Nutrients. Protein. Carbohydrates (starchy foods) Fats and oils. Vitamins. Minerals. Water. Fibre (NSP)

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1 Nutrients Protein Carbohydrates (starchy foods) Fats and oils Vitamins Minerals Water Fibre (NSP)

2 Protein 1 For growth and building/repair of body cells The most important nutrient From animals (HBV) and plants (LBV except soya) HBV high biological value (from animals and soya) LBV low biological value (from plants)

3 Protein 2 Proteins are made up of blocks (like bricks) - called amino acids - there are lots of different ones, but 10 are essential for children and 8 are essential for adults Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body so have to be obtained in our food. HBV proteins contain all the essential amino acids

4 Protein 3 HBV proteins meat, fish, cheese, eggs, milk, soya LBV proteins peas, beans, lentils, nuts, cereals Most of the protein we eat comes from cereals (bread, breakfast cereals, flour) Next highest is from meat, then from milk and cheese After that it s potatoes, then fish and eggs are equal

5 Carbohydrates 1 From plants Energy providers 2 types starches cereals, bread, pasta, potatoes, rice, etc sugars - fruit, sugar, jam, honey, marmalade, etc Fibre is also a carbohydrate see later Both sorts of carbohydrate break down into simple sugars as they are digested

6 Carbohydrates 2 Complex carbohydrates (such as whole grains) help keep blood sugar levels stable Too much sugar in one go makes us energetic but then tired Excess sugar is stored in muscle cells (ready to be used ) and in the liver Any not used is stored as body fat!!

7 Fats and oils 1 Fats solid at room temperature Oils liquid at room temperature They are energy providers (like carbohydrates) They also give body warmth by forming an insulating layer under the skin Weight for weight they give twice as many calories as carbohydrates Too much fat is bad for you but we need some for insulation and building cell membranes

8 Fats and oils 2 Examples of fats are butter and margarine Examples of oils are corn oil and olive oil Too much fat can cause: Obesity High cholesterol (clogs arteries) Coronary heart disease Halitosis (bad breath) Type 2 diabetes

9 Fats and oils 3 Good points about fats: Needed to make cell membranes Protect body organs with a fatty layer Lubricate food to make it easier to swallow Make you feel full for a long time Keep the body warm by making a layer under skin Give food a good flavour Give food a good texture often crisp Contain fat-soluble vitamins, mostly A and D

10 Vitamins Only needed in tiny amounts but vital for good health Named after letters of the alphabet and each has a particular job to do eg A good for eyes and mucous membranes ( like nose) fat soluble so is in fattier foods B a whole group of slightly different vitamins such as riboflavin. They help release energy from carbohydrate food. Water soluble. C really important as helps hold body cells together. Also helps the body absorb iron and helps healing Water soluble D helps get strong bones and teeth. Helps body absorb calcium. Can be made by the body by the action of sunlight on skin. Fat soluble

11 Minerals All that is left of a body after cremation... Found in most foods There are lots but you need to know about calcium and iron. These are the ones that we are more likely to not have enough of. Iron for making red blood cells, which take oxygen around the body. Lack of enough iron causes anaemia (more common in females) Calcium for strong bones and teeth. Works with vitamin D (and phosphorus). Also helps blood clot. Really important while growing ( most bone mass made by age 21). Lack of enough may cause osteoporosis (brittle bones)

12 Water How much of your body is water? 65%! You can survive for quite a long time without food - But only a couple of days without water - Because more body processes need water Water is needed to: Help control body temperature Lubricate (grease) joints Help digestion Adults need about 2 ½ litres a day ( 1 ½ litres from drinks) As fruit can be up to 90% water, this is another good reason to eat your 5 a day!!

13 Fibre (NSP) NSP is non-starch polysaccharides Fibre collects unwanted rubbish waste and water and then passes out of the body as faeces So lack of fibre can cause constipation Some cancers may be caused by lack of fibre as waste products may stay in the body too long. Fresh fruit and vegetables are high in fibre yet another reason to eat 5 a day

14 Malnutrition Some diseases are caused by not having enough nutrients (under-nourishment or starvation) Or eating too much or too little of one or more nutrients (malnutrition)

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