Procedure 18: X-ray Equipment - Schedule of Conditions

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1 X-ray Equipment - Schedule of Conditions P18-1 Procedure 18: X-ray Equipment - Schedule of Conditions The following Schedule of Conditions supplements the information contained within Section 9 of the UNB Radiation Safety Manual, the applicable Health Canada Safety Codes, and the New Brunswick Radiological Health Protection Act and Regulations for the operation of radiation-emitting devices, in particular, X-ray equipment.

2 P18-2 X-ray Equipment - Schedule of Conditions SCHEDULE OF CONDITIONS Radiation-emitting Devices: X-ray A. GENERAL CONDITIONS 1. Faculty members and X-ray operators under their supervision shall conform to this Schedule of Conditions for the operation of X-ray equipment. 2. X-ray equipment is defined as: a) X-ray diffraction equipment (Class 3) - X-ray machine that utilizes the scattering of X-rays by atoms of a specimen for the purpose of the examination of the microstructure of the specimen; b) Cabinet X-ray equipment (Class 4) - X-ray generating device with the X-ray tube permanently installed in a cabinet that is designed primarily for the examination of material, part or all of which, is placed within the cabinet, but not including X-ray diffraction equipment or industrial X-ray equipment; c) Demonstration-type gas discharge device (Class 5) - i) contains an electronic device in which glow discharges or X-rays, or both, may be produced by the acceleration of electrons and ions; and ii) are designed to demonstrate the production, properties or effects of glow discharges or X-rays, or the flow of electrons or ions; d) Low energy electron microscope (Class 6) - electron-optical device with an operating energy of 500 kilo-electron volts, or less, in which a beam of electrons, focused by means of electron lenses, is used to produce an enlarged image of a minute object on a fluorescent screen, photographic plate or any other detector-display system, including both the transmission and scanning types of devices; or e) Industrial X-ray equipment (Class 8) - X-ray generating device designed primarily for the examination of materials, or animals, but not including X-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet X-ray equipment or low-energy electron microscopes. Classes 1 (diagnostic), 2 (dental) and 7 (therapeutic) are not licensed for use at this University. 3. The faculty member is responsible for all aspects of radiation safety in X-ray facilities under their supervision. 4. The faculty member shall ensure radiation-emitting equipment is installed and operated by a competent person to the manufacturer s specifications in accordance with the appropriate Health Canada Safety Code, the N.B. Radiological Health Protection Regulations and the N.B. Occupational Health and Safety Regulations.

3 X-ray Equipment - Schedule of Conditions P The faculty member shall ensure the X-ray unit is adequately shielded and arrange for inspection by a competent person should a leak be suspected. 6. The faculty member shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) of any intention to purchase or install X-ray equipment. An Application to Install X-ray Equipment must be submitted to the Safety Office prior to purchase of the X-ray unit. 7. Every faculty member who anticipates installation of radiation-emitting equipment shall apply for initial autorization from the RSO. 8. Faculty members who intend to transfer radiation equipment to or from another owner shall apply to the RSO for authorization to do so. 9. Faculty members who will be taking sabbatical or other leave shall designate another authorized person to assume responsibility for the use of X-ray equipment and shall advise the RSO accordingly. 10. No person shall operate, or permit to be operated, a radiation-emitting device to intentionally irradiate a human being unless the irradiation has been prescribed by a physician and the operator is a medical practioner or a certified radiology technician. 11. All operators of X-ray machines shall be deemed competent, i.e., have received adequate training in the operation of radiation-emitting equipment. Any person who operates X-ray equipment shall be technically qualified to do so and at least 18 years of age. 12. Personal radiation monitors (dosimeters) shall be worn at all times by X-ray Radiation Workers (XRWs) where there is reasonable risk of exposure in excess of 5 msv/yr. 13. Regular radiation surveys shall be conducted in the room and at/near the surface of any X- ray device with capacity for emitting significant radiation as a by-product. The detector shall be calibrated annually by a CNSC approved service. 14. X-ray operators shall be designated as X-ray Radiation Users where the exposure limit is 1 msv/yr or as X-ray Radiation Workers where the exposure limit is 50 msv/yr shall be assigned personal dose monitors (dosimeters), advised in writing of their status and the implications of the dose limits. 15. The faculty member shall control the use of X-ray equipment to ensure no XRW receives an annual whole body dose in excess of 50 msv or 500 msv to an extremity and that no other person receives an annual dose in excess of 1 msv to the body or 50 msv to an extremity. 16. Where an exposure has occurred, the faculty member shall notify the RSO as soon as possible after the occurrence. The UNB Accident Report form shall be completed within 24 hours of an occurrence. 17. A female XRW shall notify her supervisor and the RSO of pregnancy. A dose limit of 4 msv for the remaining term of the pregnancy shall be applied. 18. Prior to installation of a radiation-emitting device, the faculty member or the chair of the department shall formulate a long-term plan for decommissioning of the X-ray equipment at

4 P18-4 X-ray Equipment - Schedule of Conditions cost to the University department. B. X-ray EQUIPMENT STANDARDS All X-ray equipment shall possess: a) an appropriate X-ray warning sign that: i) is permanently affixed to the X-ray control panel, ii) is shown in two contrasting colours, iii) is clearly visible and identifiable from a distance of 1 metre, iv) has no outer dimensions less than 2 centimetres, v) bears the words "CAUTION X-RAYS", and vi) is designed in accordance with the following diagram: b) a warning sign that prohibits unauthorized use and indicates that hazardous radiation is produced when the equipment is energized; c) a clearly visible and securely fixed mark or label on the control panel indicating the name of the manufacturer and the model; d) a clearly visible and securely fixed mark or label on any X-ray tube housing indicating the name of the manufacturer and the model; e) a power "ON/OFF" switch such that in the "OFF" position X-rays cannot be produced; f) controls, meters, lights or other indicators that are readily discernible, clearly labeled and marked as to function; g) means to prevent the unintentional energizing of more than one X-ray tube; h) separate warning lights on the control panel that indicate: i) when the control panel is energized, and ii) if more than one X-ray tube is controlled from a single control panel which tubes are ready to produce X-rays; i) audible or visible signals when X-rays are being produced; j) readily accessible operating manual; and

5 X-ray Equipment - Schedule of Conditions P18-5 k) on the outer door to the X-ray facility a sign which indicates the name(s) of person(s) responsibile for the equipment and 24/7 telephone numbers in event of emergency. Labels are available from the RSO. C. CABINET X-RAY EQUIPMENT All cabinet X-ray equipment shall possess: a) a shutter designed for the insertion or removal of material, unless the device is designed to prevent the insertion of any part of the human body into the primary X-ray beam through the openings; b) interlocks fitted such that if any of the doors or panels referred to in paragraph (a) are opened, X-rays cannot be generated; c) an X-ray warning sign as prescribed under the Radiation-Emitting Devices Act at all access openings where material is inserted or removed; d) a locking mechanism that requires the insertion of a key before X-rays can be generated and that terminates the exposure when the key is removed; and e) shielding to prevent X-ray exposure in excess of 5 µgy/h at 5 cm from any accessible external surface. D. LOW ENERGY ELECTRON MICROSCOPES A low energy electron microscope shall be fitted with: a) shielding that if removed, is constructed to render the device inoperable; b) shielding to ensure the exposure rate to an object having a 10 square centimetre cross section and centered at 5 cm from any accessible external surface of the device cannot exceed 5 µgy/h; and c) interlocks such that if any door, panel or cover that allows access to areas where the exposure to X-rays may exceed the level specified in paragraph (b) is opened or removed, the device will not energize. E. DEMONSTRATION - TYPE GAS DISCHARGE DEVICES A demonstration-type gas discharge device that contains a gas discharge tube: a) not specifically designed to generate X-rays shall: i) bear marks that indicate: - the intended polarity of each terminal of the device, and - the power supply or maximum voltage to be used with the device, and

6 P18-6 X-ray Equipment - Schedule of Conditions ii) be provided with shielding - that is either non-removable or is so constructed that its removal renders the device inoperable, and - such that the average X-ray exposure rate to an object having 10 square centimetre cross section and centred at 5 cm from any accessible external surface of the device does not exceed 5 µgy/h; and b) specifically designed to generate X-rays shall meet the requirements of paragraph (a) and shall: i) have the tube enclosed in a cabinet, and ii) be fitted with a warning light connected in such a way that X-rays cannot be generated if the light malfunctions. F. INDUSTRIAL X-RAY EQUIPMENT All industrial X-ray equipment shall possess: a) a locking device that requires the insertion of a key before X-rays can be produced and where removal of the key terminates the production of X-rays; b) a tube housing support that maintains the tube position without tipping, excessive drift or vibration when X-rays are being produced; c) a control panel which indicates the tube potential in kilovolts and X-ray tube current in milliamperes; d) a timer that controls the duration of the exposure or an "ON/OFF" switch that requires continuous pressure by the operator to maintain X-ray production; and e) for portable X-ray machines, a switch to limit the exposure rate to less than 25 µgy/h. Note: Exposure devices (industrial radiography) as defined by the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations require a licence from the CNSC prior to acquisition and installation. Industrial radiography equipment shall be operated only by persons who have been certified by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) as exposure device operators. Refer further to section of the UNB Radiation Safety Manual.

7 LIST OF ALL X-RAY RADIATION OPERATORS The faculty member shall be responsile for the safe operation of all X-ray equipment by all X-ray operators under his/her supervision Surname Full Given Names Birthdate D. M. Y Sex Social Insurance Number Occup Class Country of Birth Last Place of Employment Dose Monitors Used No. Yrs. Experience with Radiation Occupational Classifications: ADM Administrator IND Radiographer (Industrial) LT Labour/Technician SO Radiation Safety Officer MP Medical Physicist SEC Secretary/Receptionist NUR Nurse ST Student PHY Physician OTH Other (eg. faculty, engineer) QAT Quality Assurance Tech * designates X-ray Radiation Worker Faculty Member Department PNB Phone Number Registration No. Date Dept X-ray Equipment - Schedule of Conditions P18-7

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