Mechanical & Manual Handling Hazards and Control. General Certificate NGC2 Element 2

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1 Mechanical & Manual Handling Hazards and Control General Certificate NGC2 Element 2

2 References Page 147 Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER) The Provision and use of Work Equipment 1998

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4 Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992

5 What is meant by MANUAL HANDLING? Manual handling is any transporting or supporting of a load, including: Lifting Putting Down Pushing Pulling Carrying or Moving of a load

6 What is meant by MANUAL HANDLING THIS DOES NOT INCLUDE THE MANIPULATION OF TOOLS, CONTROL LEVERS & VALVES

7 Manual Handling?

8 Accidents This information is based on reported over three day injuries only More than a quarter of the accidents reported to enforcing authorities are associated with Manual Handling

9 Manual handling - injuries at work UK Trips 15% 13% 5% Struck by Other Machines Handling Fall Chemicals 21% 35% 3% 8%

10 Manual handling injuries at work - UK 7% 8% 9% 5% Sprains & strains Fractures Lacerations Contusions Superficial Others 6% 65%

11 Manual handling injuries at work - UK Back Fingers & thumbs 9% 8% 6% 3% Arm Lower Limb 13% Torso Hand Other 45% 16%

12 Manual handling at work Key facts Single biggest cause of lost time injuries Majority of injuries are sprains and strains (65%) Back injuries account for 45%

13 High risk activities that can cause back pain These are the most likely lifting errors that cause nearly all manual handling or back related injuries. Traditional methods of lifting Repetitive or restricted movements Moving awkward or heavy loads Working in an awkward posture Frequent bending Forceful, repetitive or rapid lifts

14 High risk activities that can cause back pain These are the most common errors people make when lifting things: Holding loads away from body Twisting Stooping Reaching upwards Excessive up and down movements

15 Main causes of back pain Cumulative builds up over a period of time e.g. poor posture or obesity Traumatic- caused by sudden violent stress e.g. one man lift for a whacker Degenerative vibration & shocks to the spine e.g. lorries/grab lorries

16 The Spine The shape of the spine consists of four defined curves; it is not straight and rigid 1. Cervical (neck) The smallest vertebra that supports the smallest amount of weight. It also cradles the skull and provides movement and rotation 2. Thoracic (Chest) This group supports the ribs but doesn t provide a great deal of rotation 3. Lumbar (lower back) This supports a large amount of weight and provides good movement for the upper body. It is also the source of the majority of spine related injuries. 4. Sacrum (tail bone) This consists of five vertebra that fit into the pelvic girdle.

17 Intervertebral disc The intervertebral discs are made up of a strong fibrous layer called annulus and a soft, jelly like inner layer called nucleus.

18 How to lift? No matter how you are taught you are going to do it your way! Its too difficult to do it the proper way! I have done it this way for years! WRONG!!!!!

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20 Video

21 Four basic requirements for manual handling Avoidance Can it be mechanised? Assessment Identify hazards and apply control measures Risk Reduction Can the weight be reduced Training Kinetic lifting technique

22 How to do it 1 Manual handling Assess the load Foot position Centre of gravity (of load) Unlock knees/hips Hand position/palmar grip

23 How to do it 2 Manual handling Straight back Head up Thighs do the work Load close to the body Load not too high

24 Manual handling risk assessment What to consider? Task Individual Load Environment

25 Manual handling Risk assessment The Task Frequency of lift Stooping or Twisting Bending sideways Reaching above shoulder or below knee Changing grip Effort required Carrying up/down stairs/steps Distance traveled

26 Manual handling Risk assessment The Individual Under 18 over 50 Gender Heart problems Respiratory problems Weak/damaged back Hernias Fitness Training and skills Experience

27 Manual handling Risk assessment The Load Size Shape Weight Centre of Gravity Loose Material Sharp Edges or Corners Hot/Cold Type of Contents

28 Manual handling Risk assessment The Environment Adequate space Is good posture possible Obstacles Hot/cold/wet/dry Lighting/visibility Noise, vibration House keeping Weather Conditions

29 Manual handling - Individual risk assessment Selecting methods of reducing risk Can you avoid manual handling? Can you use a mechanical aid? Sack trucks, trolleys etc Can you split the task to make it more manageable? Can someone help you?

30 Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 Regulation 4 (Duties of Employers) is broken down into 5 other Sections 4(1)(a) Avoidance of Manual Handling 4(1)(b)(i) Assessment of Risk 4(1)(b)(ii) Reducing the Risk of Injury 4(1)(b)(iii) The load - providing additional information 4(2) Reviewing the Assessment

31 Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 Amended in 2002 to take account of individual capabilities etc

32 HSE ASSESSMENT FILTER Generally, for infrequent lifting/lowering actions, tasks moving loads inside the weight parameters do not require formal assessment but use with care!

33 Mechanical Handling

34 Four elements Mechanical handling equipment The load The workplace The employee

35 Four elements Mechanical handling equipment Must be capable of lifting/moving the load Must be fault free Well maintained Inspected regularly Hazards include: collisions between people & equipment, trapping of body in moving parts

36 Mechanical Handling Devices

37 An example of Manual Handling Automation

38 Bill? Bob

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45 Four elements The load Must be made ready to be moved Hazards include: nature of load i.e. flammable or hazardous to health, security and stability i.e. collapsing pallets

46 Four elements The Workplace Designed so that worker is separated from moving loads Hazards include: falling items from craned load

47 Four elements The employee Must be properly trained and competent Must be supervised

48 Mechanical handling Equipment Conveyors Belt, roller and screw Hazards include: nip, entanglement, loads falling off, impact against overhead systems, collisions between people & equipment, trapping of body in moving parts, manual handling, noise & vibration

49 Mechanical handling Elevators E.g. Brick elevator Hazards include: nip, entanglement, loads falling off, impact against overhead systems, collisions between people & equipment, trapping of body in moving parts, manual handling, noise & vibration

50 Mechanical handling Fork lift or powered industrial trucks Hazards include: overturning, overloading, collisions, silent operation, uneven floors, overhead obstructions, loss of load, poor maintenance, use of work platform, speed, poor vision, pedestrians, dangerous stacking, carrying passengers, fire, lack of driver training

51 Mechanical handling Fork lift trucks Hazards include: noise, exhaust, vibrations, manual handling, ergonomics

52 Hazard elimination - FLT Testing Certificate required, info on maximum loads (SWL) - LOLER Maintenance Inspected regularly, records kept, condition of tyres, brakes, audible alarms, lights, properly adjusted seat, Operator Training for driver and slingers Lighting Driver training

53 Hazard elimination - FLT Operating area look at overhead cable, pits, drains, striking other FLT s Blind corner elimination (mirrors) Passing places Proper storage routes kept clear Exclusion of pedestrians Suitable warning signs & signals

54 Fork Lift Truck Create an operator s checklist for a workplace FLT

55 What can go wrong - cranes Overturning Overloading Poor slinging of load Insecure or unbalanced load Collision with another structure or overhead power line Failure of support Operator error Loss of or exceeding (SWL) load Sudden loading or shock loading No banks man Lack of proper maintenance

56 Hazard elimination - cranes Testing Certificate required, info on maximum loads Maintenance Inspected regularly, records kept Operating area look at overhead cable, pits, drains, striking other cranes Operator Training for driver and slingers

57 Hazard elimination - cranes Safety Measures; Load & radius indicators Controls dead man type Over travel switches to prevent cable going into drum Access Operating position good visibility Passengers none Lifting tackle safety checks for load on chains, slings, wires, ropes, shackles and bolts

58 Hazard elimination - cranes Safety Measures; Do not leave load suspended whilst not in use Ensure that loads are never carried over people Lift load vertically never use to drag Travel with load as close to the ground as possible Switch off power to crane when left unattended Always use out-riggers where fitted

59 LIFTING OPERATIONS & LIFTING EQUIPMENT REGS 1992 (LOLER) Lifting equipment should be : Strong, stable and marked for SWL Positioned/installed to minimise risks Used for work which is properly planned, organised and done by competent people Subjected to ongoing thorough examination and inspection by competent persons

60 LIFTING OPERATIONS & LIFTING EQUIPMENT REGS 1992 (LOLER) A Written Scheme of Examination should be prepared by a competent person specifying the frequency and types of testing and inspection by an independent engineer, Or All lifting equipment (and accessories) should be thoroughly inspected and tested every 12 months (and every six months for those that are designed to carry people).

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