# Emoticon Smoothed Language Models for Twitter Sentiment Analysis

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3 TSA is actually a classification problem. To adapt LM for TSA, we concatenate all the tweets from the same class to form one synthetic document. Hence, for the polarity classification problem, one document is constructed from positive training tweets, and the other document is constructed from negative training tweets. Then we learn two LMs, one for positive class and the other for negative class. The LM learning procedure for subjectivity classification is similar. During the test phase, we treat each test tweet as a query, and then we can use the likelihoods to rank the classes. The class with the highest likelihood will be chosen as the label of the test tweet. We use c 1 and c 2 to denote the two language models. In polarity classification, c 1 is the language model for positive tweets and c 2 is for negative tweets. In subjectivity classification, c 1 is for subjective class and c 2 is for objective (neutral) class. In order to classify a tweet t to c 1 or c 2, we need to estimate the tweet likelihoods computed by P (t c 1 ) and P (t c 2 ). By using the common unigram assumption, we get: n P (t c) = P (w i c), i=1 where n is the number of words in tweet t and P (w i c) is a multinomial distribution estimated from the LM of class c. This probability simulates the generative process of the test tweet. Firstly, the first word (w 1 ) is generated by following a multinomial distribution P (w i c). After that, the second word is generated independently of the previous word by following the same distribution. This process continues until all the words in this tweet have been generated. One commonly used method to estimate the distributions is maximum likelihood estimate (MLE), which computes the probability as follows: P a (w i c) = N i,c N c, where N i,c is the number of times word w i appearing in training data of class c and N c is the total number of words in training data of class c. In general, the vocabulary is determined by the training set. To classify tweets in test set, it is very common to encounter words that do not appear in training set especially when there are not enough training data or the words are not well-formed. In these cases, smoothing (Zhai and Lafferty 2004) plays a very important role in language models because it can avoid assigning zero probability to unseen words. Furthermore, smoothing can make the model more accurate and robust. Representative smoothing methods include Dirichlet smoothing and Jelinek-Mercer (JM) smoothing (Zhai and Lafferty 2004). Although the original JM smoothing method is used to linear interpolation of the MLE model with the collection model (Zhai and Lafferty 2004), we use JM smoothing method to linearly interpolate the MLE model with the emoticon model in this paper. Emoticon Model From the emoticon data, we can also build the LMs for different classes. We propose a very effective and efficient way to estimate the emoticon LM P u (w i c) from Twitter Search API. Twitter Search API 4 is a dedicated API for running searches against the real-time index of recent tweets. Its index includes tweets between 6-9 days. Given a query which consists of one or several words, the API returns up to 1500 relevant tweets and their posting time. Polarity Classification To get P u (w i c 1 ), the probability of w i in positive class, we make an assumption that all tweets containing :) are positive. We build a query w i :) and input it to the Search API. Then it returns tweets containing both w i and :) with their posting time. After summarization, we get the number of tweets nw i and the time range of these tweets tw i. Then we build another query :) and get the number of returned tweets ns and the time range ts. Some estimations 5 show that a tweet contains 15 words on average. Assume that the tweets on Twitter are uniformly distributed with respect to time. Similar to the rule of getting P a (w i c), we can estimate P u (w i c 1 ) with the following rule: nw i tw P u (w i c 1 ) = i ns ts 15 = nw i ts 15 tw i ns. The term nwi tw i is roughly the number of times word w i appearing in class c per unit time, and the term ns ts 15 is roughly the total number of words in class c per unit time. Let F u = V j=1 P u(w j c) be the normalization factor where V is the size of vocabulary containing both seen and unseen words. Then each estimated P u (w i c) should be normalized to make them sum up to one: P u (w i c) := P u (w i c)/f u = = nw i ts 15 tw i ns V j=1 nw j ts 15 tw j ns P u (w i c) V j=1 P u(w j c) = nw i tw i V. nw j j=1 tw j We can find that there is no need to get ts and ns, because P u (w i c) can be determined only by nw i and tw i. For the LM of negative class, we assume that the negative tweets are those containing :(. The estimate procedure for P u (w i c 2 ) is similar to that for P u (w i c 1 ). The only difference is that the query should be changed to w i :(. Subjectivity Classification For subjectivity classification, the two classes are subjective and objective. The assumption for subjective tweets is that tweets with :) or :( are assumed to carry subjectivity of the users. So we build the query w i :) OR :( for the subjective class. As for the objective LM, getting P u (w i c 2 ), the probability of w i in objective class, is much more challenging than that in subjective class. To the best of our knowledge, no general assumption for objective tweets has been reported by researchers. We tried the strategy which treats tweets without emoticons as objective but the experiments showed that oxford-twitter/

5 Figure 1: Effect of emoticons on accuracy of polarity Figure 4: Effect of emoticons on F-score of subjectivity Figure 2: Effect of emoticons on F-score of polarity different number of manually labeled training data, respectively. The results are similar to those for polarity classification which once again verifies the effectiveness of our to utilize the noisy emoticon data. The good performance of also verifies that our url link based method is effective to find objective tweets, which is a big challenge for most existing distantly supervised methods Figure 3: Effect of emoticons on accuracy of subjectivity Effect of Manually Labeled Data We compare our method to the distantly supervised LM to verify whether the manually labeled data can provide extra useful information for Please note that the distantly supervised LM uses only the noisy emoticon data for training, while integrates both manually labeled data and the emoticon data for training. Figure 5 and Figure 6 illustrate the accuracy and F-score of the two methods on polarity classification with different number of manually labeled training data, respectively. The blue line corresponds to the performance of distantly supervised LM, which also corresponds to the case of zero manually labeled data. The red line is the results of. We can find that achieves better performance than the distantly supervised LM. With the increase of manually labeled data, the performance gap between them will become larger and larger. This verifies our claim that it is not enough to use only the data of noisy labels for training Distantly Supervised LM Figure 5: Effect of manually labeled data on accuracy of polarity Distantly Supervised LM Figure 6: Effect of manually labeled data on F-score of polarity Figure 7 and Figure 8 illustrate the accuracy and F-score of the two methods on subjectivity classification with different number of manually labeled training data, respectively. The results are similar to those for polarity Sensitivity to Parameters The parameter α in (1) plays a critical role to control the contribution between the manually labeled information and noisy labeled information. To show the effect of this parameter in detail, we try different values for polarity classifica-

6 79 77 Distantly Supervised LM Figure 7: Effect of manually labeled data on accuracy of subjectivity alpha Figure 10: Effect of the smoothing parameter α with 512 labeled training tweets. Distantly Supervise LM Figure 8: Effect of manually labeled data on F-score of subjectivity tion. Figure 9 and Figure 10 show the accuracy of with 128 and 512 labeled training tweets, respectively. The case α = 0 means only noisy emoticon data are used and α = 1 is the fully supervised case. The results in the Figures clearly show that the best strategy is to integrate both manually labeled data and noisy data into training. We also notice that with 512 labeled training data achieves its best performance with relatively bigger α than the case of 128 labeled data, which is obviously reasonable. Furthermore, we find that is not sensitive to the small variations in the value of parameter α because the range for α to achieve the better performance is large alpha Figure 9: Effect of the smoothing parameter α with 128 labeled training tweets. Conclusion Existing methods use either manually labeled data or noisy labeled data for Twitter sentiment analysis, but few of them utilize both of them for training. In this paper, we propose a novel model, called emoticon smoothed language model (), to seamlessly integrate these two kinds of data into the same probabilistic framework. Experiments on real data sets show that our method can effectively integrate both kinds of data to outperform those methods using only one of them. Our method is general enough to integrate other kinds of noisy labels for model training, which will be pursued in our future work. Acknowledgments This work is supported by the NSFC (No ) and the 863 Program of China (No. 2011AA01A202, No. 2012AA011003). References Barbosa, L., and Feng, J Robust sentiment detection on twitter from biased and noisy data. In COLING, Bermingham, A., and Smeaton, A. F Classifying sentiment in microblogs: is brevity an advantage? In CIKM, Davidov, D.; Tsur, O.; and Rappoport, A Enhanced sentiment learning using twitter hashtags and smileys. In COLING, Go, A.; Bhayani, R.; and Huang, L Twitter sentiment classification using distant supervision. Technical report. Guerra, P. H. C.; Veloso, A.; Jr., W. M.; and Almeida, V From bias to opinion: a transfer-learning approach to real-time sentiment analysis. In KDD, Jansen, B. J.; Zhang, M.; Sobel, K.; and Chowdury, A Twitter power: Tweets as electronic word of mouth. JASIST 60(11): Jiang, L.; Yu, M.; Zhou, M.; Liu, X.; and Zhao, T Target-dependent twitter sentiment In ACL, Kouloumpis, E.; Wilson, T.; and Moore, J Twitter sentiment analysis: The good the bad and the omg! In ICWSM, Liu, X.; Li, K.; Zhou, M.; and Xiong, Z. 2011a. Collective semantic role labeling for tweets with clustering. In IJCAI, Liu, X.; Li, K.; Zhou, M.; and Xiong, Z. 2011b. Enhancing semantic role labeling for tweets using self-training. In AAAI. Liu, X.; Zhang, S.; Wei, F.; and Zhou, M. 2011c. Recognizing named entities in tweets. In ACL,

7 Manning, C. D.; Raghavan, P.; and Schutze, H An Introduction to Information Retrieval. Cambridge University Press. Pang, B., and Lee, L Opinion mining and sentiment analysis. Foundations and Trends in Information Retrieval 2(1-2): Pang, B.; Lee, L.; and Vaithyanathan, S Thumbs up? sentiment classification using machine learning techniques. In EMNLP, Ponte, J. M., and Croft, W. B A language modeling approach to information retrieval. In SIGIR, Silva, I. S.; Gomide, J.; Veloso, A.; Jr., W. M.; and Ferreira, R Effective sentiment stream analysis with self-augmenting training and demand-driven projection. In SIGIR, Tan, C.; Lee, L.; Tang, J.; Jiang, L.; Zhou, M.; and Li, P User-level sentiment analysis incorporating social networks. In KDD, Zhai, C., and Lafferty, J. D A study of smoothing methods for language models applied to information retrieval. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. 22(2):

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