Common Infectious Diseases. Chapter 28 Lesson 2

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1 Common Infectious Diseases Chapter 28 Lesson 2

2 Respiratory Infections Respiratory tract infections are infections of the breathing passages, which range from the nose to the alveoli of the lungs. Most of these illnesses are caused by viruses or bacteria.

3 Common Cold The common cold is a viral infection that causes inflammation of the mucus membranes lining the nose and throat. It s symptoms include a stuffy, runny nose, sneezing, and sometimes a sore throat and headache. Most colds are contracted by breathing in viruscontaining droplets that have been sneezed or coughed out by an infected person. Another method of transmission is rubbing the eyes or nose with fingers that have picked up the virus through hand to hand contact.

4 Influenza A viral infection of the respiratory tract. Symptoms include chills, fever, headache, muscle ache, and weakness. Like the cold, flu is spread though virus containing droplets coughed or sneezed into the air by an infected person. Major outbreaks of the flu tend to occur every few years and usually in the winter. Treatment consists of rest, proper nutrition, and plenty of fluids.

5 Influenza cont. Secondary bacterial infection may accompany the flu, particularly in elderly people with heart and lung problems. Flu my then develop into pneumonia- a serious inflammation of the lungs. Many people die each year from pneumonia. Secondary infections require antibiotic treatment.

6 Tuberculosis Definition- a highly contagious bacterial infection that most often affects the lungs. TB is spread by airborne droplets produced by coughing or sneezing. The bacteria breathed into the lungs then multiply. If the body s immune system cannot fight off the disease, then the infection spreads to the lymphatic system and to the lymph nodes. Main symptoms include, coughing (with blood), chest pain, shortness of breath, fever, fatigue, and weight loss. Before the development of antibiotics, TB was a major cause of death in the US. In some states, antibiotic resistant strains of TB have begun to rise making treatment ineffective.

7 Strep Throat Definition- a bacterial infection of the throat. Spread by droplets coughed or sneezed into the air. Symptoms include: sore throat, fever, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck. An untreated strep throat infection can lead to serious illness such as inflammation of the kidneys, or rheumatic fever-causing permanent heart damage. Strep throat can be cured with antibiotics.

8 Infectious Diseases of the Nervous System Encephalitis- an inflammation of the brain. Usually caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes, encephalitis often starts with a headache and fever. Untreated it can progress to hallucinations, confusion, paralysis, and disturbances in speech, memory, and behavior. There is a gradual loss of consciousness and sometimes coma. If encephalitis is caused by the Herpes virus, some antiviral medicines can be effective, when caused by other viral infections, there is no cure.

9 Meningitis Definition- an inflammation in the meninges, the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. Viral meningitis is relatively mild, but bacterial meningitis can be life threatening. The organisms that cause meningitis usually reach the meninges through the bloodstream from an infection elsewhere in the body. Main symptoms are fever, fatigue, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, and a stiff neck. In viral meningitis, symptoms resemble the flu. Viral meningitis requires not treatment, bacterial meningitis must be treated with antibiotics.

10 Poliomyelitis More commonly known as polio, is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by a virus. In serious cases, the disease may lead to extensive paralysis, including the muscles used in breathing, and death. During the 1950 s, medical researcher Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin, developed a polio vaccine- a preparation based on a weakened or dead pathogen that provides immunity by causing the body to produce antibodies to the pathogen. This all but eliminated the disease from the US and Europe.

11 Measles A highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever and a rash that covers the entire body. Measles mainly effects children, but can occur at any age. The most common complications from measles are ear and chest infections. Prevention of measles is important since one of the more serious complications is encephalitis. Measles was largely eliminated through immunization- a program whereby communities or other large populations are systematically made immune to the disease.

12 Measles cont. A viral disease with similar symptoms, rubella- German measles, causes only a minor infection in children. Rubella can have serious consequences when it affects a woman in the early months of pregnancy. The virus may affect the fetus and cause a range of birth defects.

13 Mononucleosis Also referred as mono- is a viral infection common among young people in their teens. Its symptoms include chills, fever, sore throat, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes. Mono is spread primarily through direct contact, which has its given its popular name the kissing disease. Once in the body, the virus multiplies in the lymphocytes. When infected with the virus the lymphocytes change their appearance. Complete bed rest is needed for recover from 3-6 weeks.

14 Hepatitis An inflammation of the liver. The most frequent cause of hepatitis is a viral infection, although it can be caused by drugs, chemicals, or poisons. The most obvious symptom is jaundice-yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes. In severe cases, hepatitis can result in permanent liver damage. Symptoms usually appear 3-4 weeks after exposure to the virus and last from 2-6 weeks.

15 Types of Hepatitis Hepatitis A- results from eating or drinking water that has been contaminated with the virus from an infected persons feces. Many cases occur among people who have traveled to areas of the world where hygiene is poor.

16 Types of Hepatitis Hepatitis B- is found in all body fluids of an infected person, especially blood. Hepatitis B used to be spread mainly by contaminated blood transfusions and blood products, however tests that detect the virus in blood have helped eliminate transmission through transfusion. Contaminated needles, medical instruments, and sexual contact with an infected person are the main ways hepatitis B is spread now. Hepatitis B is more serious that Hepatitis A. The virus may lead to chronic infection and liver damage.

17 Types of Hepatitis Hepatitis C- Like Hepatitis B, hepatitis C is spread through infected blood. Discovered in 1989, hepatitis C can cause liver cancer. The virus can be detected in the blood, and blood is now screened before transfusion. As with most viral infections, there is no cure for hepatitis, although a vaccine for hepatitis B is now available. Treatment for hepatitis is rest, proper nutrition, and ingestion of plenty of fluids.

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