A Learning Fuzzy System for Looper Control in Rolling Mills


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1 A Learning Fuzzy System for Looper Control in Rolling Mills F. JanabiSharifi J. Fan Department of Mechanical Engineering Quad Engineering Inc. Ryerson Polytechnic University North Yor, Ontario, Canada M3B 2R2 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5B 2K3 Abstract In this paper, several issues of looper control in rolling mills are discussed and a fuzzy logic control is proposed to address the enumerated issues. The proposed system incorporated fast tuning algorithms for both offline and online learning of membership functions and singleton values. Also, it is relatively simple to design and implement. The effectiveness of the proposed system is verified by the simulations results. It is shon that the proposed system is more robust to parameter uncertainties and noises, hen compared ith conventional PID control. 1 Introduction stand 1 stand 2 The loop control method is one of the common control techniques for producing flexible crosssections at intermediate and finishing submills. The loop control techniques rely on the initial formation of a bar loop by using mechanical deflectors and proper motor speed adjustments (Fig. 1). In fact, each stand roll speed has to be synchronized to the speed of the bar exiting the previous stand. Otherise, push or pull conditions ould occur and loop might be formed. The height of the formed loop could serve as a tension indicator. Maintaining a constant desired loop height ill be done by adjusting the motor speed ratios and ill indicate no tension/compression status. The height of the loop (H) is measured and compared to reference height (H, indicating zero tension condition) to obtain a correction command for motor speed control unit. An example is the implementation of the looper control in a 17 stand bar mill in the Chapparrel Steel mill in Milauee by ASEA [3]. A characteristic control problem is the introduction of the disturbances of different nature. These disturbances are caused by the increasing use of lo temperature heating of slabs, highcarbon steels, and highspeed rolling. Due to increasing demand for high precision in thicness, idth, and cron of the strips, it is very important to develop a highperformance and robust looper control. In this paper, the potential of fuzzy controllers ill be ex v 1 v 2 Figure 1: The rolling mill ith looper control. amined and the issues on the application of fuzzy controllers for looper control ill be discussed. We ere motivated to explore the application of fuzzy looper control for the folloing reasons: (1) fuzzy controllers prove to be robust to unmodeled dynamics and noises; (2) a typical fuzzy control design does not require a formal model of the plant or an initial training set; and (3) sufficient noledge ould be available in the form of linguistic ifthen rules by intervieing a mill operator. Despite the enumerated advantages, a fe problems might arise hen implementing a fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The translation of good linguistic rules depends on the noledge of the control expert. In many cases, redundant or insufficient rules might be specified. Also, translation into fuzzy set theory is not formalized yet and arbitrary choices concerning the shape or membership functions or Toperators might be made. These uncertainties in the design of a FLC usually results in a heuristic tuning to overcome the initial design errors [2]. Therefore, it is very important to have learning procedures hich can tune the system automatically. The automated FLC tuning as first proposed by Procy and Mamdani [5]. Most of the or in automated FLC tuning has focused on neural nets [1]. Hoever, these approaches lac sufficient generalization and expressing capability of the acquired noledge. Furthermore, our experiments indicated long training effort. In this paper, e ill implement a selftuning method based on descent technique for tuning membership functions of FLC. Both offline and online tuning ill be considered. This ill contribute toards a rapidly tunable FLC frameor for rolling mills. To the best noledge of the authors, this is the first online tunable FLC frameor for
2 the looper control in rolling mills. Different design issues ill be discussed and practical conclusions ill be derived. 2 Looper System Model y r +  e() 1 z + + e() Fuzzy Controller u() δ v δ v 1 2 Process + speed control y The plant is a rolling mill ith a looper for tension control (Fig. 1). The tension is caused by the difference beteen the exit speed v 1 in stand one and the entry speed v 2 in stand to. The speed difference results in the storage of the strip length, hich can be obtained from the integral of speed difference: L(t) = Z t [v 1 (t) v 2 (t)]dt (1) and the looper height is related to the storage length by 1 H(t) = p ff + fi : (2) L(t) Here ff and fi depend on the looper parameters and are determined experimentally. For the simulation purposes, e adopted ff = and fi = for L(t) in mm. The Jacobian of the plant is then given by J v 1 ) = p 2 L(t)(ff p b(v 2 (t) v 1 (t)) L(t) +fi) 2 v_ 1 (t) 3 Design of Fuzzy Controller The control structure of the looper system is shon in Fig. 2. In this section, e ill not consider any tuning aspect and the focus ill be on FLC. The process control can be described as follos: x() = [x 1 ();x 2 ()] T =[e()=k in1 ; e()=k in2 ] T ; e() = y() y r (); e() =e() e( 1); (5) y() = H(); y r () =H r (); (6) u() = v 1 () =U [x 1 ();x 2 ()]: (7) Here state vector x includes error e() and error change e() as the the inputs to the controller, and the controller output u() is generated using U [x 1 ();x 2 ()], nonlinear mapping implemented using fuzzy logic. The input scaling factors are K in1 and K in2 respectively. Also, y() and y r () are system output and reference command respectively. In the folloing e describe ho U [x 1 ();x 2 ()] is implemented. The realization of the function U [x 1 ();x 2 ()] is based on a fuzzy logic method and consists of three stages: fuzzification, decision maing fuzzy logic, and defuzzification. (3) (4) Tuning Algorithm Figure 2: The structure of the lopper control system. µ µ 1 2 NB NS PS PB N Z P x 1 x (a) Figure 3: Membership functions for the state variables: (a) x 1 = e, (b) x 2 = e. The domains for both variables have been normalized to [1, 1]. The process of fuzzification transforms the inputs x 1 () and x 2 () into the setting of linguistic variables hich maybe vieed as labels of a fuzzy set. In this or, the folloing linguistic variables ere used for e, and e respectively: L x1 = fnb, NS, PS, PBg; L x2 = fn, Z, Pg: (8) Here the meaning of each variable should be clear from its mnemonic: NB (Negative Big), NS (Negative Small), N (Negative), Z (Zero), P (Positive), PS (Positive Small), and PB (Positive Big). The membership functions of the inputs to the controller (Fig. 3) ere all assumed to be triangular. The fuzzy partitioning of the Fig. 3 has been based on normalization and choosing scaling factors by inspecting the operation range. The scaling factor is based on the expert noledge and can be rapidly adjusted by means of a fe trials. For each input x 1 and x 2, e assign numbers μ Ai1 (x 1 ) and μ Ai2 (x 2 ) using membership functions A i1 and A i2 associated ith L x1 and L x2 respectively. These numbers ill be used for fuzzy decision maing hich is described next. Associated ith the fuzzy logic decision process is a set of fuzzy rules R = fr 1 ;R 2 ;R 3 ; ;R 12 g. The rules are given in Fig. 4, here the values in bracets indicate Mamdani rules. A singleton rule ill have a form of: Rule i: If x 1 is l i1 and x 2 is l i2, then u = i. (b) J
3 e e NB NS PS PB of relevant membership function of the output in Mamdani rulebase). N Z P (PB) (PM) (PS) (PZ) (PS) (PZ) (NZ) (NS) (NZ) (NS) (NM) (NB) Figure 4: Fuzzy rulebase. Here l i1 2 L x1, and l i2 2 L x2 are set of linguistic terms attached to x 1, and x 2 respectively. Also, i is a real number associated ith the singleton controller hich is a special case of TaagiSugeno controller [7] ith all coefficients of higher order equal to zero. Fuzzy rules ere developed heuristically to facilitate the shaping of the looper s response and to simplify tuning of the controller. If a different response is desired for a particular range of input variables, then only a fe fuzzy rules ould need to be altered. The ability to modify the controlled response locally, hile not significantly altering the global response, is an attractive feature of fuzzy control, in particular from learning point of vie. The isosceles triangles, used for the membership functions, could be characterized by their center and idth. For instance, membership function A ij could be expressed by its center a ij and the idth b ij. Therefore, the grade of membership for A ij, denoted by μ Aij, could be obtained from μ Aij (x j )=1 2 j x j a ij j ; j =1; 2: (9) b ij Given a pair of e() and e(), each relevant rule first assigns μ Ai1 (x 1 ()) and μ Ai2 (x 2 ()). Then a value is assigned using the production tnorm defined as follo: μ i (x 1 ();x 2 ()) = μ Ai1 (x 1 ()) μ Ai2 (x 2 ()) (1) for the i th rule. This process is repeated for all the relevant rules. Basically, defuzzification is a mapping from a space of fuzzy control action defined over a universe of discourse into a space of nonfuzzy control actions. Several methods of defuzzification can be considered. The defuzzification process considered here taes a form of TaagiSugeno output value computation method, given by: i=1 u() =U [x 1 ();x 2 ()] = K μ i(x 1 ();x 2 ()) i out i=1 μ i(x 1 ();x 2 ()) ; (11) here K out is a scaling factor, and i is a real number associated ith the consequent part of the rule (or the center 4 Tuning Algorithm Tuning FLC is a very difficult tas as it has more parameters to be tuned than its nonfuzzy counterparts. It is possible to tune rules, operators, and/or membership functions (MFs). In this or, e ill focus on MF tuning for better performance. We initially focused on conventional multilayer perceptron using bacpropagation algorithm [6] for tuning MFs. Hoever, the results ere not encouraging ith respect to convergence and speed of tuning. Therefore, e focused on descent methods [4]. The tuning algorithm presented here is relatively simple and fast for online tuning. The objective function to be minimized is defined as: E() = 1 [y() y r ] 2 (12) 2 ith y() as the system output in the th instance. It can be easily shon that the learning rules can be expressed as: a ij ( +1)=a ij ij () b ij ( +1)=b ij ij () (13) i ( +1)= i () i () here a, b, and are learning coefficients. The gradients in equations (13), (14), and (15) can be derived using equations (9) ij () = μ i (x 1 ();x 2 ()) i=1 μ i(x 1 ();x 2 ()) Ψ ij () = μ i (x 1 ();x 2 ()) i=1 μ i(x 1 ();x 2 ()) Ψ i () = μ i (x 1 ();x 2 ()) i=1 μ i(x 1 ();x 2 ()) Ψ 1 = Ψ 2 = J e(); (18) J e()( i () y())sgn(x j () a ij ()) 2 b ij ()μ Aij (x j ()) ; (19) J e()( i () y()) 1 μ A ij (x j ()) b ij ()μ Aij (x j ()) : (2)
4 P Here J ) is the Jacobian. The summation is for offline learning hich uses the summation of measurements at the discrete P instances after the end of control cycle. No summation is required in the above equations for online learning. In our simulations, e ill use discrete linearized Jacobian instead of (3), defined as or its sgn defined by: y() y( 1) J = u() u( 1) sgn(j )= ρ 1 if J > otherise. The training procedure ors as follos: (21) (22) step 1. Initiate the inference rules and membership functions. step 2. Calculate y, x 1, and x 2 using (2) and (4)(6). step 3. Calculate Jacobian using (3), or (21), or (22). step 4. Update the membership functions and singleton values using (12) to (18). step 5. Calculate the control output using (7). Go to Step 2. 5 Simulation Results Simulations ere run to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The simulation parameters ere chosen to be: v 1 () = 7 mm/s, v 2 = 7 mm/s, H r = 2 mm, H() = 5 mm, and T =.5 s. The learning coefficients ere determined after experiments: a = b =:1, = :1 for offline tuning, and a = b = :2, = :5 for online tuning. The scaling factors ere chosen to be: K in1 =6, K in2 =1, and K out =5.It as observed that inputoutput scaling has a drastic effect on the control performance. We ill leave the presentation of these results to another publication for the sae of brevity. The initial values of [a, b] for the membership functions of e ere: NB: [1., 1.2]; NS: [.4, 1.]; PS: [.4, 1.]; PB: [1., 1.2]; and those for e ere: N: [.95, 2.]; Z: [., 2.]; P: [.95, 2.]. Both Mamdani and singleton type rules ere examined and indicated similar performances. For brevity singleton rules are demonstrated in these simulations. Also the initial values of output singletons ( 112 ) ere: [1.,.7,.55,.3.,.55,.3, .1, .35, .1, .35, .7, 1.]. The results are shon in Figs. 5 to 1. The dotted and solid line represent the responses of fuzzy logic control ithout tuning (FLC) and ith tuning (TFLC) respectively. Several cases ere studied under different conditions as follos. (C1) Offline learning, Jacobian model. (C2) Online learning, Jacobian model. (C3) Online learning, linearized Jacobian model. (C4) Online learning, Jacobian sign model. Offline vs online learning. For the offline learning, the parameters of the membership functions are tuned after each control cycle, hile in online learning, the parameters are tuned after each time step. The results are shon in Figs. 56 hich indicate loer errors hen the control is tuned. Also, it is shon that offline learning provides loer undershoots than online learning. As it might be expected, most of the changes affect the neighborhood of the Zero membership functions. For instance, in (C1) the tuned values of [a, b] ere: NS: [.44,.98], PS: [.5,.94] for e; and and N: [.93, 2.], Z: [.93, 2.] for e. For the same case, noticeable changes in output singletons as only for 6 hich changed to.33. Similarly, in (C2) the tuned values of [a, b] ere: NS: [.4,.99], PS: [.39, 1.] for e. Hoever, the changes in singleton values ere more dominant than (C1). That is: 24 changed to.69,.51, and.27, and 7, 8 ere tuned to: .19, and .36 respectively Figure 5: Comparison of step responses ith FLC (dotted) and TFLC (solid) under (C1). Effect of plant Jacobian. The plant Jacobian affects the tuning algorithm. Due to the difficulty of providing true Jacobian, approximations of Jacobian are used. A linearized model of the plant Jacobian (21) could provide an easytocalculate approximation. Also, in order to improve the stability of the system, e examined the sign of linearized Jacobian (22) for parameter tuning. The results are shon in Figs. 6 to 8. It as concluded that the sign of linearized
5 Figure 6: Comparison of step responses ith FLC (dotted) and TFLC (solid) under (C2). Figure 8: Comparison of step responses ith FLC (dotted) and TFLC (solid) under (C4). Jacobian could also provide good performance Figure 7: Comparison of step responses ith FLC (dotted) and TFLC (solid) under (C3). Disturbance rejection. To study the effectiveness of the proposed system in disturbance rejection, a step disturbance in setting of exit speed of strip in stand one (v 1 )as introduced at t = 3 sec. As it is shon in Fig. 9, tuned controller as capable of canceling the drop caused by the disturbance. A comparison ith commonly used PID control as also made. The PID gains have been tuned to give optimum response: K P = K D =5, K I =1. When the plant parameters ff and fi ere changed by 2% and 45% respectively, PID control became unstable (Fig. 1). Hoever, Fuzzy control demonstrated a steady performance. Selftuning as achieved using a Singletonbased control ith online tuning. Finally, inspection of Fig. 1 shos that selftuning Fuzzy control, in comparison ith PID and Fuzzy controls, provides loer steadystate error and stable behavior Figure 9: The effect of step disturbance on the responses of FLC (dotted) and TFLC (solid) under (C3). 6 Conclusions In this paper, a fuzzy logic controller as proposed for looper control of rolling mills. The proposed system incorporated a learning algorithm for finetuning membership functions and singleton outputs. The effectiveness of the proposed system as verified by the simulation results.
6 PID Fuzzy Tuning Fuzzy Figure 1: Comparison of the performances of PID, FLC, and TFLC under (C3) ith disturbed plant parameters. It as shon that the proposed system is more robust to parameter uncertainties and noises, hen compared ith classical PID control la. The incorporated tuning algorithm had the advantage of highspeed learning capability, yet it as effective for improving the control performance. Several practical issues ere discussed and conclusions ere made regarding different design options. Among them ere: offline vs. online tuning, and different Jacobian approximations. [4] H. Nomura, I. Hayashi, N. Waami, A learning method of fuzzy inference rules by descent method, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Fuzzy Systems, 1992, pp , San Diego, CA. [5] T. J. Procy and E. H. Mamdani, A linguistic selforganizing process controller, Automatica, vol. 15, pp. 153, [6] D. E. Rumelhart, G. E. Hinton, and R. J. Williams, Learning representations by bacpropagation errors, in Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition. Foundations, D. E. Rumelhart and J. L. McClelland, Eds., vol. 1, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, [7] T. Taagi and M. Sugeno, Fuzzy identification of systems and its applications to modeling and control, IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 15, no. 1, 1985, pp Acnoledgments This research as financially supported by Quad Engineering Inc. Also, e ould lie to than the useful discussions and assistance of Leon Winitsy, Richard Li, Jalal Biglou, and Mar Pinus from Quad Engineering. The second author as also supported by an industrial research felloship from Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. References [1] R. Jang, Selflearning fuzzy controllers based on temporal bac propagation, IEEE Trans. Neural Netors, vol. 3, pp , Sep [2] R. Kruse, J. Gebhardt, and F. Klaonn, Foundations of Fuzzy Systems. Wiley, Chichester, [3] A. Neilson, and E. Koebe, Microprocessor control system for bar mill revamp at Chapparrel Steel, Iron and Steel Engineer, pp , Apr
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