Gender and Development

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1 Gender and Development Julia Hamaus GIZ Advisor on Gender and Policy Analysis at the Non Governmental Organizations Coordinating Council for Gender and Development (NGOCC) Seite 1 Content of the presentation 1. Gender dimensions in Zambia Cultural characteristics Gender inequalities in various sectors National policies and instruments 2. Development cooperation between GIZ and NGOCC Development intervention NGOCC Work area and outputs Challenges and Opportunities Seite 2 1

2 Zambia Population: 12,9 million 68% live below the poverty line Major industry: copper mining HIV/AIDS prevalence 14.3% Location: Southern Africa Landlocked country like Uganda More than 3 times as big as Uganda Former British colony (until 1964) Seite 3 I. Gender dimensions in Zambia Cultural characteristics Gender stereotypes (reproductive vs. productive roles) Access to resources and opportunities (land, loans, law, employment, decision-making) Harmful practices (bride price, initiation ceremonies, forced early marriages, sexual cleansing, widow inheritance, dry sex, polygamy) Seite 4 2

3 Gender dimensions in Zambia Global Gender Gap Report 2011 By the World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Index, developed in 2006, is a framework capturing gender-based disparities and tracking their progress It measures national gender gaps on political, economic, education and health-based criteria Index measures gender-based gaps in access to resources and opportunities in individual countries. Measures gender gap, not development level. Zambia was ranked 106 out of 134 countries Seite 5 Gender dimensions in Zambia Political empowerment With women representing just 14 percent of Parliament, Zambia is one of the poorest performers on affirmative action in the South African Development Community, SADC, a regional interparliamentary body made up of 15 member countries Women in parliament Year Female Male Seite 6 3

4 Gender dimensions in Zambia Economic participation and opportunity Estimated earned income (PPP US$) Year Female Male , , , , , Seite 7 Gender dimensions in Zambia Educational attainment Literacy rate Year Female Male Enrolment in tertiary education Year Female Male Seite 8 4

5 Gender dimensions in Zambia Health and survival Maternity and Childbearing Births attended by skilled health staff (%)...46 Contraceptive prevalence, married women (%)...41 Length of maternity leave...12 weeks Maternity leave benefits (% of wages paid) Provider of maternity coverage...employer Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births) Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality to 162 deaths per 100,000 births by 2015 Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women aged 15 19) Female HIV prevalence, aged (%) 16 Male HIV prevalence, aged (%) Seite 9 Gender dimensions in Zambia Women and land Women provide the majority of labour in subsistence agriculture and generate an estimated 70% of the unpaid labour on small-scale farms, but only own a very low percentage of it Zambia has a dual legal system: Under Zambian customary law women only have user rights and no ownership rights. In rural areas, custom prohibits married women from having access to land. The acquisition of land under statutory law is difficult for women. Titles can only be acquired through a bureaucratic centralized system and fees are high Seite 10 5

6 Gender dimensions in Zambia Gender Based Violence Women aged are more at risk from rape and domestic violence than from cancer, car accidents, war and malaria In 2010, 8673 cases of GBV have been reported to the police in Zambia. A health survey revealed that 47% of all women had reported to have experienced GBV. It results that two million women, out of the six million women in Zambia, have experienced GBV. This is 210 times the number that was reported to the police. Most of the cases of GBV are not reported to the police. Many forms of GBV do not come out of police reports, such as psychological or economical abuse. Anti-GBV legislation enacted in April 2011, but so far not implemented Seite 11 Gender dimensions in Zambia National Policies and Instruments National Gender Policy (NGP 2000) Sixth National Development Plan (SNDP ) Zambian Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) Amendments of Penal Code Constitution, article 23 Anti-Gender Based Violence Act (Anti-GBV Act 2011) Gender policies implemented by ministries (education, health) Gender and Child Development Division (Gender Focal Points ministries, provincial and district level) Seite 12 6

7 II. Development Cooperation between GIZ - NGOCC To support civil society in their efforts of promoting gender equality and women s empowerment, the GIZ collaborates with NGOCC in line with its Good Governance Program. This collaboration is under the development intervention number 15 (EM 15), which offers advisory services for civil society organizations to promote democracy Seite 13 Development Intervention To support the gender analysis of national policies and strategies To support identifying, developing and documenting good practice examples of gender mainstreaming To advise on the development of indicators to assess gender mainstreaming To assist organizing and conducting trainings for member organizations Seite 14 7

8 NGOCC Was established in 1985, after the United Nations' World Conference on Women in Nairobi (Kenya) Coordinates 109 organizations working in gender & development Supports its members technically and financially Seite 15 NGOCC Vision A dynamic and sustainable civil society organization leading the struggle against gender inequalities and injustices. Mission Statement To champion gender equality and equity through coordinated institutional and capacity development support to members, advocacy and linkages with local and international partners. Motto NGOCC growing everyday Seite 16 8

9 NGOCC Priority areas Women in decision making Gender based violence Women and HIV & AIDS Young women s involvement Women s economical empowerment Seite 17 Work Plan Objective I MOs have sufficient expertise in gender mainstreaming and gender analysis and contribute with their work to gender equality. Outcomes Strengthened capacity in gender mainstreaming and gender analysis of the NGOCC network. Strengthened capacity of NGOCC secretariat in monitoring MOs projects from a gender perspective. Outputs 1. Step by step guide for good practices of gender mainstreaming 2. Guidelines on how to conduct gender analysis 3. Reports on monitoring MOs work from a gender perspective Activities 1. Collecting good practice examples from NGOCC and MOs 2. Presentation of research to NGOCC staff 3. Development of step by step guide 4. Presentation of guide to colleagues of NGOCC, MOs and GIZ 1. Research 2. Presentation of research to colleagues 3. Development of guidelines 4. Presentation of guidelines to NGOCC, MOs and GIZ 1. Meeting with MOs 2. Share gained information with NGOCC staff 3. Write short report about findings 4. Present findings to NGOCC secretariat Seite 18 9

10 1. Step by step guide of good practice examples of gender mainstreaming Good practices in gender mainstreaming can be defined as actions taken to change existing gender imbalances in order to provide equal opportunities and responsibilities for women and men. Central question Which behavior, activities, projects, analyses, guidelines or policies have contributed to increased gender awareness, changes in existing inequalities between men and women, opening up non-traditional areas for women and men within organizations and in external projects? How have they been conducted? Seite Step by step guide of good practice examples of gender mainstreaming Findings on good practices Gender analysis Gender trainings and sensitization tools Learning from good practices of others Affirmative action (chair, director, financial management) Monitoring and evaluating gender mainstreaming Seite 20 10

11 Seite Guidelines on Gender Analysis Category of Enquiry Issues to Consider Framework/s Roles and Responsibilities Assets/Resources/Opportu nities Productive roles, Reproductive roles, Community participation, Community politics Human, Natural, Social, Physical, Economic Harvard Analytical Framework Social Relations Framework (distribution of resources) Power and Decision Making Household level, Community level - Social Relations Framework - Women s Empowerment Framework Needs, Priorities and perspectives Practical gender needs, Strategic gender needs, Experience and views on delivery systems - Gender Planning Framework focuses on practical and strategic needs Seite 22 11

12 Work Plan Objective II Gender mainstreaming in Zambian policies and gender budgeting in the national budget is promoted and increases gender equality in all development interventions. Outcomes Increased awareness of how gender needs to be addressed in the PRSP to promote gender equality. Strengthened capacity in the production of gender analysis of the NGOCC network. Strengthened capacity in identifying gender (in)sensitive budget allocations of the NGOCC network. Outputs 1. Gender Analysis of the SNDP 2. Gender Analysis of the 2011 and 2012 National Budgets Activities 1. Consultative meeting with NGOCC colleagues 2. Writing of document 3. Presentation for NGOCC staff, MOs and GIZ 1. Develop proposals about a gender sensitive national budget to the MoFNP 2. Revision of the draft analyses by the gender budgeting team 3. Consultative meeting with the gender budgeting team 4. Assisting in presenting analysis to NGOCC staff and MOs Seite Analysis of the SNDP 1. General situation analysis of gender dimensions in Zambia 1.1 Roles and responsibilities analysis Productive versus reproductive roles Community participation Community politics and decision making 1.2 Access to livelihood assets/resources/opportunities analysis Human (education, health) Natural (land and water Social (institutions and social networks Economic (income, credit, labour, capital) 1.3 Needs assessment Women s practical and strategic needs in Zambia 2. Gender mainstreaming in the SNDP 2.1 Social Protection 2.2 Education and Skills Development 2.3 Agriculture 2.4 Health Seite 24 12

13 2. Analysis of the 2012 National Budget 1. Nature of Proposal: Promoting Gender Equality in the 2012 National Budget 2. Proposals for a Gender Sensitive 2012 National Budget 2.1 Tackling Current Shortcomings in Revenue Collection Tackling Dependency, Unsustainable Revenue Collection and Mismanagement Tackling the Externalization of Profits Enforcing Progressive and Fair Taxation 2.2 Proposing Gender Sensitive Expenditure Health Education Agriculture Community Development and Social Services Seite 25 Work Plan Objective III The public s awareness of gender related topics is raised and gender equality is promoted. Outcomes Strengthened capacity of the NGOCC network in identifying gender related topics in the public field and advocating for gender equality. Increased understanding of the GBV Act by MOs and the wider public and strengthened ability to access services and to demand for rights. Outputs 1. Simplification of the GBV Act 2. Published articles and leaflets about gender related issues and gender policy analyses Activities 1. Consultative meetings with YWCA and WLSA on collaboration 2. Research on what needs to be added in the 3rd edition 3. Submitting proposals to WLSA 4. Presentation of final document to NGOCC staff, MOs and GIZ 1. Research 2. Meeting with CAP 3. Production of/input for leaflets about gender analysis of policies 4. Assisting in presentation for NGOCC staff and MOs Seite 26 13

14 Simplification of the Anti-GBV Act Seite 27 Challenges and Opportunities Challenges Lack of guidelines and frameworks Lack of up-dated and gender disaggregated data Misunderstanding of the concept of gender Duplication of efforts Opportunities Outreach Expertise Seite 28 14

15 Thank you for your attention! Seite 29 15

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