You and your shares 2016

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1 Instructions for shareholders You and your shares 2016 For 1 July June 2016 Covers: n individuals who invest in shares or convertible notes n taxation of dividends from investments n allowable deductions from dividend income n record keeping requirements for investors For more information go to ato.gov.au NAT

2 OUR COMMITMENT TO YOU We are committed to providing you with accurate, consistent and clear information to help you understand your rights and entitlements and meet your obligations. If you follow our information in this publication and it is either misleading or incorrect and you make a mistake as a result, we must still apply the law correctly. If that means you owe us money, you must pay it but we will not charge you a penalty. Also, if you acted reasonably and in good faith we will not charge you interest. If correcting the mistake means we owe you money, we will pay it and pay you any interest you are entitled to. If you feel that this publication does not fully cover your circumstances, or you are unsure how it applies to you, you can seek further help from us. We regularly revise our publications to take account of any changes to the law, so make sure that you have the latest information. If you are unsure, you can check for more recent information on our website at ato.gov.au or contact us. This publication was current at June HOW SELF-ASSESSMENT AFFECTS YOU Self-assessment means we use the information you give on your tax return and any related schedules and forms to work out your refund or tax liability. We do not take any responsibility for checking the accuracy of the details you provide, although our system automatically checks the arithmetic. Although we do not check the accuracy of your tax return at the time of processing, at a later date we may examine the details more thoroughly by reviewing specific parts, or by conducting an audit of your tax affairs. We also have a number of audit programs that are designed to continually check for missing, inaccurate or incomplete information. What are your responsibilities? It is your responsibility to lodge a tax return that is signed, complete and correct. Even if someone else (including a tax agent) helps you to prepare your tax return and any related schedules, you are still legally responsible for the accuracy of your information. What if you lodge an incorrect tax return? If you become aware that your tax return is incorrect, you must contact us straight away. Initiatives to complement self-assessment There are a number of systems and entitlements that complement self-assessment, including: n the private ruling system (see below) n the amendment system (if you find you have left something out of your tax return) n your entitlement to interest on early payment or over-payment of a tax debt. Do you need to ask for a private ruling? If you are uncertain about how a tax law applies to your personal tax affairs, you can ask for a private ruling. To do this, complete a Private ruling application form (not for tax professionals) (NAT 13742), or contact us. Lodge your tax return by the due date, even if you are waiting for the response to your application. You may need to request an amendment to your tax return once you have received the private ruling. We publish all private rulings on our website. We edit the text to remove all information that could identify you. AUSTRALIAN TAXATION OFFICE FOR THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA, 2016 You are free to copy, adapt, modify, transmit and distribute this material as you wish (but not in any way that suggests the ATO or the Commonwealth endorses you or any of your services or products). PUBLISHED BY Australian Taxation Office Canberra June 2016 JS 35734

3 CONTENTS ABOUT THIS GUIDE 3 Who should use this guide? 3 Publications and services 3 BASIC CONCEPTS 3 Shares 3 Non-share equity interests 3 Company debentures, bonds and convertible notes 3 Non-equity shares 3 HOW DOES A COMPANY PAY DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTION? 4 Dividends 4 Dividend reinvestment schemes 4 Bonus shares 4 Amounts treated as dividends 4 Demerger dividends 4 Non-share dividends 4 Franked dividends from a New Zealand franking company 4 HOW DIVIDENDS ARE TAXED 5 Franked dividends 5 Unfranked dividends 5 HOW NON-SHARE DIVIDENDS ARE TAXED 5 Dividends on non-equity shares 5 THE DIVIDEND OR DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT 5 TAXATION IMPLICATIONS 6 EFFECT ON TAX PAYABLE 6 YOUR FRANKING TAX OFFSET 6 Claiming your franking tax offset when you do not need to lodge a tax return 7 WHEN YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO CLAIM A FRANKING TAX OFFSET 7 Holding period rule 7 Related payments rule 8 Dividend washing integrity rule 8 Disclosure on your tax return (all years) 8 Application of the rules to interests in partnerships and trusts 8 ALLOWABLE DEDUCTIONS FROM DIVIDEND INCOME 9 Management fees 9 Interest 9 Interest on capital protected borrowings 9 Travel expenses 9 Cost of journals and publications 9 Internet access and computers 9 Borrowing expenses 9 Dividends that include listed investment company capital gain amounts 9 Other deductions 10 Deductions denominated in a foreign currency 10 Expenses that are not deductible 10 DIVIDENDS PAID OR CREDITED BY NON-RESIDENT COMPANIES 10 Dividends denominated in a foreign currency 10 DIVIDENDS PAID OR CREDITED TO NON-RESIDENT SHAREHOLDERS 11 Franked dividends 11 Unfranked dividends 11 Deductions 11 PARTNERS WHO HAVE AN AMOUNT ATTRIBUTABLE TO A DIVIDEND INCLUDED IN THEIR NET INCOME OR LOSS FROM A PARTNERSHIP 11 BENEFICIARIES WHO HAVE AN AMOUNT ATTRIBUTABLE TO A DIVIDEND INCLUDED IN THEIR NET INCOME FROM A TRUST 12 JOINT OWNERSHIP OF SHARES 13 Shares held in children s names 13 LIQUIDATION, TAKEOVERS, MERGERS AND DEMERGERS 13 RIGHTS ISSUES 13 Right to buy shares 13 Right to sell shares 13 OPTIONS 13 SHARE WARRANTS 14 YOU AND YOUR SHARES 2016 ato.gov.au 1

4 OFF-MARKET SHARE BUY-BACKS 14 KEEPING RECORDS 14 PRIVATE COMPANY TRANSACTIONS TREATED AS DIVIDENDS 14 TRUST LOANS, PAYMENTS AND FORGIVEN DEBTS TREATED AS DIVIDENDS 15 SALE OR DISPOSAL OF COMPANY BONDS AND CONVERTIBLE NOTES 15 Company bonds 15 Convertible notes issued by a company before 10 May Convertible notes issued by a company after 10 May 1989 and before 15 May Convertible notes issued by a company after 14 May Sale or disposal of company bonds and convertible notes that are denominated in a foreign currency 17 MORE INFORMATION inside back cover 2 ato.gov.au YOU AND YOUR SHARES 2016

5 ABOUT THIS GUIDE You and your shares 2016 (NAT 2632) will help people who hold shares or bonds as an investment to understand their tax obligations. It covers: n how dividends received by Australian resident and non-resident individuals are taxed, and n the type of expenses you may be able to claim against dividend income. If you acquired shares after 19 September 1985, capital gains tax (CGT) may apply when you dispose of them. For more information, see the Personal investors guide to capital gains tax 2016 (NAT 4152) available at ato.gov.au Who should use this guide? Use this guide if you are an individual taxpayer who holds shares or bonds as an investment. This guide will also help people who carry on a business of trading in shares. However, it does not deal with the specific taxation of shares held as trading stock or with the profits or losses arising from the disposal of such shares. If you need further advice on these aspects of owning shares, contact us or a recognised tax adviser. Publications and services To find out how to get a publication referred to in this guide and for information about our other services, see the inside back cover. BASIC CONCEPTS Shares A company issues shares to raise the money needed to finance its operations. When a company issues shares, it grants shareholders various entitlements, for example, the right to receive dividends or the right to share in the capital of the company upon winding up. A company may issue different classes of shares, so these entitlements may vary between different shareholders. Non-share equity interests Certain interests which are not shares in legal form are treated in a similar way to shares for some tax law purposes. These interests are called non-share equity interests. Examples include a number of income and stapled securities. For more information, see the publication Debt and equity tests: guide to the debt and equity tests, at ato.gov.au Company debentures, bonds and convertible notes Companies borrow money by issuing debt securities commonly known as debentures or bonds. Bonds can be bought and sold in the stock market in the same way as shares. Usually the company pays back the money borrowed after a period of time. Sometimes the holder of a bond is given the right to exchange the bond for shares in the borrowing company or another company. Company bonds that can be exchanged for shares are referred to in this publication as convertible notes. A company bond or debenture is a promise made by a company to pay back money that it previously borrowed. In addition, the company pays interest until the money it borrowed is paid back. Interest you receive as the holder of a company bond or debenture is included in your tax return as interest income at L item 10 Gross interest. Special rules apply if you sell a company bond before the company returns the money that it borrowed, or if the bond is exchanged for shares in the borrowing company or another company. Sometimes a company will issue a bond in return for a sum of money that is less than the face value of the debt the company promises to pay in the future. This is often referred to as a discounted security. Sometimes a company will issue a bond that promises to increase the amount of principal paid back by an amount that reflects changes in a widely published index such as the Consumer Price Index or a share market index. If you have acquired such a security, you should contact us or a recognised tax adviser if you are unsure of the taxation consequences. Special rules apply to the taxation of gains and losses on such securities both in respect of income earned while you own the securities and on their disposal or redemption. Non-equity shares Under the debt and equity rules, the dividends on some shares are treated in the same way as interest on a loan for some tax law purposes. These shares are called non-equity shares. In some circumstances, a redeemable preference share may be a non-equity share. YOU AND YOUR SHARES 2016 ato.gov.au 3

6 HOW DOES A COMPANY PAY DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTION? Dividends If you own shares in a company, you may receive a dividend or distribution. In any income year you may receive both an interim and a final dividend. In most circumstances, you will be liable to pay income tax for that income year on the dividends you are paid or credited. You must include in your assessable income dividends paid or credited to you. Your shareholder dividend statement or distribution statement should contain details of the date a payment was made to you, which is generally referred to on the statement as the payment date or date paid. It is this date that will determine in which income year you include the dividend in your assessable income. Where the dividend is paid by cheque, it is deemed to have been paid to you on the date the cheque was posted to you by the company, not on the date the cheque was received, banked or cleared. A dividend can be paid to you as money or other property, including shares. Dividend reinvestment schemes Most dividends you are paid or credited will be in the form of money, either by cheque or directly deposited into a bank account. However, the company may give you the option of reinvesting your dividends in the form of new shares in the company. This is called a dividend reinvestment scheme. If you take this option, you must pay tax on your reinvested dividends. Keep a record of the market value of the new shares acquired through the dividend reinvestment scheme (at the time of reinvestment) to help you work out any potential capital gains or capital losses on the eventual disposal of the shares. Bonus shares If you are paid or credited taxable bonus shares, the company issuing the shares should provide you with a dividend statement or distribution statement indicating the share value that is subject to tax. A company should also have informed you if it issued tax-free bonus shares out of a share premium account. From 1 July 1998, bonus shares will be taxed as a dividend if the shareholder has a choice between receiving a dividend or the shares, unless they are issued in certain circumstances by a listed public company which does not credit its share capital account. If you make a capital gain when you dispose of bonus shares that you received on or after 20 September 1985, you may have to pay CGT even if they are not taxed as a dividend. For more information, see the Guide to capital gains tax 2016 at ato.gov.au Amounts treated as dividends The rules in Division 7A of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 (ITAA 1936) prevent private companies from making tax-free distributions to shareholders (or their associates). Unless they come within specified exclusions, advances, loans and other credits to shareholders (or their associates) are treated as assessable dividends to the extent that they exceed the company s distributable surplus. Payments or other benefits you obtain from a private company in which you are a shareholder, or an associate of a shareholder, may be treated as if they are assessable dividends paid to you. For more information, see Private company transactions treated as dividends on page 14 and Trust loans, payments and forgiven debts treated as dividends on page 15. Demerger dividends Dividends paid to you under a demerger are generally not included in your assessable income. This concession will apply automatically to eligible demergers unless the head entity elects that the dividend should be assessable for all shareholders. Where that election is made, you should include the dividend on your tax return as an unfranked dividend. Generally, the head entity undertaking the demerger will advise you whether a demerger dividend has been paid and whether it has elected that the dividend be assessable. In addition, we may have provided advice in the form of a Class Ruling specific to the demerger which may have been supplied with the head entity s advice. If you are in any doubt, contact us. Non-share dividends Distributions from a non-share equity interest that do not constitute a non-share capital return are called non-share dividends. Franked dividends from a New Zealand franking company Under the Trans-Tasman imputation system, a New Zealand franking company that has elected to join the Australian imputation system may pay a dividend franked with Australian franking credits. Australian shareholders of a New Zealand franking company that has made such an election may be entitled to claim the benefits of the franking credits attached to the dividends. For more information, including information on how these dividends are taxed, see Trans-Tasman imputation overview at ato.gov.au 4 ato.gov.au YOU AND YOUR SHARES 2016

7 HOW DIVIDENDS ARE TAXED Dividends are taxed differently depending on whether the shareholder is a resident or non-resident of Australia. This section explains the taxation implications for resident shareholders. If you are a non-resident then, to find out how the dividends you receive will be taxed, see Dividends paid or credited to non-resident shareholders on page 11. Dividends paid to shareholders by Australian resident companies are taxed under a system known as imputation. It is called an imputation system because the tax paid by a company may be imputed or attributed to the shareholders. The tax paid by the company is allocated to shareholders by way of franking credits attached to the dividends they receive. The basis of the system is that if a company pays or credits you with dividends which have been franked, you may be entitled to a franking tax offset for the tax the company has paid on its income. The franking tax offset will cover or partly cover the tax payable on the dividends. Franked dividends A resident company, or a New Zealand franking company that has elected to join the Australian imputation system, may pay or credit you with a franked dividend. Dividends can be fully franked (meaning that the whole amount of the dividend carries a franking credit) or partly franked (meaning that the dividend has a franked amount and an unfranked amount) The dividend statement or distribution statement you receive from the company paying the franked dividend must state the amount of the franking credit and the amounts of the franked and unfranked parts of the dividend. Unfranked dividends A resident company may pay or credit you with an unfranked dividend. There is no franking credit attached to these dividends. If you receive an unfranked dividend declared to be conduit foreign income on your dividend statement or distribution statement, include that amount as an unfranked dividend on your tax return. HOW NON-SHARE DIVIDENDS ARE TAXED The imputation system applies to non-share dividends in the same way that it applies to dividends. A non-share dividend may be franked or unfranked. Any amount of the dividend, whether franked or unfranked, or any amount of franking credit carried by the dividend should be shown at the appropriate place on the tax return as if it were a dividend paid on shares. Dividends on non-equity shares Under the imputation system, dividends paid on certain shares that are classified as non-equity shares (for example, some redeemable preference shares) are treated as unfrankable distributions for imputation purposes. As a consequence, these dividends cannot be franked. For more information, see Debt and equity tests: guide to the debt and equity tests, at ato.gov.au THE DIVIDEND OR DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT If an Australian company pays or credits you with a dividend or a non-share dividend, the company must also send you a dividend statement or distribution statement advising: n the name of the entity making the distribution n the date on which the distribution was made n the amount of the distribution n the amount of any franking credit allocated to the distribution n the franking percentage for the distribution n where the distribution is unfranked, a statement to that effect n where the distribution is franked, the franked part and the unfranked part n where any or all of the unfranked amount of the distribution has been declared to be conduit foreign income, the portion so declared n the amount of tax file number (TFN) withholding tax withheld if you have not quoted your TFN to the company. EXAMPLE 1: Payment of dividends On 15 February 2016, an Australian resident company Coals Tyer Ltd paid John, a resident individual a fully franked dividend of $700 and an unfranked dividend of $200. John received the dividend statement from Coals Tyer Ltd shown in example 3. We will follow the Coals Tyer Ltd example through the next few sections of this guide to see what John needs to do with the information. EXAMPLE 2: Assessable dividend income John s assessable income for in respect of the dividend is: Dividend $ Unfranked dividend received 200 Franked dividend received 700 Franking credit 300 Total assessable dividend income 1,200 If these were the only dividends John was paid or credited with for the income year, he can transfer these amounts directly to item 11 Dividends on his 2016 tax return. YOU AND YOUR SHARES 2016 ato.gov.au 5

8 EXAMPLE 3: Dividend statement COALS TYER LIMITED Payment date ABN February 2016 Shareholder dividend statement Notification of 2015 final dividend paid 15 February 2016 Security description No. of shares Unfranked amount Franked amount Franking credit Ordinary shares 6,400 $200 $700 $300 TFN amount $0.00 Net dividend $ Please note that your tax file number has been received and recorded. Please retain this advice for taxation purposes as a charge may be levied for a replacement. Please advise promptly in writing of any change of address. TAXATION IMPLICATIONS If you are paid or credited dividends or non-share dividends, you must include the following amounts in assessable income on your tax return: n the unfranked amount n the franked amount, and n the franking credit, provided you are entitled to a franking tax offset in respect of the franking credit. See Your franking tax offset in the next column for eligibility. We show you on the next page how John would complete item 11 on his tax return, using the figures in the Coals Tyer Ltd example. You can see on the Coals Tyer Ltd statement above that John had no TFN amount withheld from the dividends he was paid or credited. Where a resident shareholder does not provide an Australian company with their TFN, the company must deduct tax from the unfranked amount of any dividend at the highest income tax rate for individuals (47%) plus the Medicare levy (2%), which makes a total rate for of 49%. As John had advised Coals Tyer Ltd of his TFN, no TFN amount was withheld. If John had not advised Coals Tyer Ltd of his TFN, a TFN amount would have been withheld from the unfranked amount of the dividend and shown by John on his tax return at V item 11. A credit for the TFN amount withheld would then be allowed in John s tax assessment. If John received more than one dividend statement during the income year, he would need to show the total amounts at S, T, U and V (if applicable) item 11 on his 2016 tax return. EFFECT ON TAX PAYABLE Example 4 shows how the fully franked dividend of $700 and the unfranked dividend of $200 from Coals Tyer Ltd affect John s tax liability. It is assumed that John has other income of $80,000. The Medicare levy is not included in the calculation. John s assessable income includes the franking credit in addition to the franked and unfranked dividends, and John s tax is based on this higher figure. However, he is able to use the tax already paid at the company level (the franking tax offset) to reduce the amount of tax that he has to pay on his assessment. EXAMPLE 4: Tax payable on dividend income John s tax return (extract) $ Unfranked dividend received 200 Franked dividend received 700 Franking credit, non-cash 300 Other assessable income 80,000 Total taxable income 81,200 Tax on $81,200, assessed at rates 17,991 less franking tax offset 300 Tax payable* 17,691 * This does not include any liability for the Medicare levy. YOUR FRANKING TAX OFFSET If you are paid or credited franked dividends or non-share dividends (that is, they carry franking credits for which you are entitled to claim franking tax offsets) your assessable income includes both the amount of the dividends you were paid or credited and the amount of franking credits attached to the dividends. You must include both amounts when you lodge your tax return. Tax is payable at your applicable tax rate on these amounts. If the franking credit is included in your assessable income at U item 11, you are then entitled to a franking tax offset equal to the amount included in your income. It is not necessary for you to claim the tax offset. It will appear on your notice of assessment. 6 ato.gov.au YOU AND YOUR SHARES 2016

9 11 Dividends If you are a foreign-resident make sure you have printed your country of residence on page 1. Tax file number amounts withheld from dividends V $,. Unfranked amount Franked amount Franking credit S $,, T $,, U $,, Item 11 on John s tax return, showing an unfranked amount (S) of $200, franked amount (T) of $700 and franking credit (U) of $300. The franking tax offset can be used to reduce your tax liability from all forms of income (not just dividends), and from your taxable net capital gain. Example 4 on the previous page shows you how this works. Any excess franking tax offset amount is refunded to eligible resident individuals, after any income tax and Medicare levy liabilities have been met. EXAMPLE 5: Impact of franking tax offsets John s tax return (extract) $ Tax payable on taxable income 2,000 less other tax offsets 1,500 Net tax payable 500 plus Medicare levy 200 Sub-total 700 less franking tax offset 1,000 Refund (of excess franking credits) 300 (Amounts are for illustrative purposes only.) Claiming your franking tax offset when you do not need to lodge a tax return If you are eligible to claim a franking tax offset for but you are not otherwise required to lodge a tax return, read Refund of franking credits instructions and application for individuals 2016 (NAT 4105). If you need further information, phone WHEN YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO CLAIM A FRANKING TAX OFFSET Your entitlement to a franking tax offset may be affected by the holding period rule, the related payments rule or the dividend washing integrity rule. The general effect of the holding period rule and the related payments rule is that even if a dividend is accompanied by a dividend statement advising that there is a franking credit attached to the dividend, you are not entitled to claim the franking credit. Your entitlement to a franking tax offset could also be affected if you or your company undertake a dividend streaming or stripping arrangement, or you enter into a scheme with the purpose of obtaining franking credits (referred to as franking credit trading). Holding period rule The holding period rule requires you to continuously hold shares at risk for at least 45 days (90 days for certain preference shares) to be eligible for the franking tax offset. However, under the small shareholder exemption this rule does not apply if your total franking credit entitlement is below $5,000, which is roughly equivalent to receiving a fully franked dividend of $11,666 (based on the current tax rate of 30% for companies). This means that you must continuously own shares at risk for at least 45 days (90 days for certain preference shares) not counting the day of acquisition or disposal, to be eligible for any franking tax offset. Days on which you have 30% or less of the ordinary financial risks of loss and opportunities for gain from owning the shares cannot be counted in determining whether you hold the shares for the required period. The financial risk of owning shares may be reduced through arrangements such as hedges, options and futures. If you acquire shares or an interest in shares and you have not already satisfied the holding period rule before the day on which the shares become ex-dividend* (the day after the last day on which acquisition of the shares will entitle you to receive the dividend), the holding period rule commences on the day after the day on which you acquired the shares or interest. You must hold the shares or interest for 45 days (90 days for certain preference shares) excluding the day of disposal. For each of these days you must have 30% or more of the ordinary financial risks of loss and opportunities for gain from owning the shares or interest. * A share or interest in a share becomes ex-dividend on the day after the ex-dividend date. The ex-dividend date is the last day on which you can acquire the share or interest in a share to entitle you to a dividend or distribution for that share or interest. You have to satisfy the holding period rule once only for each purchase of shares. You are then entitled to the franking credits attached to those shares, unless the related payments rule applies; see the next page. YOU AND YOUR SHARES 2016 ato.gov.au 7

10 EXAMPLE 6: Franking credits entitlement greater than $5,000 Matthew acquired a single parcel of shares on 1 March On 8 April 2016 Matthew received fully franked dividends of $13,066 (which included franking credits of $5,600) for the income year. On 10 April 2016 Matthew sold that parcel of shares. Because he had not held the shares for at least 45 days and did not qualify for the small shareholder exemption, he failed the holding period test and cannot obtain the benefit of the franking credits. Matthew would show a dividend of $13,066 as a franked amount at T item 11 on his 2016 tax return but would not show the amount of franking credits at U. He would not receive a franking tax offset in his assessment. That is, he is not entitled to any part of the $5,600 franking credits. For the purpose of the holding period rule, if a shareholder purchases substantially identical shares in a company over a period of time, the holding period rule uses the last in first out method to identify which shares will pass the holding period rule. EXAMPLE 7: Substantially identical shares Jessica has held 10,000 shares in Mimosa Pty Ltd for 12 months. She purchased an additional 4,000 shares in Mimosa Pty Ltd 10 days before they became ex dividend (the day after the last day on which acquisition of the shares will entitle you to receive a dividend) and then sold 4,000 shares 20 days after Mimosa Pty Ltd shares became ex-dividend. Her total franking credit entitlement for the income year was more than $5,000. The shares she sold are deemed to have been held for less than 45 days, based on the last in first out method. Jessica would not be entitled to the franking credits on the 4,000 shares sold. Related payments rule In certain circumstances, the related payments rule prevents you from claiming the franking credits attached to franked dividends if a related payment is made. This rule applies if you make a related payment, for instance you or an associate are under an obligation to pass of the benefit of the franked dividend to someone else. You must be a qualified person for the payment of each dividend or distribution to claim the franking credits attached to franked dividends. Where there has been a related payment, to be a qualified person in relation to a dividend or distribution, you must hold the relevant shares at risk for the period beginning on the 45 th day before and ending on the 45 th day after the day on which the shares became ex dividend (90 days before and after for preference shares). Being a qualified person for the payment of current dividends or distributions does not mean that you are automatically a qualified person for future dividends or distributions if you or an associate are under an obligation to pass on those dividends or distributions to someone else. That is, the related payments rule must be satisfied for all subsequent dividends and distributions. Dividend washing integrity rule The integrity rule prevents you from claiming more than one set of franking credits where you have received a dividend as a result of dividend washing. Dividend washing occurs where: 1. you, or an entity connected to you, sell an interest in shares that you hold while retaining the right to a dividend, then 2. by using a special ASX trading market, you purchase some substantially identical shares. If the dividend washing integrity rule applies, you are not entitled to a tax offset for the franking credits for the second dividend. However, if your interest in the second parcel of shares exceeds the interest in the first parcel, you may be entitled to claim a portion of these additional franking credits. For more information, see ato.gov.au/ dividendwashing The integrity rule generally applies to all resident taxpayers, but there is an exception. The integrity rule generally does not apply to individuals who receive $5,000 or less in franking credits in a year, which we call the small shareholder exemption. This exemption only applies when the dividend that was received as a result of dividend washing has been received by the individual directly. It does not apply where the dividend flows indirectly to an individual through their interest in a trust or partnership. Individuals who receive $5,000 or less in franking credits in an income year should however be aware that the Commissioner may apply the general anti-avoidance rules if they have entered into a scheme for the purpose of obtaining franking credit benefits. Disclosure on your tax return (all years) If you are not entitled to a franking tax offset, show on your tax return the amount of franked dividend received at T Franked amount item 11. Do not show the amount of any franking credit at U Franking credit item 11. Application of the rules to interests in partnerships and trusts If you have interests in partnerships or trusts (other than widely held trusts) which hold shares, the holding period rule and the related payments rule apply to your interests in the shares held by the partnership or trust in the same way that the rules apply to shares you own directly. Therefore, the partner or beneficiary has to hold their interest in the shares held by the partnership or trust 8 ato.gov.au YOU AND YOUR SHARES 2016

11 at risk for the required period. The related payments rule will apply if they are not holding their interest in the partnership or trust at risk and they have an obligation to pass on their share of net income of the partnership or trust which is attributable to the franked dividend. If you have interests in a widely held trust, the holding period rule and related payments rule apply to your interest in the trust (rather than in the shares held by the trust). ALLOWABLE DEDUCTIONS FROM DIVIDEND INCOME If you invest in shares, you may be able to claim a deduction for certain expenditure you incurred in deriving your income from those shares. The following are examples of expenses that may be deductible. Management fees Where you pay ongoing management fees or retainers to investment advisers, you will be able to claim the expenditure as an allowable deduction. Only a proportion of the fee is deductible if the advice covers non-investment matters or relates in part to investments that do not produce assessable income. You cannot claim a deduction for a fee paid for drawing up an initial investment plan. Interest If you borrowed money to buy shares, you will be able to claim a deduction for the interest incurred on the loan, provided it is reasonable to expect that assessable dividends will be derived from your investment in the shares. Where the loan was also used for private purposes, you will be able to claim only interest incurred on that part of the loan used to acquire the shares. Interest on capital protected borrowings A capital protected borrowing is an arrangement under which listed shares, units or stapled securities are acquired using a borrowing where the borrower is wholly or partly protected against a fall in the market value of the listed shares, units or stapled securities. Interest attributable to capital protection under a capital protected borrowing arrangement for shares, units or stapled securities entered into, or extended, on or after 1 July 2007 is not deductible. The interest is treated as if it were a payment for a put option. This treatment applies where the shares, units or stapled securities are held on capital account for investment purposes. The amount of interest that is reasonably attributable to the capital protection is worked out using the methodology applicable to the type of capital protected borrowing. For more information on capital protected borrowings and on how to work out the interest payable on a borrowing that is attributable to capital protection, go to ato.gov.au or contact a recognised tax adviser. Travel expenses You may be able to claim a deduction for travel expenses where you need to travel to service your investment portfolio, for example, to consult with a broker or to attend a stock exchange or company meeting. You can claim a deduction for the full amount of your expenses where the sole purpose of the travel relates to the share investment. Where the travel is predominantly of a private nature, only the expenses which relate directly to servicing your portfolio will be allowable. Cost of journals and publications You may be able to claim the cost of purchasing specialist investment journals and other publications, subscriptions or share market information services which you use to manage your share portfolio. See Taxation Determination TD 2004/1 Income tax: are the costs of subscriptions to share market information services and investment journals deductible under section 8-1 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997? for more information. Internet access and computers You may be able to claim the cost of internet access in managing your portfolio. For example, if you use an internet broker to buy and sell shares, the cost of internet access will be deductible to the extent you use the internet for this purpose. You cannot claim a deduction for the private use portion. You can also claim a capital allowance (previously known as depreciation) for the decline in value of your computer equipment to the extent that it has been used for income-producing purposes. You cannot claim a capital allowance for the private use portion. Borrowing expenses You may be able to claim expenses you incurred directly in taking out a loan for purchasing shares which can reasonably be expected to produce assessable dividend income. The expenses may include establishment fees, legal expenses and stamp duty on the loan. If you incurred deductible expenses of this kind totalling more than $100, they are apportioned over five years or the term of the loan, whichever is less. If your expenses are $100 or less, they are fully deductible in the year you incur them. Dividends that include listed investment company capital gain amounts If a listed investment company (LIC) pays a dividend to you that includes a LIC capital gain amount, you may be entitled to an income tax deduction. You can claim a deduction if: n you are an individual n you were an Australian resident when a LIC paid you a dividend n the dividend was paid to you after 1 July 2001, and n the dividend included a LIC capital gain amount and the capital gain resulted from a CGT event happening to a CGT asset owned by the LIC for at least twelve months. YOU AND YOUR SHARES 2016 ato.gov.au 9

12 The amount of the deduction is 50% of the LIC capital gain amount. The LIC capital gain amount will be shown separately on your dividend statement. You do not show the LIC capital gain amount at item 18 Capital gains on your tax return. EXAMPLE 8: Completion of tax return Ben, an Australian resident, was a shareholder in XYZ Ltd, a listed investment company. For the income year, Ben received a fully franked dividend from XYZ Ltd of $70,000 including a LIC capital gain amount of $50,000. Ben includes on his tax return the following amounts: Franked dividend (shown at T item 11) $ 70,000 Franking credit (shown at U item 11) $ 30,000 Assessable income $100,000 Deduction for LIC capital gain (shown as deduction at item D8 Dividend deductions) $(25,000) Net assessable income $75,000 Other deductions Any other expenses you incur which relate directly to maintaining your portfolio are also deductible. These could include bookkeeping expenses and postage. Deductions denominated in a foreign currency All deductions that are denominated in a foreign currency must be translated into Australian dollars before being claimed on your Australian tax return. For more information on the exchange rates that should be used in translating foreign currency deductions, go to ato.gov.au and see: n Foreign exchange (forex): translation (conversion) rules n Foreign exchange (forex): general information on average rates. Expenses that are not deductible Unless you are carrying on a business of share trading, you cannot claim a deduction for the cost of acquiring shares (for example, expenses for brokerage and stamp duty). These will form part of the cost base for CGT purposes when you dispose of the shares. Unless you are carrying on a business of share trading, you cannot claim a deduction for a loss on the disposal of shares. The loss is a capital loss for CGT purposes. For more information, see the Personal investors guide to capital gains tax 2016 (NAT 4152). DIVIDENDS PAID OR CREDITED BY NON-RESIDENT COMPANIES If you are a temporary resident and receive dividends from a non-resident company you will not need to show the dividend on your Australian income tax return. For more information, see Foreign income exemption for temporary residents introduction at ato.gov.au If you are a shareholder of a New Zealand franking company that has paid a dividend that is franked with Australian franking credits, you may be eligible to claim a franking tax offset. For more information on how to claim the franking tax offset, see Trans-Tasman imputation overview at ato.gov.au Non-resident companies, other than certain New Zealand franking companies, are not subject to the imputation system and you will not be entitled to claim a franking tax offset for any tax paid by the company. However, you may find that foreign tax has been withheld from the dividend so that the amount paid or credited to you is reduced. In most circumstances, you will be liable to pay Australian income tax on the dividend. You must include the full amount of the dividend at item 20 Foreign source income and foreign assets or property on your Tax return for individuals (supplementary section) This means the amount you are paid or credited plus the amount of any foreign tax which has been deducted. You may be able to claim a foreign income tax offset for the foreign tax paid. In certain circumstances, foreign dividends may be exempt from tax. For example, they may be exempt to avoid any double taxation, or exempt because the portfolio out of which the dividends have been paid has already been taxed at a comparable rate. There are special rules which need to be satisfied for you to claim a foreign income tax offset. For more information see: n Q20 Foreign source income and foreign assets or property at ato.gov.au/instructions2016 n Guide to foreign income tax offset rules (NAT 72923) at ato.gov.au EXAMPLE 9: Payments by foreign companies Emma has shares in a company resident in the United States of America. She was entitled to be paid a dividend of $400. Before she was paid the dividend the company deducted $60 in foreign tax, sending Emma the remaining $340. (All amounts have been translated into Australian dollars.) When she fills in her Australian tax return, Emma should include $400 at M Other net foreign source income item 20 on her tax return (supplementary section) and she may be able to claim a foreign income tax offset of $60 at O Foreign income tax offset item 20. Dividends denominated in a foreign currency All assessable dividends received that are denominated in a foreign currency must be translated into Australian dollars before being included on your Australian tax return. 10 ato.gov.au YOU AND YOUR SHARES 2016

13 For more information on the exchange rates that should be used in translating foreign currency amounts, go to ato.gov.au and see: n Foreign exchange (forex): translation (conversion) rules n Foreign exchange (forex): general information on average rates DIVIDENDS PAID OR CREDITED TO NON-RESIDENT SHAREHOLDERS Non-resident individuals can also be paid or credited franked dividends or unfranked dividends from Australian resident companies. However, they are taxed differently from resident shareholders. If your residency status alters during the year (for example, you became a resident in the second half of the year) there may be occasions where withholding tax was not deducted from payments made to you before you became a resident. If this happens, you should attach a schedule to your tax return explaining your circumstances. We will work out the amount of withholding tax you have to pay on these dividends and advise you of this amount. Franked dividends If you are a non-resident of Australia, the franked amount of dividends you are paid or credited are not subject to from Australian income and withholding taxes. The unfranked amount will be subject to withholding tax (see below). However, you are not entitled to any franking tax offset for franked dividends. You cannot use any franking credit attached to franked dividends to reduce the amount of tax payable on other Australian income and you cannot get a refund of the franking credit. You should not include the amount of any franked dividend or any franking credit on your Australian tax return. Unfranked dividends The other type of dividend a resident company may pay or credit to you is an unfranked dividend. There is no franking credit attached to these dividends. The whole or a portion of an unfranked dividend may be declared to be conduit foreign income on your dividend statement. To the extent that the unfranked dividend is declared to be conduit foreign income, it is not assessable income and is exempt from withholding tax. Any other unfranked dividends paid or credited to a non-resident are subject to a final withholding tax. Withholding tax is imposed on the full amount of the unfranked dividends. That is, no deductions may be made from the dividends, and a flat rate of withholding tax is applied whether or not you have other Australian taxable income. Withholding tax is also deducted from the unfranked amount of any partly franked dividends that you are paid or credited. Withholding tax is deducted by the company before a dividend is paid, so you will be paid or credited only the reduced amount. It is deducted at a rate of 30% unless you are a resident of a country with which Australia has entered into a tax treaty that varies the amount of withholding tax that can be levied on dividends. Australia has entered into tax treaties with more than 40 countries and the rate of withholding tax on dividends is limited to 15% in most of these agreements. Details of the rates that apply to residents of specific countries can be obtained from us. Dividends paid on shares that are classified as non-equity shares under the debt and equity rules are treated as interest payments for withholding tax purposes. For the residents of many countries, the rate of withholding tax on these payments is 10%. The withholding tax on unfranked dividends is a final tax, so you will have no further Australian tax liability on the dividend income. Therefore, if the only income you earned was dividend income which was a fully franked dividend or an unfranked amount of a dividend which either has withholding tax deducted or declared to be conduit foreign income, you do not need to lodge an Australian tax return. If you were paid or credited dividends which were not fully franked and were not declared to be conduit foreign income (and from which withholding tax was not deducted) you should attach a separate schedule to your tax return showing details of those dividends. We will work out the amount of withholding tax you have to pay on these dividends and advise you of this amount. However, if that dividend is paid to you under a demerger that happened on or after 1 July 2002 and the head entity has not elected that it be assessable, you do not include it on your tax return even though it is an unfranked dividend and no withholding tax has been paid on that dividend. If you are in any doubt, contact us. Deductions You cannot claim any expenses incurred in deriving dividends which are not assessable in Australia, including any dividend which you do not need to show on your Australian tax return. PARTNERS WHO HAVE AN AMOUNT ATTRIBUTABLE TO A DIVIDEND INCLUDED IN THEIR NET INCOME OR LOSS FROM A PARTNERSHIP When calculating its net income or loss for tax purposes, a partnership that is paid or credited a franked dividend includes both the amount of the dividend and the franking credit in its assessable income. This is subject to the partnership satisfying the holding period rule and other rules contained in the provisions dealing with franked dividends. If a share of the net income or loss of a partnership shown at item 13 Partnership and trusts on your tax return (supplementary section) is attributable to a franked dividend, you may be entitled to claim a franking tax offset, which is your share of the partnership s franking credit arising from that dividend. YOU AND YOUR SHARES 2016 ato.gov.au 11

14 You are not entitled to a franking tax offset if you do not satisfy the holding period rule or related payments rule in relation to your interest in the shares held by the partnership, or the partnership does not satisfy those rules in relation to the shares. If the partnership satisfies the rules in relation to the shares and the small shareholder exemption applies to you, you do not have to satisfy the holding period rule. For more information, see When you are not entitled to claim a franking tax offset on page 7. EXAMPLE 10: Partnerships and trusts Partnership $ Franked dividend 700 Franking credit, non-cash 300 Net income of partnership 1,000 Individual partner: 1 / 2 share Taxable 1 / 2 share of net income of the partnership 500 Other assessable income 80,000 Total taxable income 80,500 Gross tax at rates 17,732 less 1 / 2 of total franking tax offset 150 Tax payable* 17,582 * This does not include any liability for the Medicare levy. BENEFICIARIES WHO HAVE AN AMOUNT ATTRIBUTABLE TO A DIVIDEND INCLUDED IN THEIR NET INCOME FROM A TRUST A trust that is paid or credited franked dividends includes both the amount of the dividend and the franking credit in its assessable income when calculating its net income or loss for tax purposes. This is subject to the trust satisfying the holding period rule and other rules contained in the provisions dealing with franked dividends. If there is any net income of a trust to which no beneficiary is presently entitled, or for which the trustee is assessed on behalf of a beneficiary who is under a legal disability, the trustee is taxed on that income at special rates of tax. The trustee will be entitled to a franking tax offset for any franking credit included in that part of the net income. If you are the beneficiary of a trust and the trust makes a loss for tax purposes, there is no net income of the trust and any franking credit is lost. Trust losses cannot be distributed to beneficiaries. If a share of the net income of a trust shown at item 13 on your tax return (supplementary section) is attributable to a franked dividend, you may be entitled to claim a franking tax offset. This is your share of the trust s franking credit arising from that dividend. If the trust is a widely held trust, you will not be entitled to a franking tax offset if you do not satisfy the holding period rule or related payments rule in relation to your interest as a beneficiary in the trust or the trust does not satisfy those rules in relation to the shares. If the trust is not a widely held trust, you must satisfy the holding period rule and related payments rule in relation to your interest in the shares held by the trust in order to be entitled to the franking tax offset. If the trust satisfies the holding period rule and other rules in relation to the shares and the small shareholder exemption applies to you, you do not have to satisfy the holding period rule. For more information, see When you are not entitled to claim a franking tax offset on page 7. Special rules apply to beneficiaries of trusts (other than trusts that elect to be family trusts within the meaning of the ITAA 1936 or deceased estates) to determine whether they hold their interest at risk. EXAMPLE 11: Trust with loss in Trust $ Franked dividend 2,100 Franking credit, non-cash 900 Total income of the trust 3,000 less deductible expenses of the trust 4,000 Loss (1,000) Trust losses cannot be distributed to beneficiaries. Franking credits are not refundable in this example. EXAMPLE 12: Trust with net income in Trust $ Franked dividend 2,100 Franking credit, non-cash 900 Net income of trust 3,000 Beneficiary Taxable 1 / 3 share of net income of trust 1,000 Other assessable income 80,000 Total taxable income 81,000 Gross tax at rates 17,917 less 1 / 3 of total franking tax offset 300 Tax payable* 17,617 * This does not include any liability for the Medicare levy. 12 ato.gov.au YOU AND YOUR SHARES 2016

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