Using Fidelity to Enhance Program Implementation Within an RTI Framework

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1 Using Fidelity to Enhance Program Implementation Within an RTI Framework Response to Intervention 1

2 Session Agenda What is RTI? What is fidelity and why is it important? Fidelity across the essential components Monitoring fidelity Improving fidelity Wrap-up 2

3 Upon Completion of This Training, Participants Will Be Able to: Understand fundamental components of fidelity and how it may vary across the essential components and the RTI model Monitor fidelity using multiple methods Promote fidelity and identify and overcome potential barriers to fidelity 3

4 WHAT IS RTI? THE ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS 4

5 Defining RTI (RTI) integrates assessment and intervention within a schoolwide, multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and reduce behavior problems. (, 2010) 5

6 Defining RTI With RTI, schools identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, monitor student progress, provide evidence-based interventions, and adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions based on a student s responsiveness; and RTI may be used as part of the determination process for identifying students with specific learning disabilities or other disabilities. (, 2010) 6

7 RTI as a Preventive Framework RTI is a multi-level instructional framework aimed at improving outcomes for all students. RTI is preventive, and provides immediate support to students who are at risk for poor learning outcomes. RTI may be a component of a comprehensive evaluation for students with learning disabilities. 7

8 Essential Components of RTI Screening Progress Monitoring School-Wide, Multi-level Prevention System Primary level Secondary level Tertiary level Data-based decision making for Instruction Evaluating effectiveness Movement within the multi-level system Disability identification (in accordance with state law) 8

9 Essential Components of RTI 9

10 WHAT IS FIDELITY? 10

11 What Is Fidelity? Degree to which the program is implemented as intended by program developer, including the quality of implementation. Fidelity = Consistency and Accuracy Fidelity = Integrity Fidelity checks should create open communication and productive feedback by providing teachers with opportunities to learn and collaborate (Gersten et al., 2005; Mellard & Johnson, 2007; Sanetti & Kratochwill, 2009) 11

12 What Is Fidelity of Implementation? 12

13 Five Elements of Fidelity Student Engagement: How engaged and involved are the students in this intervention or activity? Student Engagement Adherence Adherence: How well do we stick to the plan/ curriculum/assessment? Program specificity: How well is the intervention defined and different from other interventions? Program Specificity Quality of Delivery Exposure Quality of Delivery: How well is the intervention, assessment, or instruction delivered? Do you use good teaching practices? Exposure/Duration: How often does a student receive an intervention? How long does an intervention last? (Dane & Schneider, 1998; Gresham et al., 1993; O Donnell, 2008) 13

14 Why Is Fidelity Important? Ensures that instruction has been implemented as intended Helps link student outcomes to instruction Helps in the determination of intervention effectiveness, and in instructional decision making 14

15 Why Is Fidelity Important? Research suggests that positive student outcomes depend on The degree to which interventions are supported by evidence Fidelity of implementation of process (at the school level) Fidelity of intervention implementation (at teacher/classroom level) (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2008) 15

16 Example: Importance of Fidelity This video highlights the implementation of a fidelity checklist in a surgery. The film shows the importance of having a way to confirm that practices were followed. Despite findings suggesting the benefits, there was initial resistance to the checklists from surgeons. 16

17 FIDELITY ACROSS THE ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS 17

18 Fidelity to the RTI Framework Fidelity checks are predetermined and regularly applied to ensure that RTI practices are integrated and sustain the RTI framework. For example: An evidenced-based curriculum and instructional system spans multiple levels. A valid and reliable assessment system (screening and progress) operates throughout the year. Clear data-based decision making rules are implemented. 18

19 Fidelity & RTI Multi-level System Screening Progress Monitoring Data-Based Decision Making 19

20 Fidelity and Screening & Progress Monitoring Staff are trained in how to deliver and score the screening and progress monitoring assessments and are familiar and comfortable with the assessment Staff follow guidelines of the assessments and do not provide additional context or assistance to students during the assessment School uses an established timeline for assessing students for screening and progress monitoring 20

21 Think-Pair-Share Think about the negotiables and nonnegotiables of fidelity when implementing screening and progress monitoring Pair with a neighbor Share your thoughts Use the Essential Components of RTI and Fidelity handout to note what was discussed 21

22 Fidelity and the Multi-level Prevention System Fidelity is important across all three levels of the multi-level prevention system Each level has distinct considerations for fidelity Tertiary Level of Prevention Primary Level of Prevention Secondary Level of Prevention 22

23 Fidelity at the Primary Prevention Level Staff implements program components or core components of the curriculum with fidelity Might not be scripted but is comprehensive given the age group and content area High-quality instruction Includes differentiation Staff may use a mix of whole group, small group, dyadic, and independent practice Staff implement curriculum based on established delivery timeframe For example: Provide minutes of reading instruction five days a week Students are engaged throughout lessons 23

24 Fidelity at the Secondary Prevention Level Staff adhere to clearly articulated, validated evidence-based interventions that are aligned with the core curriculum Explicitly follow evidence-based program as it was designed High-quality instruction Staff implement intervention based on the duration and timeframe defined by the program developer For example: Provide 30 minutes of reading instruction per day, 3 5 days per week in addition to core The group size is optimal (according to research) for the age and needs of students Students are engaged throughout interventions 24

25 Fidelity at the Tertiary Prevention Level Staff adheres to individualized student plan developed by a team to address student s needs May include adaptations from an evidenced-based intervention Use of data-based individualization to develop and adjust plan Uses high-quality instruction Staff follows predetermined duration and frequency based on the student plan For example: provide 30 minutes of reading instruction per day, 3 5 days per week in addition to core Staff uses group sizes that are optimal (according to research) for the age and needs of students Students are engaged throughout interventions 25

26 Think-Pair-Share Think about the negotiables and non-negotiables of fidelity across primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention levels, and identify how these may be different across the prevention levels Pair with a neighbor Share your thoughts Use the Essential Components of RTI and Fidelity handout to note what was discussed 26

27 Fidelity Within Data-Based Decision Making Data teams have established Routines and procedures for conducting data reviews Regularly scheduled meeting times Agendas and meeting procedures Decision making processes What you are looking for, how you will look for it, and how you know whether you have found it Explicit decision rules for assessing student, class, grade, school-level progress Establish in writing 27

28 Think-Pair-Share Think about the negotiables and nonnegotiables of fidelity for data-based decision making Pair with a neighbor Share your thoughts Use the Essential Components of RTI and Fidelity handout to note what was discussed 28

29 MEASURING FIDELITY OF IMPLEMENTATION 29

30 Ways to Measure Fidelity Self-report data Observation Logs, lesson plans, and student work 30

31 Self-Report Data May provide an indicator of teacher knowledge, context of implementation Types Questionnaires Surveys Interviews Considerations Often unreliable when used as the sole measure of fidelity, as they are subject to bias Efficient 31

32 Observation Types Spot checks Peer or administrator observations Peer coaching Item-by-item checklists of lesson components and rubrics Considerations Develop checklists of critical implementation components Observe or record and listen to sessions at random Least efficient but most reliable 32

33 Logs, Lesson Plans, Student Work Allow evaluation of what was done Content covered Student progress Considerations Moderately efficient Moderately reliable Less information about delivery, dosage, adherence to scripts or lesson components (if applicable) 33

34 EXAMPLES OF TOOLS USED TO MEASURE FIDELITY 34

35 NCRTI Integrity Rubric and Worksheet Organized according to the essential components of RTI as identified by the NCRTI: Screening, progress monitoring, multi-level prevention system, data-based decision making Includes overarching factors: Staff qualifications, cultural and linguistic responsiveness, leadership, communication and involvement of parents, prevention focus 35

36 NCRTI Integrity Rubric Intended for use by individuals responsible for monitoring school-level fidelity of RTI implementation or as a measure of selfassessment. Provides descriptions of three levels of potential ratings (1, 3, or 5) across each factor. 36

37 37

38 Insufficient evidence that the screening tools are reliable; or that correlations between the instruments and valued outcomes are strong; or that predictions of risk status are accurate. 38

39 NCRTI Integrity Framework Worksheet Intended for use by RTI coordinators or evaluators with extensive RTI experience Provides space to develop a narrative rationale for each rating Data collected through interviews or site visits 39

40 40 40

41 1. Screening Tools What tools do you use for universal screening? When your school selected the screening tool(s), how much attention was paid to the evidence from the vendor regarding the validity, reliability, and accuracy of the tool? Does your school have documentation from the vendor that these tools have been shown to be valid, reliable and accurate (including with sub-groups)? Do you have reasons to believe that the screening tools(s) that you use may have issues with validity, reliability, or accuracy (including with sub-groups)? If so, please explain. 41

42 RTI State Database ( 42

43 Example Colorado s RTI Implementation Rubric 43

44 Example Connecticut s Evaluation of Districts RTI Procedures: Self-Assessment 44

45 Example Connecticut s Evaluation of Districts RTI Procedures: Interview Questions May Include What is the purpose of your team? What are the activities of the team? What are the expectations of the team? How often do you meet? How long is the meeting? How is the agenda for the meeting determined? How are decisions determined? How are strategies for student improvement determined? How are they evaluated? How does the data team influence classroom/school-wide practice (e.g., coaching teachers, support personnel)? Give an example of how the data team supports improvement in student outcomes (e.g., academic or behavioral)? 45

46 Example Connecticut s Evaluation of Districts RTI Procedures: Permanent Product Review 46

47 Example Connecticut s Evaluation of Districts RTI Procedures: Building/Classroom Tour The observer would write down evidence of practice, notes, or comments for each these key areas. The observer may also record the readiness level (beginning, developing, proficient, or exemplary) observed for each of these key areas. 47

48 Example Connecticut s Evaluation of Districts RTI Procedures: Data Team Observation In this example, observers would check the box if they saw evidence of the key area during the observation period. 48

49 Example Delaware s District RTI Planning Guide 49

50 Measuring Fidelity Handout Work with your team to A. Choose an essential component to focus on during this activity. B. Fill out the handout and discuss the last two columns relating to the essential component your team selected: What are you currently doing to measure fidelity? How might you measure fidelity in the future? 50

51 WAYS TO IMPROVE FIDELITY 51

52 Developing a Climate, Culture, and Leadership to Support Fidelity Assess and develop a supportive CLIMATE Do leaders manage and encourage implementation of fidelity? Is the school atmosphere conducive to new approaches & practices? Do established practices encourage frequent & open communication? Who feels responsible for each child? Assess and build a supportive CULTURE Do staff and student values and beliefs promote fidelity? Do school traditions and norms promote fidelity? Ensure strong LEADERSHIP Do leaders know and do what is expected, communicate openly with staff, and develop a system to assess fidelity? 52

53 Generate Buy-In Get buy-in for RTI implementation and fidelity from administration, teachers, staff, students, and parents prior to starting to implement Ensure that administration and staff believe in the inherent value of implementing RTI with fidelity Attract staff interested in RTI and high-quality implementation Develop a school-wide understanding of the essential components of RTI and fidelity and their active ingredients, those parts that cannot be left out 53

54 Set Clear Expectations Ensure all staff are aware of expectations and are well trained and supported to meet them Establish an expectation that everyone needs to lead, bringing their talents to the task of assessing fidelity Create an expectation that implementing RTI with fidelity is the norm and regular practice 54

55 Create Structure That Supports Fidelity Create school-level structures and resource allocation that support implementing with fidelity and staff meeting expectations Open communication Time for grade/content level teams to meet Professional development to support expectations Follow-up, including retraining and coaching 55

56 Provide Coaching to Support Fidelity Peer Coaching Administrator Coaching External Expert Coaching 56

57 The Power of Coaching OUTCOMES Percentage of Participants Who TRAINING COMPONENTS Theory and Discussion PLUS Demonstration in Training PLUS Practice & Feedback in Training PLUS Coaching in Classroom Demonstrated Knowledge of Skill Demonstrated Skill Used Skill in the Classroom 10% 5% 0% 30% 20% 0% 60% 60% 5% 95% 95% 95% Joyce & Showers,

58 Professional Development Coach Models Teacher Practices Fidelity Check Feedback Classroom Modeling Coach Models Teacher Implements Fidelity Check Feedback Teacher Implementation Fidelity Check Feedback 58

59 Identify and Address Potential Barriers Poor coaching! No time! No motivation! Lack of resources! Staff turnover! Disagreement about mission! No support strategies! Nonsupportive culture! 59

60 Overcoming Barriers STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION Who What & How Why Exploring and Adopting Involve key staff. Ensure understanding of impact on social system. Ensure that RTI system is fully conceived and all parts are in place. Ensure that all staff agree on mission and vision. Assess, promote enthusiasm for RTI. Planning Implementing Continuously Improving Define coach s role. Define principal s role. Ensure understanding of fidelity checks vs. evaluation. Provide quality coaching, feedback, & follow-up. Schedule time for staff discussions/updates. Check that follow-up procedures lack tension. Ensure that the coachteacher relationship is established. Ensure that staff agrees on parameters of innovation. Assess staff turnover; if high, analyze causes. Establish practices to lower staff turnover. Provide quality support strategies. Ensure adequate time & tool supply. Provide specific fidelity protocols or procedures to all staff. Provide staff development, coaching. Ensure quality staff support. Schedule enough time to implement fidelity procedures. Ensure that staff understands tools & methods. Ensure that staff members are continuing to receive good support. Ensure adequate time for data collection. Be aware of and provide needed professional development and coaching. Consider only after fidelity is well established. Clarify for staff: drift vs. innovation. Develop methods to evaluate benefits of innovations. Analyze and improve recruiting and staff selection practices. Establish specific plans for training new staff. Ensure that multiple staff members are in key positions. Determine extent of fidelity support within climate and culture. Provide examples of positive outcomes associated with fidelity practice. Monitor staff confidence level; bolster as needed. Ensure that fidelity is business as usual. Emphasize realized success and benefits. Consider innovation only after whole staff has full understanding of importance of fidelity. Continually review and renew mission/priorities. 60

61 Think-Pair-Share Think about Some barriers to achieving fidelity at your school Some potential solutions to overcome these barriers Pair with a neighbor/group from your school and discuss Share with the large group Take notes about what you discuss using the blank Overcoming Barriers handout 61

62 REVIEW & REFLECTION 62

63 Planning for Fidelity Handout 63

64 Practices to Ensure Fidelity of Implementation Define components, procedures, techniques, and staff responsibilities. Remember, fidelity may look different for each of the RTI components Implement a data system and schedule. Conduct fidelity reviews in a positive manner. Implement a system for feedback and follow-up. Create accountability measures for noncompliance. Link instruction and interventions to improved outcomes. Include coaching in professional development to support fidelity and implementation. 64

65 Need More Information? RTI Action Network IDEA Partnership 65

66 Questions? Response to Intervention

67 This document was produced under U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs Grant No. H326E Grace Zamora Durán and Tina Diamond served as the OSEP project officers. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the positions or policies of the Department of Education. No official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education of any product, commodity, service, or enterprise mentioned in this publication is intended or should be inferred. This product is in the public domain. Authorization to reproduce it in whole or in part is granted. While permission to reprint this publication is not necessary, the citation should be: 67

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