pennies were very large larger than our modern day quarter. People did not really like how big they were. Minted until 1857, these pennies had different images of Lady Liberty on the front. There were seven images total, some more popular than others. From 1857 to 1858, the United States Mint produced two varieties of the Flying Eagle penny. Both have the same image of an eagle on the front and a one-cent designation surrounded by a wreath on the reverse side. Next came three varieties of Indian Head pennies, on which Lady Liberty wears a Native American headdress. These coins were made from 1859 to Finally, the familiar Lincoln penny began production in Since then, ten varieties have been minted. Differences largely consist of changes in metal content, though there are some notable design shifts as well.

5 The first penny in the series was created to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's birth. His face has remained the same over the years; only the opposite side of the coin has changed. In 2009, four different scenes were created on the reverse side of the penny to celebrate the 200th anniversary of Lincoln's birth: an image of a log cabin representing Lincoln's birth and early childhood in Kentucky; an image of Lincoln reading a book as he sits on a log, representing his formative years in Indiana; an image of Lincoln before the state capital building, representing his professional life in Illinois; and an image of the Capitol being built, representing Lincoln's presidency in Washington, D.C. In 2010, the penny was redesigned yet again with the introduction of a shield behind the one cent designation. The union shield has 13 stripes, one for each of the original colonies that formed the federal government. The penny has captured many meaningful images over its long history. In truth, it is more than a coin it is a piece of American culture. The one-cent piece has given us a number of idiomatic phrases, such as a penny for your thoughts (a way to ask what someone is thinking) or not

6 one red cent (meaning no money at all). The coin also gave rise to the term penny candy (a piece of candy sold for a cent) and the penny arcade (an amusement center with machines that cost one cent to operate). The buying power of the penny has dropped quite a bit over the years due to inflation. As late as 1900, a penny could purchase what a quarter does today. Still, for many people, the penny's sentimental value remains the same. Source #3 This letter to the editor is from the Prairie News Register, December 26, To the Editor: The Cost of a Penny It's time citizens everywhere considered the enormous price of manufacturing pennies. A penny currently costs the United States government 2.4 cents to mint. Yes, that's right the penny costs more to produce than it's worth! One-cent coins constitute a complete and utter waste of taxpayers' dollars not to mention a waste of our time and energy. Even the Department of Defense agrees. It abolished the use of pennies at overseas military bases over 30 years ago because pennies were considered too heavy and not costeffective to ship. Instead of using pennies, prices are rounded up or down to the nearest fivecent denomination. When the nation's military forces won't even use pennies, that should say something about their worth. Some people fear that rounding prices up or down may lead to higher costs for consumers. However, several economists have noted that rounded prices should not cost extra money and may even lead to lower prices. For example, something currently worth 99 cents may well drop to 95 cents instead of rising to a dollar to avoid the higher price threshold and attract more customers. Market forces should protect prices and rounding would make it considerably easier to count change. So, concerned citizens, please regard it as your civic duty to write your congressional representatives and tell them you're tired of paying for pennies. It's nothing short of frivolous and wasteful to hold on to the one-cent coin! Sincerely, David R. Carroll

8 A two-point response provides three arguments from the sources that support the position that the penny should be preserved. A response that only identifies one of the sources will still receive two points. Responses are not scored for grammar usage, conventions, spelling, or punctuation. Sample Two-Point Response: According to Sources 2 and 4, the penny deserves our support. Source 2 explores the penny s long history in the United States. The Lincoln design variations alone highlight different aspects of the president s life and work, as well as changing aspects of public interest in his history. The Many Faces of the Penny also emphasizes the cultural and sentimental value of the penny. Various expressions that are now part of American culture, such as a penny for your thoughts arose from this humble coin. The writer of Source 4 also contends that people are easily convinced to donate pennies. Washington Middle School was able to raise three thousand dollars in one week from pennies alone. These different arguments support the idea that the penny is an important part of our national currency. A one-point response provides two arguments from the sources with or without identifying the source that support the position that the penny should be preserved. Sample One-Point Response: Source 2 defends the penny as an article of national heritage. It explains the penny s long and varied history. Source 4 shows how pennies matter. One cent may not seem like much, but if pennies are amassed in large numbers, they can add up to a lot of money.

9 A response that provides one argument from a source that may or may not be identified that supports the position that the penny should be preserved receives no credit. Sample Zero-Point Response: Source 2 is from a coin collector s website. Coin collectors like to follow the history of the penny. They explain how important pennies have been throughout the nation s history.

10 A two-point response provides three arguments from the sources that support the position that the penny should be eliminated. A response that only identifies one of the sources will still receive two points. Responses are not scored for grammar usage, conventions, spelling, or punctuation. Sample Two-Point Response: The penny may have served its historical purpose, but it has no place in today s economy. According to Source 1, the penny costs more to produce than it is worth. The treasury loses more than \$100 million every year to produce it. Source 1 also points out that people are willing to leave their pennies at the counter for others, which demonstrates that pennies are not valuable to people. According to the third source, the penny is not even used on military bases overseas anymore because the shipping costs outweigh the benefits. A one-point response provides two arguments from the sources with or without identifying the source. Sample One-Point Response: Reading Penny Anti should convince anyone that the penny s time has come to an end. Minting the penny costs more than its value! Pennies turn out to be a waste of money even for consumers. The time people spend counting out pennies costs them, on average, \$50 a year. If the penny is a money-waster for citizens and the government, then it s clear it s time to relegate it to history.

11 A response that provides one argument from a source that may or may not be identified that supports the argument or does not provide any relevant evidence receives no credit. Sample Zero-Point Response: Pennies are just not worth very much anymore.

12 A one-point response provides one piece of support from a source explaining why prices will not go up because of the elimination of the penny. The source must be identified to receive one point. Responses are not scored for grammar usage, conventions, spelling, or punctuation. Sample One-Point Response: According to Source 3, eliminating the penny will not cause prices to go up because the market itself will not allow that outcome. Businesses would be much more likely to charge 95 cents, say, instead of a dollar. As a result, prices might even end up lower than they are today. A response that does not provide evidence-based support to explain why prices will not go up if the penny is eliminated or identifies a source but provides no support receives no credit. Sample Zero-Point Response: Pennies are too small to have much effect on the economy.

13 A one-point response provides one piece of support from a source explaining why prices will go up because of the elimination of the penny. The source must be identified to receive one point. Responses are not scored for grammar usage, conventions, spelling, or punctuation. Sample One-Point Response: According to Source 4, eliminating the penny will make things confusing for consumers and business and will end up costing a lot of money. Current prices would be rounded up to the nearest nickel, meaning the cost of everything would go up. Over time, this would add up to a lot of extra cost for consumers. A response that does not provide evidence-based support to explain why prices will go up if the penny is eliminated or identifies a source but provides no support receives no credit. Sample Zero-Point Response: Pennies are bulky but they add up over time.

15 For Part 2, you are being asked to write a multi-paragraph essay, so please be as thorough as possible. Type your response in the space provided. The box will expand as you type. Remember to check your notes and your prewriting/planning as you write and then revise and edit your essay.

17 Evidence/Elaboration 4-Point Argumentative Performance Task Writing Rubric (Grades 6-11) Score NS The response provides thorough and convincing support/evidence for the argument(s) and claim that includes the effective use of sources (facts and details). The response clearly and effectively expresses ideas, using precise language: The response provides adequate support/evidence for the argument(s) and claim that includes the use of sources (facts and details). The response adequately expresses ideas, employing a mix of precise with more general language: The response provides uneven, cursory support/evidence for the argument(s) and claim that includes partial or uneven use of sources: (facts and details). The response expresses ideas unevenly, using simplistic language: The response provides minimal support/evidence for the argument(s) and claim that includes little or no use of sources: (facts and details). The response s expression of ideas is vague, lacks clarity, or is confusing: Unintelligible In a language other than English Off-topic Copied text Off-purpose comprehensive evidence from sources is integrated; references are relevant and specific adequate evidence from sources is integrated; some references may be general some evidence from sources may be weakly integrated, imprecise, or repetitive; references may be vague evidence from the source material is minimal or irrelevant; references may be absent or incorrectly used effective use of a variety of elaborative techniques* adequate use of some elaborative techniques weak or uneven use of elaborative techniques; development may consist primarily of source summary or may rely on emotional appeal minimal, if any, use of elaborative techniques; emotional appeal may dominate vocabulary is clearly appropriate for the audience and purpose vocabulary is generally appropriate for the audience and purpose vocabulary use is uneven or somewhat ineffective for the audience and purpose vocabulary is limited or ineffective for the audience and purpose effective, appropriate style enhances content generally appropriate style is evident inconsistent or weak attempt to create appropriate style little or no evidence of appropriate style *Elaborative techniques may include the use of personal experiences that support the argument(s).

18 Conventions 2-Point Argumentative Performance Task Writing Rubric (Grades 6-11) Score NS The response demonstrates an adequate command of conventions: adequate use of correct sentence formation, punctuation, capitalization, grammar usage, and spelling The response demonstrates a partial command of conventions: limited use of correct sentence formation, punctuation, capitalization, grammar usage, and spelling The response demonstrates little or no command of conventions: infrequent use of correct sentence formation, punctuation, capitalization, grammar usage, and spelling Unintelligible In a language other than English Off-topic Copied text (Off-purpose responses will still receive a score in Conventions.) Holistic Scoring: Variety: A range of errors includes formation, punctuation, capitalization, grammar usage, and spelling Severity: Basic errors are more heavily weighted than higher-level errors. Density: The proportion of errors to the amount of writing done well. This includes the ratio of errors to the length of the piece.

Purpose/Organization Performance Task Writing Rubric (Grades 3-5) The response has a clear and effective organizational structure, creating a sense of unity and completeness. The response is fully sustained,

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