# FLUID POWER GRAPHIC SYMBOLS

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1 FLUID POWER GRAPHIC SYMBOLS ANSI Y32.10 GRAPHIC SYMBOLS 1. Introduction 1.1 General Fluid power systems are those that transmit and control power through use of a pressurized fluid (liquid or gas) within an enclosed circuit. Types of symbols commonly used in drawing circuit diagrams for fluid power systems are Pictorial, Cutaway, and Graphic. These symbols are fully explained in the USA Standard Drafting Manual (Ref. 2) Pictorial symbols are very useful for showing the interconnection of components. They are difficult to standardize from a functional basis Cutaway symbols emphasize construction. These symbols are complex to draw and the functions are not readily apparent Graphic symbols emphasize the function and methods of operation of components. These symbols are simple to draw. Component functions and methods of operation are obvious. Graphic symbols are capable of crossing language barriers, and can promote a universal understanding of fluid power systems. Graphic symbols for fluid power systems should be used in conjunction with the graphic symbols for other systems published by the USA Standards Institute (Ref. 3 7 inclusive) Complete graphic symbols are those, which give symbolic representation of the component and all of its features pertinent to the circuit diagram Simplified graphic symbols are stylized versions of the complete symbols Composite graphic symbols are an organization of simplified or complete symbols. Composite symbols usually represent a complex component. 1.2 Scope and Purpose Scope This standard presents a system of graphic symbols for fluid power diagrams Elementary forms of symbols are: Circles Rectangles Arcs Dots Squares Triangles Arrows Crosses Symbols using words or their abbreviations are avoided. Symbols capable of crossing language barriers are presented herein. Component function rather than construction is emphasized by the symbol The means of operating fluid power components are shown as part of the symbol (where applicable) This standard shows the basic symbols, describes the principles on which the symbols are based, and illustrates some representative composite symbols. Composite symbols can be devised for any fluid power component by combining basic symbols. Simplified symbols are shown for commonly used components This standard provides basic symbols, which differentiate between hydraulic and pneumatic fluid power media Purpose The purpose of this standard is to provide a system of fluid power graphic symbols for industrial and educational purposes The purpose of this standard is to simplify Page 1 of 24

2 design, fabrication, analysis, and service of fluid power circuits The purpose of this standard is to provide fluid power graphic symbols, which are internationally recognized The purpose of this standard is to promote universal understanding of fluid power systems. Page 2 of 24

3 2. Symbol Rules 2.1 Symbols show connections, flow paths, and functions of components represented. They can indicate conditions occurring during transition from on flow path arrangement to another. Symbols do not indicate construction, nor do they indicate values, such as pressure, flow rate, and other component settings. 2.2 Symbols do not indicate locations of ports, direction of shifting spools, or positions of actuators on actual components. 2.3 Symbols may be rotated or reversed without altering their meaning except in the cases of: a.) Lines to Reservoir, 4.1.1; b.) Vented Manifold, ; c.) Accumulator, Line Technique Keep line widths approximately equal. Line width does not alter meaning of symbols Circle and Semi Circle Large and small circles may be used to signify that one component is the main and the other the auxiliary Triangle Arrow Square Solid Line Main Dash Line Pilot Dotted Line (Pilot line for control) Rectangle Center Line (Exhaust or Drain Line) (Enclosure Outline) Sensing Line Same as line which it connects Lines Crossing (The intersection is not necessarily at a 90 angle.) or 2.6 Letter combinations used as parts of graphic symbols are not necessarily abbreviations. 2.7 In multiple envelope symbols, the flow condition shown nearest an actuator symbol takes place when that control is caused or permitted to actuate. 2.8 Each symbol is drawn to show normal, at rest, or neutral condition of component unless multiple diagrams are furnish shown various phases of circuit operation. Show an actuator symbol for each flow path condition possessed by the component Lines Joining or 2.9 An arrow through a symbol at approximately 45 degrees indicates that the component can be adjust or varied. 2.5 Basic symbols. May be shown any suitable size. Size may be varied for emphasis or clarity. Relative sizes should be maintained. (As in the following example.) Page 3 of 24

4 2.10 An arrow parallel to the short side of a symbol, within the symbol, indicates that the component is pressure compensated. 3.6 Line, Pneumatic (Outlet to Atmosphere) Plain orifice, unconnectable 2.11 A line terminating in a dot to represent a thermometer is the symbol for temperature cause or effect Connectable orifice (e.g. Thread) See Temperature Controls 7.9. Temperature indicators and Recorders and Temperature Compensation and External ports are located where flow lines connect to basic symbol, except where component enclosure symbol is used. External ports are located at intersections of flow lines and component enclosure symbol when enclosure is used, see Section Line with Fixed Restriction 3.8 Line, Flexible 2.13 Rotating shafts are symbolized by an arrow which indicates direction of rotation (assume arrow on near side of shaft). 3.9 Station, Testing, measurement, or power take off. 3. Conductor, Fluid Plugged port. 3.1 Line, Working (main) 3.2 Line, Pilot (for control) 3.3 Line, Exhaust and Liquid Drain 3.4 Line, sensing, etc. such as gauge lines shall be drawn the same as the line to which it connects. 3.5 Flow Direction of Pneumatic Quick Disconnect Without Checks CONNECTED With Two Checks DISCONNECTED Hydraulic Page 4 of 24

5 CONNECTED DISCONNECTED Below Fluid Level With One Check CONNECTED DISCONNECTED Above Fluid Level 3.11 Rotating Coupling (The return line is drawn to terminate at the upright legs of the tank symbol.) Vented Manifold 4. Energy Storage and Fluid Storage 4.1 Reservoir VENTED PRESSURIZED 4.2 Accumulator Note: Reservoirs are conventionally drawn in the horizontal plane. All lines enter and leave from above Reservoir with Connecting Lines Above Fluid Level Accumulator, Spring Loaded Accumulator, Gas Charged Below Fluid Level Accumulator, Weighted Show line entering or leaving below reservoir only when such bottom connection is essential to circuit function Simplified symbol 4.3 Receiver The symbols are used as part of a complete circuit. They are analogous to the ground symbol of electrical diagrams.. Several such symbols may be used in one diagram to represent the same reservoir. 4.4 Energy Source (Pump, Compressor, Accumulator, etc.) This symbol may be used to represent a fluid power source which may be a pump, compressor, or another associated system. HYDRAULIC PNEUMATIC Page 5 of 24

6 Simplified Symbol Example: 5. Fluid Conditioners Devices, which control the physical characteristics of the fluid. Page 6 of 24

7 5.1 Heat Exchanger Heater 5.4 Filter Separator With Manual Drain Inside triangles indicate the introduction of heat. Outside triangles show the heating medium is liquid. Outside triangles show the heating medium is gaseous With Automatic Drain Cooler or 5.5 Desiccator (Chemical Dryer) Inside triangles indicate heat dissipation. or 5.6 Lubricator Less Drain (Corners may be filled in to represent triangles.) Temperature Controller (The temperature is to be maintained between two predetermined limits.) With Manual Drain or 6. Linear Devices 6.1 Cylinders, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Single Acting 5.2 Filter Strainer Double Acting 5.3 Separator With Manual Drain Single End Rod With Automatic Drain Double End Rod Page 7 of 24

8 Fixed Cushion, Advance and Retract Push Button Adjustable Cushion, Advance Only Lever Use these symbols when diameter of rod compared to diameter of bore is significant to circuit function Pedal or Treadle NON CUSHION CUSHION, ADVANCE AND RETRACT 7.3 Mechanical 6.2 Pressure Intensifier 7.4 Detent 6.3 Servo Positioner (Simplified) Hydraulic 6.4 Discrete Positioner Pneumatic (Show a notch for each detent in the actual component being symbolized. A short line indicates which detent is in use.) Detent may, for convenience, be positioned on either end of symbol. 7.5 Pressure Compensated Combine two or more basic cylinder symbols. 7.6 Electrical 7. Actuators and Controls 7.1 Spring Solenoid (Single Winding) Reversing Motor 7.2 Manual M 7.7 Pilot Pressure (Use as general symbol without indication of specific type; i.e., foot, hand, leg, arm.) Remote Supply Page 8 of 24

9 Page 9 of 24 Fluid Power Symbols

10 7.7.2 Internal Supply 7.9 Thermal A mechanical device responding to thermal change Actuation by Released Pressure Local Sensing By Remote Exhaust By Internal Return With Bulb for Remote Sensing Pilot Controlled, Spring Centered 7.10 Servo Simplified Symbol Pilot Differential Complete Symbol (This symbol contains representation for energy input, command input, and resultant output.) 7.11 Composite Actuators (and, or, and/or) Basic.. One signal only causes the device to operate Simplified Symbol 7.8 Solenoid Pilot Solenoid or Pilot External Pilot Supply Complete Symbol And. ; One signal and a second signal both cause the device to operate. Or.. One signal or the other signal causes the device to operate. Internal Pilot Supply and Exhaust Solenoid and Pilot And/Or.. The solenoid and the pilot or the manual override alone causes the device to operate. Page 10 of 24

11 The solenoid and the pilot or the manual override and the pilot The solenoid and the pilot or a manual override and the pilot or a manual override alone. Page 11 of 24

12 8. Rotary Devices 8.1 Basic Symbol Variable Displacement, Pressure Compensated With Ports Unidirectional With Rotating Shaft, with control and with Drain Simplified Bidirectional Complete 8.2 Hydraulic Pump Fixed Displacement Unidirectional Simplified 8.3 Hydraulic Motor Fixed Displacement Complete Bidirectional Bidirectional Variable Displacement, Non compensated Unidirectional Variable Displacement Unidirectional Simplified Bidirectional Complete Bidirectional Simplified Complete 8.4 Pump Motor, Hydraulic Operating in one direction as a pump. Operating in the other direction as a motor. Page 12 of 24

13 Complete Symbol 8.6 Motor, Pneumatic Unidirectional Simplified Symbol Bidirectional Operating one direction of flow as either a pump or as a motor Complete Symbol 8.7 Oscillator Hydraulic Simplified Symbol Pneumatic 8.8 Motors, Engines Electric Motor Operating in both directions of flow either as a pump or as a motor. (Variable displacement, pressure compensated shown.) Complete Symbol IEC Heat Engine (E.G. internal combustion engine.) 9. Instruments and Accessories Simplified Symbol 9.1 Indicating and Recording Pressure 8.5 Pump Pneumatic Compressor, Fixed Displacement Temperature Vacuum Pump, Fixed Displacement Flow Meter Flow Rate Page 13 of 24

14 Totalizing Page 14 of 24

15 9.2 Sensing Venturi Orifice Plate 10.3 Multiple envelope valves capable of infinite positioning between certain limits are symbolized as in 10.2 above with the addition of horizontal bars, which are drawn parallel to the envelope. The horizontal bars are the clues to the infinite positioning function possessed by the valve represented Envelopes 105 Ports Pitot Tube 10.6 Ports, Internally Blocked Nozzle Hydraulic 9.3 Accessories Pressure Switch Pneumatic Symbol System 10.1 Symbol System Flow Paths, Internally Open (Symbol System 10.1 and 10.2) Muffler 10. Valves A basic valve symbol is composed of one or more envelopes with lines inside the envelope to represent flow paths and flow conditioners between ports. Three symbol systems are used to represent valve types: single envelope, both finite and infinite position; multiple envelope, finite position; and multiple envelope, infinite position In infinite position single envelope valves, the envelope is imagined to move to illustrate how pressure or flow conditions are controlled as the valve is actuated Multiple envelopes symbolize valves providing more than one finite flow path option for the fluid. The multiple envelope moves to represent how flow paths change when the valving element within the component is shifted to its finite positions. Symbol Symbol System System Flow Paths, Internally Open (Symbol System 10.3) 10.9 Two Way Valves (2 Ported Valves) On Off (Manual Shut Off) Simplified Off Page 15 of 24

16 Page 16 of 24

17 On Three Way Valves Two Position Check Normally Open Simplified Composite Symbol. Flow to the right is blocked. Flow to the left is permitted Normally Closed (Distributor Pressure is distributed first to one port, then the other) Check, Pilot Operated to Open Two Pressure Check, Pilot Operated to Close Two Way Valves Two Position Normally Closed Infinite Position Normally Open Double Check Valve Double check valves can be built with and without cross bleed. Such valves with two poppets do not usually allow pressure to momentarily cross bleed to return during transition. Valves with one poppet may allow cross bleed as these symbols illustrate Without Cross Bleed (One way flow) With Cross Bleed (Reverse flow permitted). Normally Closed Normally Closed Normally Open Normally Open Page 17 of 24

18 10.11 Four Way Valves Two Position Normal Typical Transition Symbol Actuated Three Position (a) Normal Infinite Positioning (between open and closed) Normally Closed (b) Actuated Left Normally Open (c) Actuated Right Pressure Control Valves Pressure Relief Typical Flow Paths for Center Condition of Three Position Valves Simplified Symbol Denotes Two Position, Snap Action with Transition. As the valve element shifts from one position to the other, it passes through an intermediate position. If it is essential to circuit function to symbolize this in transit condition, it can be shown in the center position, enclosed by dashed lines. Normal Sequence Actuated (Relieving) Page 18 of 24

19 Pressure Reducing Pressure Reducing and Relieving Adjustable with Bypass Airline Pressure Regulator (Adjustable, Relieving) Flow is controlled to the right. Flow to the left bypasses control Adjustable and Pressure Compensated with Bypass Infinite Positioning Three Way Valves Adjustable, Temperature and Pressure Compensated Infinite Positioning Four Way Valves 11. Representative Composite Symbols 11.1 Component Enclosure Flow Control Valves (See 3.7) Adjustable, Non Compensated (Flow control in each direction) Component enclosure may surround a complete symbol or a group of symbols to represent an assembly. It is used to convey more information about component connections and functions. Enclosure indicates extremity of component or assembly. External ports are assumed to be on enclosure line and indicate connections to component. Flow lines shall cross enclosure line without loops or dots. Page 19 of 24

20 11.2 Airline Accessories (Filter, Regulator and Lubricator) Composite Simplified Page 20 of 24

21 11.3 Pumps and Motors Pumps Double, Fixed Displacement, One Inlet and Two Outlets Variable Displacement with Integral Replenishing Pump and Control Valves Double, with Integral Check Unloading and Two Outlets Integral Variable Flow Rate Control with Overload Relief Page 21 of 24

22 Two Positions, Four Connection Solenoid, and Pilot Actuated, with Manual Pilot Override. Simplified Symbol Complete Symbol Page 22 of 24

23 11.4 Valves Relief, Balanced Type Pressure Reducing with Integral Check Pilot Operated Check Differential Pilot Opened Remote Operated Sequence with Integral Check Remote and Direct Operated Sequence with Differential areas and Integral Check. Page 23 of 24

24 Two Position, Five Connection, Solenoid Control Pilot Actuated with Detents and Throttle Exhaust. Simplified Symbol Complete Symbol Variable Pressure Compensated Flow Control and Overload Relief. Page 24 of 24

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