FORM 2 THE PATENTS ACT, (39 of 1970) THE PATENTS RULES, 2003 COMPLETE SPECIFICATION. (See sections 10; rule 13)

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1 FORM 2 THE PATENTS ACT, 970 (39 of 970) & THE PATENTS RULES, 2003 COMPLETE SPECIFICATION (See sections 0; rule 3) TITLE OF THE INVENTION ADVANCED TAMIL KEYBOARD APPLICANT NAME: PSG College of Technology NATIONALITY: Indian ADDRESS: Avinashi Road, Peelamedu, Coimbatore 64004, Tamilnadu, India.

2 ADVANCED TAMIL KEYBOARD BACKGROUND Technical Field [000] The embodiments herein generally relate to a device for inputting characters, and, more particularly, to a device for inputting characters of a Tamil script. Description of the Related Art 0 [0002] Traditional keyboards are based on a QWERTY keyboard designed for the English language with 26 alphabets. It can accommodate 26 small letters (a to z) and 26 capital letters (A to Z). Thus, totally 2 letters can be written using the alphabet keys A-Z. The QWERTY layout designed for typing in English Language, has alphabets placed on three lines, as follows: a) Q,W, E, R, T, Y, U, I, O, P b) A, S, D, F, G, H, J, K, L c) Z X C V B N M. [0003] Most International languages have more letters than English due to a larger alphabet, signs, or a presence of accented letters, etc. Most International languages use a character-set having 60 to 90 characters. Presently, while using a QWERTY keyboard for typing international languages by directly pressing marked keys, keyboards are generally not 20 phonetic as the placement of accented letters is generally on different keys from their unaccented counterparts, since letter capacity or the number of characters which can be typed by an alphabet key is a constraint. For some languages, since all the alphabets cannot be accommodated on a keyboard, sometimes alternate characters are used, or indirect methods of typing are used as follows: a) Some of the letters have to be typed using Alt <xxxx 2

3 number> codes on numeric keypad with Numlock ON, e.g. Alt 0224 gives 'a'. b) To type a limited number of accented letters by using unaccented letters, modifier keys such as Alternate (Alt), Control (Ctrl), Shift, Alt Gr or option etc., are used along with alphabet keys or dead keys like back-quote Q, circumflex(<[lambda]>) etc., in some international formats of the QWERTY keyboard. When the user strikes a dead key along with a modifier key, nothing happens and then an alphabet key marked with unaccented letter is pressed to type the accented letter, e.g. type Ctrl + '(accent grave) then typing 'a' gives 'a'. This operation is reverse of how one normally thinks and writes 'a'. Transliteration is also being used to type various Indian languages where some basic letters are generated by a word processor 0 dictionary or by software support. [0004] Presently, each language has widely different keyboard layouts. The use of a QWERTY keyboard layout for international languages makes learning to type in various international languages difficult as too many letter-key combinations are to be remembered. It makes learning to type in international languages generally more difficult than typing in English. [000] The Tamil script (Tamiḻ ariccuvaṭi) is an Abugida script that is used by people in India, Sri Lanka and elsewhere, to write the Tamil language, as well as to write the liturgical language Sanskrit, using consonants and diacritics not represented in the basic script. The Tamil script, like the other Indic scripts, is thought to have evolved from the 20 Brahmi script. The script used by these inscriptions is commonly known as the Tamil Brahmi or Tamili script, and it differs in many ways from standard Asokan Brahmi. For example, early Tamil Brahmi, unlike Asokan Brahmi, had a system to distinguish between 3

4 pure consonants (m in this example) and consonants with an inherent vowel (ma in this example). [0006] Tamil is the regional language spoken in southern state of India. Most Indian school children are required to study Tamil from an early age. In India, there are approximately 70 million native Tamil speakers, while more than 0 million use it as their second language. There are approximately 0 million Tamil speakers outside India, primarily in Srilanka. A variety of solutions have been proposed in relation to a keyboard for the Tamil language. [0007] There are a diverse variety of key arrangements and modus operandi that exist 0 as on date in relation to Tamil typing sytems. These can be conveniently categorized into three methods on the basis of the principle of how they work. They are. the Tamil keyboard system, 2. the phonetic based keyboard system, and 3. the romanized keyboard system (that is based on transliteration). [0008] The Tamil keyboard system s layout has been in existence for decades. This layout represents the key arrangement on a classical Tamil mechanical type writer, which was considered as a standard for Tamil typing. The arrangement of keys is widely appreciated due to ergonomic approach adopted, although it is not efficient. [0009] This keyboard system is programmed with slight modifications enabling minimal keystrokes. A few software programs that are designed on the lines of the Tamil 20 keyboard system include Bamini ( ), Amutham ( ), Kiruthi Tamil ( ), Meesan, and Kurinji. Although, mechanical type writers are almost obsolete, people who got used to this method use this system in their computers by installing a font system as mentioned above. However, there are some fundamental 4

5 downsides with the Tamil keyboard layout. The Tamil keyboard layout uses 4 additional keys apart from the 26 English alphabet keys by compensating a number of symbol keys (like # $ ^ & * { } : < >). To type engineering, scientific and mathematical contents in Tamil, the symbol keys (e.g., # $ ^ & * { } : < >) are essential. [000] In the phonetic keyboard, the letters are distributed based on pronunciation. In Tamil, there are 2 Uyir letters and 8 mei letters. The combination of these letters give rise to another 2X8 = 26 letters, called the Uyirmei letters. However, the pronunciation of each of these Uyirmei letters are the combination of Uyir and Mei letters, but the script of these Uyirmei letters have no direct correlation with their respective Uyir and mei letters. In 0 typical phonetic keyboard system, all the Uyir and Mei letters (2 + 8 = 30) are assigned keys. In order to type a Uyirmei letter, the user has to type the Uyir and Mei letters in succession. To type a letter, the user should bring the sound of the letter to his mind. When the user intends to convey a message in Tamil, his mind works out the sound/pronunciation corresponding to that message, no matter whether the user knows Tamil or not. On contrast, when the user intends to convey as script, his mind works out the visual appearance of the script rather than sound. Without thinking, the proponents and supporters of the phonetic keyboard system attempt to build a false correlation between sound and script. This is a fundamental flaw in the phonetic keyboard system. [00] The transliteration method of text typing is most popular today. Using this 20 method, one needs to input the English/other language spelling corresponding to Tamil pronunciation to the software, which would render Tamil text corresponding to the typed content. Popular tools used prevalently include Google Transliterate and Azhaghi.

6 [002] Although, in the transliteration method, claims that the software automatically suggests which letter should appear at which place, in some situations, the user must know which of the letters or or has to appear at which place. In Tamil, the 3 sets of letters shown here above are phonetically closer, although their slight variation is significantly important for the language as a whole. If the software is to provide spelling suggestions, it presents a situation that discourages the user from learning the spelling of the word, which poses a threat to the language. [003] Accordingly, there remains a need for an advanced Tamil keyboard which helps a user to type Tamil in an easiest way by visualizing the Tamil characters. 0 SUMMARY [004] In view of the foregoing, an embodiment herein provides a Tamil keyboard for inputting characters of a Tamil script is provided. The Tamil keyboard includes (a) a first row that includes a first set of keys for the English characters Q,W,E,R,T,Y,U,I,O and P, (b) a second row that includes a second set of keys for the English characters A,S,D,F,G,H,J,K and L, and (c) a third row that includes a third set of keys for the English characters Z,X,C,V,B,N and M. Each of (a) the first set of keys, (b) the second set of keys, and (c) the third set of keys includes at least one (i) Tamil character, or (ii) Tamil sub-character in 20 addition to the English characters. At least one of (a) the first set of keys, (b) the second set of keys, and (c) the third set of keys is adapted to input a Tamil character either alone or in combination with toggle keys. Each of (a) the first set of keys, (b) the second set of keys, and (c) the third set of keys are spatially grouped on the Tamil keyboard based on 6

7 visualization characteristics of (i) the Tamil character, or (ii) the Tamil sub-character. The visually similar Tamil characters are provided in a single key or a neighboring key. Each of (a) the first set of keys, (b) the second set of keys, and (c) the third set of keys may grouped on the Tamil keyboard based on ergonomics characteristics, and phonetics characteristics of (i) the Tamil character, or (ii) the Tamil sub-character. [00] The Tamil characters English character based on phonetic characteristics of the Tamil character. A Tamil character English character based on ergonomics characteristics of the Tamil character. The Tamil characters, 0 based on phonetics characteristics of the Tamil characters. [006] The visually different Tamil characters exclusive keys that correspond to the English characters K, X, F, H, V, C, L, and W respectively. The visually similar Tamil characters neighbouring he visually similar Tamil characters 7

8 English characters based on phonetic characteristics of the Tamil characters [007] In another aspect, a Tamil keyboard for inputting characters of Tamil script is provided. The Tamil keyboard includes (a) a first row that includes a first set of keys for the English characters Q,W,E,R,T,Y,U,I,O and P, (b) a second row that includes a second set of keys for the English characters A,S,D,F,G,H,J,K and L, and (c) a third row that includes a third set of keys for the English characters Z,X,C,V,B,N and M. Each of (a) the first set of 0 keys, (b) the second set of keys, and (c) the third set of keys comprising at least one (i) Tamil character, or (ii) Tamil sub-character in addition to the English characters. At least one of (a) the first set of keys, (b) the second set of keys (c) the third set of keys is adapted to input a Tamil character either alone or in combination with toggle keys. Each of (a) the first set of keys, (b) the second set of keys, and (c) the third set of keys are spatially grouped on the Tamil keyboard based on visualization characteristics of (i) the Tamil character, or (ii) the Tamil sub-character. A Tamil character English character based on ergonomics characteristics of the Tamil character visually different Tamil characters exclusive keys that corresponds to the English characters K, X, F, H, V, C, L, 20 and W respectively 8

9 [008] The visually similar Tamil characters neighbouring [009] These and other aspects of the embodiments herein will be better appreciated and understood when considered in conjunction with the following description and the accompanying drawings. It should be understood, however, that the following descriptions, while indicating preferred embodiments and numerous specific details thereof, are given by way of illustration and not of limitation. Many changes and modifications may be made within the scope of the embodiments herein without departing from the spirit thereof, and the 0 embodiments herein include all such modifications. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [0020] The embodiments herein will be better understood from the following detailed description with reference to the drawings, in which: [002] FIG. illustrates a top plan view of an advanced Tamil keyboard layout according to an embodiment herein; 20 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS [0022] The embodiments herein and the various features and advantageous details thereof are explained more fully with reference to the non-limiting embodiments that are 9

10 illustrated in the accompanying drawings and detailed in the following description. Descriptions of well-known components and processing techniques are omitted so as to not unnecessarily obscure the embodiments herein. The examples used herein are intended merely to facilitate an understanding of ways in which the embodiments herein may be practiced and to further enable those of skill in the art to practice the embodiments herein. Accordingly, the examples should not be construed as limiting the scope of the embodiments herein. [0023] As mentioned, there remains a need for an advanced Tamil keyboard that helps a user to type Tamil in a user-friendly manner by visualizing the Tamil characters. The 0 embodiments herein achieve this by providing Tamil characters that are placed along with the English characters in the keyboard to be visualized, based on phonetic and ergonomic distributions of the Tamil characters. In the advanced Tamil keyboard, the Tamil characters are placed corresponding to the respective English characters based on the sound oriented (phonetic) distribution of the Tamil characters. Most frequently used Tamil characters are placed in lower case of the advanced Tamil keyboard to be fulfilled the ergonomically based distribution and to minimize the usage of shift key. Referring now to the drawings, and more particularly to FIG., where similar reference characters denote corresponding features consistently throughout the figures, there are shown preferred embodiments. [0024] FIG. illustrates a top plan view of the advanced Tamil keyboard layout 20 according to an embodiment herein. The advanced Tamil keyboard s layout is designed with Tamil characters that are distributed based on (a) a visualization of Tamil characters, (b) a sound oriented (Phonetics) key distribution, and (c) an ergonomics based distribution. The advanced Tamil keyboard s layout is designed with the Tamil characters within the specified 0

11 26 alphabet keys of the traditional English keyboard, based on the visualization of the Tamil characters. Using the advanced Tamil keyboard, a user (e.g. an audio impaired person) may type the Tamil characters by just visualizing it, irrespective of whether the user knows the Tamil language or not. In addition, the advanced Tamil keyboard provides an advantage of easily locating the keys for the user who knows both Tamil and English. [002] Most of the Tamil characters are a combination of 2 or 3 sub-characters. For the user who does not know Tamil characters, typing using the advanced Tamil keyboard is like arranging the symbols in order to get the Tamil characters that the user wants to type. For example, the letter can be visually seen as a with a curve in its right bottom, a 0 combination of two sub-characters. By providing separate keys for and the curve, the user can easily visualize and type the Tamil character. In Tamil language, the characters occur in similar family groups visually, which can be represented using one base sub-character. For example, the family group includes a group of characters such as Every character of this group is visually just a variant of Only few special characters like and may seem visually different from the other characters of the family group. For those special characters, exclusive keys are provided in the advanced Tamil keyboard s layout. [0026] In the Tamil keyboard layout, the formation of a Tamil character by combination 2 or 3 sub-characters is represented in the following table. Tamil letters Combination of subcharacter option Combination of subcharacter option 2 Combination of subcharacter option 3

12 2 +

13 3

14 4

15

16 6

17 7

18 8

19 9

20 20

21 2

22 [0027] The two Tamil characters that almost resemble one another (e.g. ) are designed on a single key or neighbouring keys, to enable better identification. [0028] The advanced Tamil keyboard s layout includes the Tamil characters which are distributed along with the English characters, with standard QWERTY keyboard as reference, based on the phonetic relationship of the Tamil characters with the respective English characters. The keys of the advanced Tamil keyboard are distributed based on the sound of each character in both Tamil and English. For example, the character A and 0, O and R and K and U and E and T and D and M and N and V and L and Y and I and G and sound alike. Hence, the Tamil characters are assigned to keys that correspond to the same phonetic sound in English characters. This phonetic distribution of the Tamil characters helps a user, who knows Tamil and English language, to easily locate the keys to type a Tamil character. [0029] In the advanced Tamil keyboard s layout, the keys which are frequently used are assigned based on ergonomic based distribution (i.e. most frequently used Tamil characters are placed in the lower case) to minimize the usage of shift key. The ergonomic 22

23 based distribution of Tamil characters is performed based on probability of Tamil characters. The probability calculation for the appearance of Tamil characters is calculated using a typical Tamil newspaper. The following table denotes the relative frequency of occurrence of Tamil characters, which has higher values. Letter Probability [0030] For example, the Tamil character should be placed under the key P which is in a left corner, if arranged on the basis of Sound oriented key distribution. But is one of the most frequently occurring characters in the Tamil Language. Hence, for convenience, the Tamil character is assigned to the key S. Also, the most frequently used Tamil characters, are placed in the lower 0 case of the Tamil keyboard layout, to minimize the usage of keys like Shift. The upper case of the Tamil keyboard layout includes lesser frequently used Tamil characters. [003] The total number of basic Tamil characters which are represented in the Tamil keyboard layout is (26*2) +=3. The basic Tamil characters of the Tamil keyboard layout are shown in the below table. In one embodiment, the Tamil keyboard layout may be applicable for a Tamil type-writer. 23

24 [0032] The important features advanced Tamil keyboard layout are language independent, and visualization based typing. Using the advanced Tamil keyboard layout, the user types the Tamil characters by just visualizing it, irrespective of whether the user knows Tamil language or not. The phonetic distribution of Tamil characters is an advantage that helps the users who knows both Tamil and English, to type the Tamil characters easier and faster. In addition, the advanced Tamil keyboard layout provides an advantage of easily locating the keys for the users who knows Tamil and English. Another advantage of the Tamil keyboard layout is the positioning of frequently used Tamil characters to the lower 0 case to facilitate faster learning. [0033] The foregoing description of the specific embodiments will so fully reveal the general nature of the embodiments herein that others can, by applying current knowledge, readily modify and/or adapt for various applications such specific embodiments without departing from the generic concept, and, therefore, such adaptations and modifications should and are intended to be comprehended within the meaning and range of equivalents of the disclosed embodiments. It is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation. Therefore, while the embodiments herein have been described in terms of preferred embodiments, those skilled in the art will recognize that the embodiments herein can be practiced with modification within 20 the spirit and scope of the appended claims. 24

25 CLAIMS [Please carefully review the claims to determine that the invention is being claimed properly, that all important elements have been claimed, and that the claims are novel over the prior art. Any substantial change to the detailed description will require claim changes.] What is claimed is: A Tamil keyboard for inputting characters of a Tamil script, wherein said Tamil keyboard comprises: a first row that comprises a first set of keys for the English characters Q,W,E,R,T,Y,U,I,O and P; a second row that comprises a second set of keys for the English characters A,S,D,F,G,H,J,K and L; a third row that comprises a third set of keys for the English characters Z,X,C,V,B,N and M, wherein each of (a) said first set of keys, (b) said second set of keys, and (c) said third set of keys comprises at least one (i) Tamil character, or (ii) Tamil sub-character in addition to said English characters, wherein at least one of (a) said first set of keys, (b) said second set of keys, and (c) said third set of keys is adapted to input a Tamil character either alone or in combination with toggle keys, wherein each of (a) said first set of keys, (b) said second set of keys, and (c) said third set of keys are spatially grouped on said Tamil keyboard based on visualization characteristics of (i) said Tamil character, or (ii) said Tamil sub-character, wherein visually similar Tamil characters are provided in a single key or a neighboring key. 6 2

26 The Tamil keyboard of claim, wherein each of (a) said first set of keys, (b) said second set of keys, and (c) said third set of keys are further grouped on said Tamil keyboard based on ergonomics characteristics, and phonetics characteristics of (i) said Tamil character, or (ii) said Tamil sub-character. 3. The Tamil keyboard of claim 2, wherein Tamil characters 2 English character based on phonetic characteristics of said 3 Tamil character. 4. The Tamil keyboard of claim, wherein a Tamil character 2 English character based on ergonomics characteristics of said 3 Tamil character.. The Tamil keyboard of claim, wherein Tamil characters, 2 3 based on phonetics characteristics of 4 said Tamil characters. 26

27 6. The Tamil keyboard of claim, wherein visually different Tamil characters 2 exclusive keys that 3 correspond to said English characters K, X, F, H, V, C, L, and W respectively. 7. The Tamil keyboard of claim, wherein said visually similar Tamil characters 2 3 neighbouring 8. The Tamil keyboard of claim, said visually similar Tamil characters 2 3 English characters 4 based on phonetic characteristics of said Tamil characters A Tamil keyboard for inputting characters of Tamil script, wherein said Tamil keyboard comprises: a first row that comprises a first set of keys for the English characters Q,W,E,R,T,Y,U,I,O and P; 27

28 a second row that comprises a second set of keys for the English characters A,S,D,F,G,H,J,K and L; a third row that comprises a third set of keys for the English characters Z,X,C,V,B,N and M, wherein each of (a) said first set of keys, (b) said second set of keys, and (c) said third set of keys comprising at least one (i) Tamil character, or (ii) Tamil sub-character in addition to said English characters, wherein at least one of (a) said first set of keys, (b) said second set of keys (c) said third set of keys is adapted to input a Tamil character either alone or in combination with toggle keys, wherein each of (a) said first set of keys, (b) said second set of keys, and (c) said third set of keys are spatially grouped on said Tamil keyboard based on visualization characteristics of (i) said Tamil character, or (ii) said Tamil sub-character, wherein a Tamil character English character 6 based on ergonomics characteristics of said Tamil character wherein visually 7 different Tamil characters 8 9 respectively exclusive keys that corresponds to said English characters K, X, F, H, V, C, L, and W 0. The Tamil keyboard of claim 9, wherein visually similar Tamil characters 2 3 neighbouring. 28

29 ABSTRACT A Tamil keyboard for inputting characters of a Tamil script is provided. The Tamil keyboard includes (a) a first row that includes a first set of keys for the English characters Q,W,E,R,T,Y,U,I,O and P, (b) a second row that includes a second set of keys for the English characters A,S,D,F,G,H,J,K and L, and (c) a third row that includes a third set of keys for the English characters Z,X,C,V,B,N and M. Each of (a) the first set of keys, (b) the second set of keys, and (c) the third set of keys includes at least one (i) Tamil character, or (ii) Tamil sub-character in addition to the English characters, spatially grouped on the Tamil keyboard based on visualization characteristics of (i) the Tamil character, or (ii) the Tamil 0 sub-character. The visually similar Tamil characters are provided in a single key or a neighboring key. 29

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