Punctuation of Scientific Prose as a Cross-Cultural Phenomenon. Tatiana Evtushenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Punctuation of Scientific Prose as a Cross-Cultural Phenomenon. Tatiana Evtushenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia"

Transcription

1 Punctuation of Scientific Prose as a Cross-Cultural Phenomenon Tatiana Evtushenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia 0216 The European Conference on Language Learning 2013 Official Conference Proceedings 2013 Contemporary Issues on Language Learning Abstract This paper presents the study of current tendencies of the punctuation usage in modern Russian and English (mostly American) scientific prose which suffers the influence of fast development of Information Technologies, language contact, and general instability of modern punctuation practice. The combination of common punctuation marks, consistent with other typographic devices provides a specific complex multi-level structure of a modern computer edited scientific text. The use of all punctuation devices is reduced to separating, emphasizing and linking functions and is governed by the set of rules and standards specific for different languages. The obligatory compliance of punctuation rules in Russian is contrasted to the recommending nature of English punctuation; the main objective of the latter is to reveal the communicative intention of a speaker and to make the text interpretation easier for a recipient. Contrasting the punctuation of Russian and English scientific constructions allows to reveal a number of similarities such as the same set and similar functions of punctuation devices and lack of stable uniformity at different publishing houses. The punctuation differences in Russian and English texts are reduced to its real functioning. The use of punctuation in Russian pre-printed texts is not strictly limited by the established Russian rules and shows more correspondence with English punctuation functioning. Such correspondence suggests that punctuation conventions are not completely governed by a certain language but are rather intercultural. This thesis contributes to the scientific study of modern punctuation status as an international phenomenon that exists independently for inter-language general usage. iafor The International Academic Forum

2 Punctuation of Scientific Prose as a Cross-Cultural Phenomenon Tatiana Evtushenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia Introduction This scientific research focuses on current tendencies of punctuation usage in modern Russian and English scientific prose (mostly American and International). The punctuation rules for both languages are widely presented nowadays in punctuation guides and manuals (Valguina 2004, Rubens 2001, Kirkman 2006, etc.). The theoretical issues of modern punctuation practice and the compliance of these rules are also considered in well-known manuscripts (see, for example, Shubina 2006; Truss 2004, etc.), where the researchers describe the state of the art and analyze the nature of changes in modern punctuation systems using descriptive and comparative methods (Orehova 2000). However, using the conventional contrastive approach allows to describe only the main differences and similarities of the punctuation of Russian and English languages and to study the main punctuation principles, rules and conventions. Our approach of studying the standard printed language and the tendencies in pre-printed texts at the same time helps determine the features and also the perspectives of the punctuation of scientific prose in future. According to published results, not enough attention has been paid to the relationship between punctuating and the researcher s mind who writes a scientific paper. Since these two are closely related, additional psycholinguistic investigations in this area are necessary. Studying the naïve punctuation of natural writing (Lebedeva 2002), which is not edited by publishers, helps us reveal the nature and the attitude to this phenomenon in different languages and see how people with different mentalities use punctuation devices. Since nowadays English became an international language in many scientific areas and correspondingly it demonstrates the mixing of ideas and mentalities it is of interest to find out in what way the international English may affect people s thinking. In this paper, Russian and English printed and pre-printed scientific papers in the areas of electronics and computer science were considered. The scientific prose was analyzed using the descriptive and contrastive methods which enabled us to enlighten basic principles, similarities and differences of Russian and English punctuation. The main findings of this work concern the analysis of the naïve punctuation of preprinted texts where Russian punctuation rules are not strictly complied and some cases of the deviance correspond to English standards. The rest of the paper is structured as follows. In the motivation section, the background and scientific aspects of this investigation are discussed. In the main body of the paper, the punctuation principles, common and specific features of punctuating Russian and English scientific prose are considered. The punctuation deviance in Russian pre-printed texts and its correspondence to English standards is described. In

3 the conclusion the implications of the research with venues for future work are suggested. Motivation The set of punctuation devices and the range of their functions, i.e. both quality and quantity of punctuation marks, are constantly changing due to the development of new digital forms of communication (internet, mobile phones, etc.). Thus, many people, no matter well-educated or not, become writers nowadays (Truss 2004), which has a certain affect on functioning of punctuation in different areas, in particular Russian and English scientific writing. Russian young scientists not having time to study punctuation rules in the EFL classroom acquire them based on their own experience, i.e. from reading scientific papers in English language produced by researchers of different nationalities which are not necessarily edited by high quality publishing houses. Thus, the punctuation of Russian and English electronic and printed texts, in particular scientific texts, reveals general inconsistency of modern punctuation practice which is governed by the following factors: 1) more freedom in Russian mentality that affects different aspects of writing, 2) fast development of Information Technologies, and 3) language contact, since ordinary young people start communicating in English, and this language in some cases is very far from the classical British language. Last 20 years most scientific journals in the area of computer science and electronics are not translated anymore into native languages, and young researchers do not have other choice than to read them in English. It can thereby be one of the reasons of punctuation changes in Russian scientific prose. English language is considered in this paper as a language of 1) the Internet in some areas of research (electronics and computer science), 2) the universal English symbols and typographic signals on the computer key-board, and 3) the official language of scientific conferences and publications in many international journals. Therefore, since English has a major effect on different aspects of Russian scientific language, the objective of this study is to analyze how international English interferes with Russian concept of punctuating scientific prose. Methods and corpora The corpora used for the analysis are printed and pre-printed Russian and English scientific papers. The printed texts from known publishing houses are treated as standard, whereas the pre-printed texts produced by Russian young scientists are not corrected by editors. Studying these texts allows to find the cases of deviance from Russian punctuation rules. These texts illustrate the naive idea of punctuating scientific prose in the minds of Russian researchers. The data were collected using a descriptive method with the elements of contrastive analysis; they are used to find the correspondence between theory and practice in the punctuation of scientific writing. In our research it is important not to treat this deviance just as non-accuracy. These cases are considered from the anthropological point of view to reveal a natural and common way of expressing a scientific idea in different languages, in particular, the convenience and logics of using them by a young Russian researcher. Combining all the mentioned techniques enable us to study

4 English itself and how it influences other languages not only in the aspects of the past and the present, but also the future. We studied printed scientific papers from well-known publishers such as Elsevier, IEEE, Springer, etc. Russian scientific papers were analyzed from good blind reviewed journals edited by correctors: Izvestiya of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vestnik of Tomsk State University, Izvestiya of Tomsk Polytechnic University, etc. Russian pre-printed scientific papers were written by young Russian researchers who have to read and write in English language. The common and specific features of punctuating Russian and English scientific prose As far as an electronic or printed scientific text (Russian or English) is concerned, the combination of conventional punctuation marks, consistent with other typographic signals and effects provides its complex multi-level structure. Variation of these devices contributes to the efficiency of the scientific text interpretation. The use of micro-level punctuation, i.e. conventional punctuation marks such as a comma, full stop, colon and others, is governed by the set of rules and standards specific for different languages. The nature of conventional stops in scientific writing is not only grammatical or semantic as is described in various guides; apart from that their specific formal functions are specified in templates. The use of macro-level punctuation, i.e. the typographic devices such as capitalization, spacing, variation of font, size-type, etc., emphasizing the hierarchy of the text elements (headings, abstracts, terms), is specified by a great variety of standards offered by different publishing houses and is not formally codified in Russian and English languages. However, the requirements given in the templates must be strictly followed comparing to rather optional usage of conventional punctuation marks in the international scientific prose. There are more similarities in modern punctuation of Russian and English scientific prose that are not evident from the first sight: 1) almost the same set and similar functions of punctuation devices, 2) the inconsistency of the elective use of symbols and characters (e.g. British and American quotes; em- and en-dashes, etc.) and the typographic organization within one language but different publishing houses. Despite of the fact that the graphic structure of a scientific text in European languages is mostly common, there are differences in the main punctuation principles, in particular, in Russian and English punctuation systems. In this paper, the prescriptive approach of punctuating Russian prose is contrasted to the anthropological approach of English punctuation. The compliance of the rules in Russian is obligatory, whereas the nature of English punctuation is recommending and its main objective is to reveal the communicative intention of the author and to make the text interpretation easier for the recipient. To be more precise, in most cases, similar syntactic constructions in English scientific prose can be punctuated in different ways depending on the length and meaning of the sentence. Because of this, English punctuation standards are presented in the guides not only as strict rules, but mostly as conventions. However, the theory and practice of Russian punctuation, which was known to be very strict some decades

5 ago, is suffering slow changes nowadays, and the amends are introduced for some rules in accordance with the meaning of the sentence and the author s intention. Because of the recommending nature of English punctuation usage, three types of equivalence of punctuating syntactic constructions in Russian and English can be specified. The equivalence types together with some examples are given in Table 1. Table 1. Types of equivalence of punctuating syntactic constructions in Russian and English English style Russian style, which + /non-restrictive, which + /non-restrictive clause/, clause/, The power loss can be reduced by The power loss can be reduced by switching the transmitter direct to switching the transmitter direct to the X the X aerial, which is mounted on aerial, which is mounted on the roof,... the roof,... Full equivalence Partial equivalence Full nonequivalence /Introductory phrase/, /simple or complex sentence/ In this paper we consider the following examples. In this paper, we consider the following examples. /Principal clause/ that /subordinate clause/ It follows that /Introductory phrase/ /simple or complex sentence/ In this paper we consider the following examples. /Principal clause/, that /subordinate clause/ It follows, that The deviance from Russian rules in pre-printed scientific texts: drifting to English standards The punctuation of pre-printed scientific texts shows how texts are punctuated from the point of view of young Russian researchers. It appears that this punctuation is not limited by the standards presented in the rules and typographic guides. There are two types of the deviance: 1) not all the symbols used in the pre-printed texts exist in Russian standard punctuation practice, 2) the punctuation devices are used in the functions not prescribed by the rules. 1) The punctuation of pre-printed texts produced by Russian researchers is characterized by a wider set of punctuation devices, since the additional symbols that are alien for Russian punctuation standards such as a long dash ( ) or English quotes ( ) and etc. are frequently used in pre-printed electronic variant. The example below illustrates the use of a long dash instead of the Russian en-dash: e.g.... this can be done by omitting the additive though this should be done only as a last resort. 2) Pre-printed texts also demonstrate a wider range of functions for micro- and macrolevel punctuation. Conventional punctuation marks that separate units (period, comma, dash, etc.) and the typographic devices such as capitalization, italics and underlining possess a wider functional potential in pre-printed texts. Some are used for giving additional emphasis to the words and phrases that seem to be important to the author but not essential enough to the syntactic structure. The example below shows omitting of a comma between the clauses of a compound sentence:

6 e.g. The samples have arrived_and testing will begin shortly. According to the collected data, the deviance from Russian standards appears to correspond to a number of English scientific style punctuation rules. The symbols that are used in pre-printed texts do not exist in Russian scientific prose but they are taken from the universal international system of writing. We found many cases when the punctuation devices in Russian pre-printed texts are used in functions that are not specified by Russian punctuation rules and correspond to English punctuation rules. These are the cases of usage of a full stop, comma, dash and capitalization in delineation and serialization functions. The examples of this drifting tendency are shown below. The following example represents the use of the English quotes instead of Russian (): e.g. the plasma tube temperature increases automatically A comma used after an introductory phrase or initial group is a common case. In Russian language this case is not specified by the rules and is considered as an error in the corrected printed version: e.g. In Section I, the basic expression to be used in the theoretical development is obtained. The comparative analysis allowed to assume that Russian punctuation seems to be slowly drifting to English standards. However, it still needs further research whether we deal here with the interference or a cross-cultural phenomenon of punctuation in scientific writing. Conclusions and discussion The obtained results show that the range of punctuation devices and their functions of pre-printed texts is wider than in the printed texts and modern punctuation practice of Russian scientific prose corresponds to English standards in some cases. The inconsistency of Russian punctuation practice, contact of languages in science, and the anthropological approach, which is slowly being accepted in Russian punctuation practice, create favorable conditions for modifying Russian mentality and the concept of punctuating Russian and English scientific prose, and thereby this research contributes to the scientific study of modern punctuation status as a cross-cultural phenomenon. This research has a number of applications. The results can be used as tips for teaching punctuation in the EFL classroom: teaching Russian punctuation at school, or teaching English punctuation to young researchers, as well as these results can be useful in machine translation. This study also contributes to solving some important linguistic problems when determining the status of modern punctuation and contributing to normalizing processes. It is theoretically important to continue the research of current punctuation tendencies in different areas of scientific style using the collected data in order to study the relationship between micro- and macro-text level punctuation in the minds of researchers of different mentality, to investigate how punctuation of European and Eastern languages affects the punctuation of international English, to develop new experimental methods for studying the interference phenomena in punctuating scientific writing.

7 References Valguina N. (2004) The problems of modern Russian punctuation, trans., Moscow: Visshaya shkola. Lebedeva N. (2002) Natural punctuation: stating a problem // The language situation in Russia at the beginning of the 21 st century (pp ), vol.2. trans., Kemerovo: Kemerovo State University. Orehova N. (2000) Punctuation and writing, trans., Ijevsk: Udmurtsky University. Shubina N. (2006) Punctuation of modern Russian language, trans., Moscow: Akademiya. Truss L. (2004) Eats. Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation, New York: Penguin Group. Kirkman J. (2006) Punctuation Matters Advice on Punctuation for Scientific and Technical Writing, London and New York: Routledge. Rubens Ph. (2001) Science and Technical Writing: A Manual of Style, New York: Routledge.

8 Susan Grider Montgomery, HEALTH COMES FIRST!!!, USA

Ask your teacher about any which you aren t sure of, especially any differences.

Ask your teacher about any which you aren t sure of, especially any differences. Punctuation in Academic Writing Academic punctuation presentation/ Defining your terms practice Choose one of the things below and work together to describe its form and uses in as much detail as possible,

More information

10th Grade Language. Goal ISAT% Objective Description (with content limits) Vocabulary Words

10th Grade Language. Goal ISAT% Objective Description (with content limits) Vocabulary Words Standard 3: Writing Process 3.1: Prewrite 58-69% 10.LA.3.1.2 Generate a main idea or thesis appropriate to a type of writing. (753.02.b) Items may include a specified purpose, audience, and writing outline.

More information

FUNCTIONAL SKILLS ENGLISH - WRITING LEVEL 2

FUNCTIONAL SKILLS ENGLISH - WRITING LEVEL 2 FUNCTIONAL SKILLS ENGLISH - WRITING LEVEL 2 MARK SCHEME Instructions to marker There are 30 marks available for each of the three tasks, which should be marked separately, resulting in a total of 90 marks.

More information

Grade 6 Third Prompt

Grade 6 Third Prompt Grade 6 Third Prompt Response to Literature Writing a Character Analysis English/Language Arts Content Standards: 1.0 Writing Strategies 2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) 2.4

More information

the treasure of lemon brown by walter dean myers

the treasure of lemon brown by walter dean myers the treasure of lemon brown by walter dean myers item analysis for all grade 7 standards: vocabulary, reading, writing, conventions item analysis for all grade 8 standards: vocabulary, reading, writing,

More information

EDITING YOUR THESIS Some useful pointers. Editing is all about making it easy for the reader to read your work.

EDITING YOUR THESIS Some useful pointers. Editing is all about making it easy for the reader to read your work. EDITING YOUR THESIS Some useful pointers What is involved? Editing is all about making it easy for the reader to read your work. The editing process involves looking at the work in three distinct ways:

More information

Course Description (MA Degree)

Course Description (MA Degree) Course Description (MA Degree) Eng. 508 Semantics (3 Credit hrs.) This course is an introduction to the issues of meaning and logical interpretation in natural language. The first part of the course concentrates

More information

THE BACHELOR S DEGREE IN SPANISH

THE BACHELOR S DEGREE IN SPANISH Academic regulations for THE BACHELOR S DEGREE IN SPANISH THE FACULTY OF HUMANITIES THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS 2007 1 Framework conditions Heading Title Prepared by Effective date Prescribed points Text

More information

Listening Speaking Reading Writing

Listening Speaking Reading Writing Advanced CB 21 A One level Assess descriptions and narrations of factual and technical materials. Discriminate for accurate information while taking notes of a complex discourse. Assess the essential message

More information

Bauer College of Business Writing Style Guide

Bauer College of Business Writing Style Guide Bauer College of Business Writing Style Guide This guide is intended to help you adopt a style of written communication that is appropriate for the real world of business. It is not intended to replace

More information

Submission guidelines for authors and editors

Submission guidelines for authors and editors Submission guidelines for authors and editors For the benefit of production efficiency and the production of texts of the highest quality and consistency, we urge you to follow the enclosed submission

More information

Writing Standard Articulated by Grade Level Grade 3. Strand 1: Writing Process

Writing Standard Articulated by Grade Level Grade 3. Strand 1: Writing Process Strand 1: Writing Process Research has established the major steps of the writing process. These steps are identified in the five concepts of this strand, each supported with specific performance objectives.

More information

Application of the Interactive Approach to the Teaching of English Reading in College

Application of the Interactive Approach to the Teaching of English Reading in College Application of the Interactive Approach to the Teaching of English Reading in College Dong Yan Shanxi Heavy Machinery Institute Abstract: Based on the careful analysis of the reading process and the thorough

More information

PREP-009 COURSE SYLLABUS FOR WRITTEN COMMUNICATIONS

PREP-009 COURSE SYLLABUS FOR WRITTEN COMMUNICATIONS Coffeyville Community College PREP-009 COURSE SYLLABUS FOR WRITTEN COMMUNICATIONS Ryan Butcher Instructor COURSE NUMBER: PREP-009 COURSE TITLE: Written Communications CREDIT HOURS: 3 INSTRUCTOR: OFFICE

More information

Social Informatics Today and Tomorrow: Status, Problems and Prospects of Development of Complex Lines in the Field of Science and Education

Social Informatics Today and Tomorrow: Status, Problems and Prospects of Development of Complex Lines in the Field of Science and Education triplec 9(2): 460-465, 2011 ISSN 1726-670X http://www.triple-c.at Social Informatics Today and Tomorrow: Status, Problems and Prospects of Development of Complex Lines in the Field of Science and Education

More information

Test at a Glance. About this test

Test at a Glance. About this test English to Speakers of Other Languages (0360) Test at a Glance Test Name English to Speakers of Other Languages Test Code 0360 Time 2 hours, with a 30-minute listening section Number of Questions 120,

More information

6. Punctuation. 6.1 When emphasis is desired, a colon may be used to introduce a secondary clause that is closely related to the main clause:

6. Punctuation. 6.1 When emphasis is desired, a colon may be used to introduce a secondary clause that is closely related to the main clause: 6. Punctuation By and large, AFS publications follow the Chicago Manual of Style in matters of punctuation. This chapter is primarily concerned with (1) areas in which AFS style differs from that in the

More information

Ongoing Student Learning Expectations to be Addressed Each Nine Weeks

Ongoing Student Learning Expectations to be Addressed Each Nine Weeks W.4.2.1 Contribute to a writer s notebook (i.e., interesting words or phrases, books or experiences that spark an interest, etc.) Northwest Arkansas Instructional Alignment English Language Arts Grade

More information

Study Plan for Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics

Study Plan for Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics Study Plan for Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics is awarded by the Faculty of Graduate Studies at Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) upon the fulfillment

More information

Guidelines for Authors

Guidelines for Authors Guidelines for Authors The South African Journal of Science accepts articles from any source on the understanding that they are the original work of the authors named and that they are being offered only

More information

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6 Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6 4 I. READING AND LITERATURE A. Word Recognition, Analysis, and Fluency The student

More information

12 SECOND QUARTER CLASS ASSIGNMENTS

12 SECOND QUARTER CLASS ASSIGNMENTS October 13- Homecoming activities. Limited class time. October 14- Homecoming activities. Limited class time. October 15- Homecoming activities. Limited class time. October 16- Homecoming activities. Limited

More information

ACCOUNTING RESEARCH. Panel Discussion. ANDREW BARR Chief Accountant Securities and Exchange Commission. at the. Annual Meeting.

ACCOUNTING RESEARCH. Panel Discussion. ANDREW BARR Chief Accountant Securities and Exchange Commission. at the. Annual Meeting. ACCOUNTING RESEARCH Panel Discussion ANDREW BARR Chief Accountant Securities and Exchange Commission at the Annual Meeting of the AMERICAN ACCOUNTING ASSOCIATION The Ohio State University Columbus August

More information

Discourse Markers in English Writing

Discourse Markers in English Writing Discourse Markers in English Writing Li FENG Abstract Many devices, such as reference, substitution, ellipsis, and discourse marker, contribute to a discourse s cohesion and coherence. This paper focuses

More information

Result Analysis of the Local FCE Examination Sessions (2013-2014) at Tomsk Polytechnic University

Result Analysis of the Local FCE Examination Sessions (2013-2014) at Tomsk Polytechnic University Doi:10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n3s1p239 Abstract Result Analysis of the Local FCE Examination Sessions (2013-2014) at Tomsk Polytechnic University Oksana P. Kabrysheva National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University,

More information

Instructions to Authors

Instructions to Authors Instructions to Authors Recent Results in Cancer Research Jan. 2005 We are very pleased to welcome you as an author at Springer-Verlag. These instructions are designed to speed up the production of your

More information

PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE

PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE As a graduate student, you should realize that your accepted thesis is a published document, and Purdue University is the publisher. A copy of your thesis will be archived in the

More information

Module 15 Exercise 1 How to use varied and correct sentence structures

Module 15 Exercise 1 How to use varied and correct sentence structures Section 1A: Comprehension and Insight skills based on short stories Module 15 Exercise 1 How to use varied and correct sentence structures Before you begin What you need: Related text: Seven Wonders by

More information

DIFFICULTIES AND SOME PROBLEMS IN TRANSLATING LEGAL DOCUMENTS

DIFFICULTIES AND SOME PROBLEMS IN TRANSLATING LEGAL DOCUMENTS DIFFICULTIES AND SOME PROBLEMS IN TRANSLATING LEGAL DOCUMENTS Ivanka Sakareva Translation of legal documents bears its own inherent difficulties. First we should note that this type of translation is burdened

More information

Report Writing: Editing the Writing in the Final Draft

Report Writing: Editing the Writing in the Final Draft Report Writing: Editing the Writing in the Final Draft 1. Organisation within each section of the report Check that you have used signposting to tell the reader how your text is structured At the beginning

More information

Student Guide for Usage of Criterion

Student Guide for Usage of Criterion Student Guide for Usage of Criterion Criterion is an Online Writing Evaluation service offered by ETS. It is a computer-based scoring program designed to help you think about your writing process and communicate

More information

Quick Introduction to APA Style For Use in Speech-Language Pathology

Quick Introduction to APA Style For Use in Speech-Language Pathology Quick Introduction to APA Style For Use in Speech-Language Pathology NOTE: All text is taken from: American Psychological Association (1997). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

More information

Common Core Progress English Language Arts

Common Core Progress English Language Arts [ SADLIER Common Core Progress English Language Arts Aligned to the [ Florida Next Generation GRADE 6 Sunshine State (Common Core) Standards for English Language Arts Contents 2 Strand: Reading Standards

More information

Compound Sentences and Coordination

Compound Sentences and Coordination Compound Sentences and Coordination Mary Westervelt Reference: Ann Hogue (2003) The Essentials of English: A Writer s Handbook. New York, Pearson Education, Inc. When two sentences are combined in a way

More information

in Language, Culture, and Communication

in Language, Culture, and Communication 22 April 2013 Study Plan M. A. Degree in Language, Culture, and Communication Linguistics Department 2012/2013 Faculty of Foreign Languages - Jordan University 1 STUDY PLAN M. A. DEGREE IN LANGUAGE, CULTURE

More information

Guide to MLA Parenthetical Documentation. Examples

Guide to MLA Parenthetical Documentation. Examples Guide to MLA Parenthetical Documentation Whenever you quote words, cite facts, or use ideas from an outside source, you must briefly identify that source by author (or title if there is no credited author)

More information

Editorial Style Guide

Editorial Style Guide Editorial Style Guide These guidelines are designed to help Sigma Tau Delta members prepare copy for Sigma Tau Delta publications (print and electronic). They are intended to ensure consistency of style,

More information

HOW SHOULD YOU PRESENT AND STRUCTURE AN ESSAY? DISCUSS. Rupert Gethin

HOW SHOULD YOU PRESENT AND STRUCTURE AN ESSAY? DISCUSS. Rupert Gethin HOW SHOULD YOU PRESENT AND STRUCTURE AN ESSAY? DISCUSS. Rupert Gethin [Introduction] What follows is an essay on how to present and structure essays. The essay falls into two main parts: the first focuses

More information

CHECKLIST FOR THE DEGREE PROJECT REPORT

CHECKLIST FOR THE DEGREE PROJECT REPORT Kerstin Frenckner, kfrenck@csc.kth.se Copyright CSC 25 mars 2009 CHECKLIST FOR THE DEGREE PROJECT REPORT This checklist has been written to help you check that your report matches the demands that are

More information

Writing Common Core KEY WORDS

Writing Common Core KEY WORDS Writing Common Core KEY WORDS An educator's guide to words frequently used in the Common Core State Standards, organized by grade level in order to show the progression of writing Common Core vocabulary

More information

International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 2016, 11(6), 1231-1236

International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 2016, 11(6), 1231-1236 International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 2016, 11(6), 1231-1236 Problems of Modern Higher Education in the Sphere of Russian Philology and the Ways of Solving them (on the Example of

More information

2. SUMMER ADVISEMENT AND ORIENTATION PERIODS FOR NEWLY ADMITTED FRESHMEN AND TRANSFER STUDENTS

2. SUMMER ADVISEMENT AND ORIENTATION PERIODS FOR NEWLY ADMITTED FRESHMEN AND TRANSFER STUDENTS Chemistry Department Policy Assessment: Undergraduate Programs 1. MISSION STATEMENT The Chemistry Department offers academic programs which provide students with a liberal arts background and the theoretical

More information

Guide to Prospectus Writing

Guide to Prospectus Writing Guide to Prospectus Writing Dean Wheeler 2009 This brief guide is provided to aid my graduate students in writing the M.S. or Ph.D. prospectus required by the BYU Chemical Engineering Department. It supplements

More information

Language Arts Literacy Areas of Focus: Grade 6

Language Arts Literacy Areas of Focus: Grade 6 Language Arts Literacy : Grade 6 Mission: Learning to read, write, speak, listen, and view critically, strategically and creatively enables students to discover personal and shared meaning throughout their

More information

Making Reading Content Comprehensible for Intermediate Language Learners. Colin Dalton. University of Houston-Downtown, United States

Making Reading Content Comprehensible for Intermediate Language Learners. Colin Dalton. University of Houston-Downtown, United States Making Reading Content Comprehensible for Intermediate Language Learners Colin Dalton University of Houston-Downtown, United States 0135 The European Conference on Language Learning 2013 Official Conference

More information

Study Plan. Bachelor s in. Faculty of Foreign Languages University of Jordan

Study Plan. Bachelor s in. Faculty of Foreign Languages University of Jordan Study Plan Bachelor s in Spanish and English Faculty of Foreign Languages University of Jordan 2009/2010 Department of European Languages Faculty of Foreign Languages University of Jordan Degree: B.A.

More information

Grade 5 Second Prompt

Grade 5 Second Prompt Grade 5 Second Prompt Expository Writing an Essay Answer English/Language Arts Content Standards: 1.0 Writing Strategies 2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) 2.3 Write research reports

More information

A + dvancer College Readiness Online Alignment to Florida PERT

A + dvancer College Readiness Online Alignment to Florida PERT A + dvancer College Readiness Online Alignment to Florida PERT Area Objective ID Topic Subject Activity Mathematics Math MPRC1 Equations: Solve linear in one variable College Readiness-Arithmetic Solving

More information

Strategy and Tactics of Translating Special Texts

Strategy and Tactics of Translating Special Texts Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 6 (2012 5) 861-867 ~ ~ ~ УДК 81 25 Strategy and Tactics of Translating Special Texts Vadim V. Sdobnikov* Nizhny Novgorod State Linguistic

More information

EDITING STYLES FOR THESES/DISSERTATIONS SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AND A&M COLLEGE OFFICE OF GRADUATE STUDIES

EDITING STYLES FOR THESES/DISSERTATIONS SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AND A&M COLLEGE OFFICE OF GRADUATE STUDIES EDITING STYLES FOR THESES/DISSERTATIONS SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY AND A&M COLLEGE OFFICE OF GRADUATE STUDIES EDITING YOUR THESIS/DISSERTATION What is Involved? Editing is all about making it easy for the reader

More information

Curriculum Development for Doctoral Studies in Education

Curriculum Development for Doctoral Studies in Education Curriculum Development for Doctoral Studies in Education Irine BAKHTADZE * Abstract Profound changes in high education which started in 1996 in Georgia have to be continued. We have to explore potentially

More information

Subordinating Ideas Using Phrases It All Started with Sputnik

Subordinating Ideas Using Phrases It All Started with Sputnik NATIONAL MATH + SCIENCE INITIATIVE English Subordinating Ideas Using Phrases It All Started with Sputnik Grade 9-10 OBJECTIVES Students will demonstrate understanding of how different types of phrases

More information

Television Production 2

Television Production 2 Library Media 1100310 Industrial Arts 8772120 Television Production 2 At the completion of Television 2, all students should be able to - Plan and produce a news package appropriate for airing on the school

More information

Guide for writing assignment reports

Guide for writing assignment reports l TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE University of Twente Department of Electrical Engineering Chair for Telecommunication Engineering Guide for writing assignment reports by A.B.C. Surname

More information

As students in grades 9-12 extend their knowledge, what they know and are able to do includes

As students in grades 9-12 extend their knowledge, what they know and are able to do includes Model Content Standards Reading and Writing Wisconsin Colorado Michigan L iterature The Reader s Choice American Literature 2007 Michigan STANDARDS STANDARD 1: Students read and understand a variety of

More information

Understanding Clauses and How to Connect Them to Avoid Fragments, Comma Splices, and Fused Sentences A Grammar Help Handout by Abbie Potter Henry

Understanding Clauses and How to Connect Them to Avoid Fragments, Comma Splices, and Fused Sentences A Grammar Help Handout by Abbie Potter Henry Independent Clauses An independent clause (IC) contains at least one subject and one verb and can stand by itself as a simple sentence. Here are examples of independent clauses. Because these sentences

More information

Preservation Handbook

Preservation Handbook Preservation Handbook Plain text Author Version 2 Date 17.08.05 Change History Martin Wynne and Stuart Yeates Written by MW 2004. Revised by SY May 2005. Revised by MW August 2005. Page 1 of 7 File: presplaintext_d2.doc

More information

Instructions for completing your Europass Language Passport

Instructions for completing your Europass Language Passport Instructions for completing your Europass Language Passport Introduction The Europass Language Passport is a document in which you can record your skills and competence in Languages. It was developed by

More information

Texas Success Initiative (TSI) Assessment. Interpreting Your Score

Texas Success Initiative (TSI) Assessment. Interpreting Your Score Texas Success Initiative (TSI) Assessment Interpreting Your Score 1 Congratulations on taking the TSI Assessment! The TSI Assessment measures your strengths and weaknesses in mathematics and statistics,

More information

St Patrick s College Maynooth. Faculty of Theology. Essay Writing Guidelines for Students in BD, BATh, BTh, and Higher Diploma in Theological Studies

St Patrick s College Maynooth. Faculty of Theology. Essay Writing Guidelines for Students in BD, BATh, BTh, and Higher Diploma in Theological Studies St Patrick s College Maynooth Faculty of Theology Essay Writing Guidelines for Students in BD, BATh, BTh, and Higher Diploma in Theological Studies Academic Year 2014-15 Introduction This brief essay is

More information

Cohesive writing 1. Conjunction: linking words What is cohesive writing?

Cohesive writing 1. Conjunction: linking words What is cohesive writing? Cohesive writing 1. Conjunction: linking words What is cohesive writing? Cohesive writing is writing which holds together well. It is easy to follow because it uses language effectively to guide the reader.

More information

Psychodrama in the Training of Practical Psychologists

Psychodrama in the Training of Practical Psychologists Review of European Studies; Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015 ISSN 1918-7173 E-ISSN 1918-7181 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education Psychodrama in the Training of Practical Psychologists Vera P. Zeleeva

More information

Academic writing: sentence level

Academic writing: sentence level Academic writing: sentence level Sentences In academic writing, every sentence you write must be grammatically complete. A grammatically complete sentence consists of a complete thought, and can makes

More information

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH-IJRER. Guide for Authors

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH-IJRER. Guide for Authors INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH-IJRER Guide for Authors The International Journal of Renewable Energy Research seeks to promote and disseminate knowledge of the various topics and technologies

More information

Writing Assessment Focuses

Writing Assessment Focuses Writing Assessment Focuses The I Can statements link to the Assessment and Progression sheets and support children in their involvement in the targets setting process. They will need to be mediated and

More information

COMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX

COMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX COLING 82, J. Horeck~ (ed.j North-Holland Publishing Compa~y Academia, 1982 COMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX Ludmila UhliFova - Zva Nebeska - Jan Kralik Czech Language Institute Czechoslovak Academy

More information

UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS PRESS HOUSE STYLE GUIDE

UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS PRESS HOUSE STYLE GUIDE UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS PRESS HOUSE STYLE GUIDE Generally, follow the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), 15th or 16th edition, Merriam-Webster s Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, and Webster s Third

More information

Technical Writing Course

Technical Writing Course Abelard Consulting Technical Writing Course get brochure book online home page Abelard Consulting is of the view that giving participants in a training course just the presentation slides to take away

More information

Annotation Guidelines for Dutch-English Word Alignment

Annotation Guidelines for Dutch-English Word Alignment Annotation Guidelines for Dutch-English Word Alignment version 1.0 LT3 Technical Report LT3 10-01 Lieve Macken LT3 Language and Translation Technology Team Faculty of Translation Studies University College

More information

Master of Arts Program in Linguistics for Communication Department of Linguistics Faculty of Liberal Arts Thammasat University

Master of Arts Program in Linguistics for Communication Department of Linguistics Faculty of Liberal Arts Thammasat University Master of Arts Program in Linguistics for Communication Department of Linguistics Faculty of Liberal Arts Thammasat University 1. Academic Program Master of Arts Program in Linguistics for Communication

More information

CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS FOR OKLAHOMA EDUCATORS (CEOE )

CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS FOR OKLAHOMA EDUCATORS (CEOE ) CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS FOR OKLAHOMA EDUCATORS (CEOE ) FIELD 74: OKLAHOMA GENERAL EDUCATION TEST (OGET ) Subarea Range of Competencies I. Critical Thinking Skills: Reading and Communications 01 05 II.

More information

Date Re-Assessed. Indicator. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.5.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

Date Re-Assessed. Indicator. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.5.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. CCSS English/Language Arts Standards Reading: Foundational Skills Fifth Grade Retaught Reviewed Assessed Phonics and Word Recognition CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.5.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word

More information

9 The Difficulties Of Secondary Students In Written English

9 The Difficulties Of Secondary Students In Written English 9 The Difficulties Of Secondary Students In Written English Abdullah Mohammed Al-Abri Senior English Teacher, Dakhiliya Region 1 INTRODUCTION Writing is frequently accepted as being the last language skill

More information

7 critical reading strategies and activities to do with students to encourage and develop critical reading ability

7 critical reading strategies and activities to do with students to encourage and develop critical reading ability 7 critical reading strategies and activities to do with students to encourage and develop critical reading ability This text has been adapted from and extends on a text written by Salisbury University

More information

SIXTH GRADE UNIT 1. Reading: Literature

SIXTH GRADE UNIT 1. Reading: Literature Reading: Literature Writing: Narrative RL.6.1 RL.6.2 RL.6.3 RL.6.4 RL.6.5 RL.6.6 RL.6.7 W.6.3 SIXTH GRADE UNIT 1 Key Ideas and Details Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly

More information

Use the Academic Word List vocabulary to make tips on Academic Writing. Use some of the words below to give advice on good academic writing.

Use the Academic Word List vocabulary to make tips on Academic Writing. Use some of the words below to give advice on good academic writing. Use the Academic Word List vocabulary to make tips on Academic Writing Use some of the words below to give advice on good academic writing. abstract accompany accurate/ accuracy/ inaccurate/ inaccuracy

More information

Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1. Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida

Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1. Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1 Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida The critical reader of a research report expects the writer to

More information

1. Manuscript Formatting

1. Manuscript Formatting 1. Manuscript Formatting 1.0 PLAIN, UNIFORM TEXT We ask that you submit your manuscript files as plain and uniform text. Nonessential or incorrect formatting will be removed from the manuscript before

More information

English Descriptive Grammar

English Descriptive Grammar English Descriptive Grammar 2015/2016 Code: 103410 ECTS Credits: 6 Degree Type Year Semester 2500245 English Studies FB 1 1 2501902 English and Catalan FB 1 1 2501907 English and Classics FB 1 1 2501910

More information

BURSTED WOOD PRIMARY SCHOOL

BURSTED WOOD PRIMARY SCHOOL BURSTED WOOD PRIMARY SCHOOL Year 6 English Medium Term Plans Reading Word Objectives apply their growing knowledge of root words prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), as listed under the spelling

More information

Part I Building Blocks: Clauses, Commas, & Sentence Structure. Prepared by Diane Wyant UNC-CH School of Social Work

Part I Building Blocks: Clauses, Commas, & Sentence Structure. Prepared by Diane Wyant UNC-CH School of Social Work Grammar and Writing Mechanics Review Part I Building Blocks: Clauses, Commas, & Sentence Structure Prepared by Diane Wyant UNC-CH School of Social Work The Writer s Mantra: It s all about the reader It

More information

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8 Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8 Pennsylvania Department of Education These standards are offered as a voluntary resource

More information

Linguistic Preference Modeling: Foundation Models and New Trends. Extended Abstract

Linguistic Preference Modeling: Foundation Models and New Trends. Extended Abstract Linguistic Preference Modeling: Foundation Models and New Trends F. Herrera, E. Herrera-Viedma Dept. of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence University of Granada, 18071 - Granada, Spain e-mail:

More information

2016 Elementary Literacy Assessment. Teacher Information Guide

2016 Elementary Literacy Assessment. Teacher Information Guide 2016 Elementary Literacy Assessment Teacher Information Guide Table of Contents Introduction......................................................... What is the purpose of the assessment? When will the

More information

Master of Arts in Linguistics Syllabus

Master of Arts in Linguistics Syllabus Master of Arts in Linguistics Syllabus Applicants shall hold a Bachelor s degree with Honours of this University or another qualification of equivalent standard from this University or from another university

More information

24. PARAPHRASING COMPLEX STATEMENTS

24. PARAPHRASING COMPLEX STATEMENTS Chapter 4: Translations in Sentential Logic 125 24. PARAPHRASING COMPLEX STATEMENTS As noted earlier, compound statements may be built up from statements which are themselves compound statements. There

More information

2016 national curriculum assessments. Key stage 2. Interim teacher assessment frameworks at the end of key stage 2. September 2015

2016 national curriculum assessments. Key stage 2. Interim teacher assessment frameworks at the end of key stage 2. September 2015 2016 national curriculum assessments Key stage 2 Interim teacher assessment frameworks at the end of key stage 2 September 2015 2016 National national Curriculum curriculum assessments Interim teacher

More information

Guide to design and layout

Guide to design and layout Plain English Campaign: Guide to design and layout Copyright Plain English Campaign Guide to design and layout This is only a basic guide. If you have any suggestions, corrections or improvements, please

More information

A Comparative Analysis of Standard American English and British English. with respect to the Auxiliary Verbs

A Comparative Analysis of Standard American English and British English. with respect to the Auxiliary Verbs A Comparative Analysis of Standard American English and British English with respect to the Auxiliary Verbs Andrea Muru Texas Tech University 1. Introduction Within any given language variations exist

More information

USING INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES IN LEGAL PRACTICES AND STUDIES IN RUSSIA

USING INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES IN LEGAL PRACTICES AND STUDIES IN RUSSIA Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy (BJSEP), Volume 5, Number 1, 2011 USING INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES IN LEGAL PRACTICES AND STUDIES IN RUSSIA Valentina A. VERNIGOROVA Higher School of Economics,

More information

USING MICROSOFT WORD 2008(MAC) FOR APA TASKS

USING MICROSOFT WORD 2008(MAC) FOR APA TASKS USING MICROSOFT WORD 2008(MAC) FOR APA TASKS MS WORD 2008(MAC), GENERAL TIPS Backspace and Delete The keyboard has two delete keys: Backspace and Delete. What s the difference? The Backspace key deletes

More information

Writing a Formal Report

Writing a Formal Report Memorial University of Newfoundland Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography Writing a Formal Report A formal report describes the results of a scientific investigation. Thousands of papers are

More information

Grade 4. Writing Anchor Set Annotations. Measurements of Student Progress. Section I: Introduction

Grade 4. Writing Anchor Set Annotations. Measurements of Student Progress. Section I: Introduction Measurements of Student Progress Grade 4 A Writing Anchor Set Annotations from the Spring 2013 Measurements of Student Progress Section I: Introduction I. Introduction About the MSP in Writing... i How

More information

How to Use Blogs in Creating Special Opportunities for Language Learning

How to Use Blogs in Creating Special Opportunities for Language Learning Doi:10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n1p532 Abstract How to Use Blogs in Creating Special Opportunities for Language Learning Anna Buran Associate Professor, Tomsk Polytechnic University Email: aburan@mail.ru Nowadays

More information

Depth-of-Knowledge Levels for Four Content Areas Norman L. Webb March 28, 2002. Reading (based on Wixson, 1999)

Depth-of-Knowledge Levels for Four Content Areas Norman L. Webb March 28, 2002. Reading (based on Wixson, 1999) Depth-of-Knowledge Levels for Four Content Areas Norman L. Webb March 28, 2002 Language Arts Levels of Depth of Knowledge Interpreting and assigning depth-of-knowledge levels to both objectives within

More information

Integrating Reading and Writing for Effective Language Teaching

Integrating Reading and Writing for Effective Language Teaching Integrating Reading and Writing for Effective Language Teaching Ruwaida Abu Rass (Israel) Writing is a difficult skill for native speakers and nonnative speakers alike, because writers must balance multiple

More information

Cross-Cultural Communication Training for Students in Multidisciplinary Research Area of Biomedical Engineering

Cross-Cultural Communication Training for Students in Multidisciplinary Research Area of Biomedical Engineering Cross-Cultural Communication Training for Students in Multidisciplinary Research Area of Biomedical Engineering Shigehiro HASHIMOTO Biomedical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kogakuin

More information

GUIDELINES FOR WEB DESIGN

GUIDELINES FOR WEB DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR WEB DESIGN General guidelines for Web design relate to: * Organization and structure * Navigation * Format, content, and appearance * Housekeeping Web Guide 1 ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE

More information

03.2 Assignment 1: The Narrative Essay

03.2 Assignment 1: The Narrative Essay 03.2 Assignment 1: The Narrative Essay Overview The narrative essay uses a story to illustrate a point or series of points that the writer wants to make. Narrative essays often provide a sense of intimacy

More information

REPORT WRITING GUIDE

REPORT WRITING GUIDE Report Writing Guide F2009 1 REPORT WRITING GUIDE Introduction The importance of good report writing and data presentation cannot be overemphasized. No matter how good an experiment, or how brilliant a

More information