# Chapter 4 PAINTING LEARNING OBJECTIVES. By the end of this chapter you will be able to: types of surfaces.

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1 Chapter 4 PAINTING LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this chapter you will be able to: l Explain the basic principles of the colour theory. l Understand the sequence of applying paint to a room. l Understand the techniques for applying paint to different types of surfaces. 99

2 100 CONSTRUCTION: PAINTING AND DECORATING NOS REFERENCE Apply Paint Systems by Brush and Roller COLOUR THEORY This section looks at how we see colours, primary and secondary colours, choosing colours and colour systems. E-LEARNING Use the e-learning programme to see a demonstration on how we see colours. Prism A clear object which separates white light into a spectrum of different colours. How we see colours The light we see is made up of different wavelengths. When all the wavelengths are combined the light appears white. When the light is split through a prism we can see the different wavelengths shown as different colours. When the light hits an object, certain wavelengths are absorbed but other are reflected. It is the light that is reflected back that enables us to see the colour of the object. The colours that make up visible light

3 PAINTING 101 Primary and secondary colours Primary colours are sets of colours that can be mixed to form a range of other colours. RYB (red, yellow, blue) is used when mixing pigments and paints. When mixed together they will produce a black, although the resulting colour is likely to be a grey because of impurities within the pigment. These are known as subtractive mixtures. The RYB system is the oldest colour system and is the one used in painting and decorating. Secondary colours are the colours made by mixing two of the primary colours. For example, red and yellow make orange, red and blue make purple and blue and yellow make green. An RYB colour system

4 102 CONSTRUCTION: PAINTING AND DECORATING ACTIVITY In the table shown, write down whether each of the colours is primary or secondary. Colour Type of colour Purple Red Green Orange Yellow Blue Choosing colours E-LEARNING Use the e-learning programme to see a demonstration on choosing colours. This common set of colours provides a good basis for deciding on a choice of colours and colour schemes. Colours close to each other in the set are harmonious, whilst colours further apart can be complementary or contrasting to each other. This can be dramatic and needs to be handled carefully; colours in small contrasts can work by accenting colour schemes. Darken or lighten colours by adding black or white. This creates shades and tints. A dark colour would absorb more light so it would make a room look darker than a light colour. A scheme can be based upon shades of a single colour. Red, orange and yellow are warm colours whilst the blues and greens are cold colours.

5 PAINTING 103 A simple colour wheel Colour codes and finishes Paint manufacturers will give their paints distinctive names to differentiate them from similar products on the market, for example, Ocean Blue, Fathom Blue or Azure Blue. These names could in fact be describing the same shade of blue paint. NOTE ON UK STANDARDS British Standard BS4800, Paint Colours for Building Purposes, assigns a code for each paint colour used in the building trade so that it can be identified even if it has a different name from a different company. This number is the same across manufacturers.

6 104 CONSTRUCTION: PAINTING AND DECORATING The British Standard code is made up of three parts: l l l l Hue, an even number from 02 to 24, where lower numbers are closer to the red end of the scale, and the higher numbers are closer to the purple end of the scale. Greyness, a letter from A to E where A has a lot of grey whilst E has little or no grey. Weight, an odd number from 01 55, the higher the number the stronger and more intense the colour. For example, 18 C 39 is the code for a particular shade of blue. Symbols are sometimes used to tell you the finish of the paint. Example paint codes and symbols

7 PAINTING 105 Example paint colour chart APPLYING PAINT This section looks at the order for painting a room, techniques for applying paint, painting walls and ceilings, painting woodwork and drying times. Order for painting a room E-LEARNING Use the e-learning programme to see a demonstration on the order for painting a room. There are various sequences for painting a room but most of them involve starting with the ceiling, painting the cornices (if they need to be done separately), painting the walls (usually beginning around the windows) and finally painting the windows, radiators and doors. The general order is starting at the top (the ceiling) and working your way to the exit (the door). This order has two advantages. By starting at the top Cornice A decorative moulding at the junction between the walls and ceiling of a room.

8 106 CONSTRUCTION: PAINTING AND DECORATING and working your way down paint from the ceiling will only drip onto undecorated areas. By working your way towards the exit you are less likely to brush against wet paint. ACTIVITY Identify the sequence for painting a room by writing the step number on the image below. Techniques for applying paint When painting you should avoid taking paint directly from the tin as this could lead to contamination. A thick film of coat on the brush will make it easier to apply and the edge of the paint will stay wet longer so that you have more time to work it in. This is called a longer wet edge time. There will also be less brush marks and you will apply a fuller and more even and durable coat. Insufficient paint will result in an uneven finish with gaps, wrinkles, sags and runs.

9 PAINTING 107 Pour paint into a paint kettle E-LEARNING Use the e-learning programme to see a demonstration on applying paint. Applying paint to the brush Pour the paint to be used into a paint kettle. Make sure the brush has sufficient paint to apply a full coat to the surface. It should be about a third of the bristle length. Paint kettle When painting, pour the paint into one of these to stop contamination of the manufacturer s paint tin. Coat the brush with the paint

10 108 CONSTRUCTION: PAINTING AND DECORATING Applying paint to the roller If using a roller, make sure you do not overload it. Roll it backwards and forwards in the tray to ensure an even spread. Coat the roller with the paint Painting walls and ceilings E-LEARNING Use the e-learning programme to see a demonstration on painting walls and ceilings. When decorating, you should always paint the ceiling before the walls. For both surfaces, your first step is to cut in. This is painting a two to three inch strip around the corners and around any fittings or fixtures. You should do this on one wall at a time. 1. Split the surface into manageable areas and work in stages. When painting a ceiling, start in the corner furthest away from the door. With a wall, always paint top to bottom.

11 PAINTING If using a brush to paint then it must have a good coating of paint. You can apply the paint in all directions making sure that you apply a firm and even coating whilst checking the paint doesn t run. 3. If using a roller, the same principles apply, however you can use the M and W techniques to roll the paint on in the shape of these letters to get good wall coverage. Use a steady motion to reduce splatter marks. The number of coats applied will make a difference. On some occasions it may be more beneficial to apply two thin coats rather than one thick one. Split your areas of painting into manageable sections Painting windows and doors Woodwork will need to be painted differently depending on the type of window or door you are painting. E-LEARNING Use the e-learning programme to find out more about painting windows and doors.

12 110 CONSTRUCTION: PAINTING AND DECORATING Flush doors For a flush door with a plain surface, paint in stages of around 300mm by 300mm. Don t forget to paint the edges of the door as well. If you are painting a door that opens away from you, paint the hinge edge as well as the face. If you are painting a door that opens towards you, paint the latch edge. Painting a flush door in small sections Muntin Vertical intermediate timbers between the panels of a door. Stile Upright framing of a door into which the ends of the horizontal rails are fixed. Panelled doors If you are painting a panelled door, start with the edges of the door, followed by the panels and surrounding mouldings, and then the muntins. Now move on to the top, middle and bottom rails, and finish by painting the left and right stiles.

13 PAINTING 111 ACTIVITY In what order do you think this panelled door should be painted? Number the steps shown. Windows The process for painting windows will vary depending upon the type. In general, however, work from top to bottom and from side to side. Paint the glazing bars, followed by the top and bottom rail of the opener, then the stiles and the muntin. Finish with the header and the cill. Cill The sloping piece below a window for rainwater to run off.

14 112 CONSTRUCTION: PAINTING AND DECORATING ACTIVITY In what order do you think this window should be painted? Number the steps shown. Touch dry The stage during the drying of paint where it can be touched lightly without lifting any of the paint from the surface. Drying times Paint dries as the solvent within it evaporates leaving the resin and pigment to harden. The drying time will vary depending upon the type of paint. An emulsion may be touch dry in one to two hours, whereas gloss paint may take over four hours. Being touch dry is not the same as being re-coatable and it may take longer for the paint to be ready for another coat. Typical drying times will usually appear on the paint can. There are a number of factors that could impact upon the time it takes for the paint to dry. These can include extremes in temperature or humidity, or poor preparation of the surface or application of the paint.

15 PAINTING 113 CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE 1. The primary colour system used in painting and decorating is made up of which three colours? n a. Red n b. Yellow n c. Orange n d. Green n e. Blue n f. Indigo n g. Violet n h. Black 2. Label the RYB colour system below using the colours listed. a. Red b. Orange c. Blue d. Purple e. Black

16 114 CONSTRUCTION: PAINTING AND DECORATING 3. Secondary colours are the colours made by mixing two of the primary colours. n a. True n b. False 4. When painting which should you paint first? n a. Walls n b. Ceiling

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