1 This article offers an introduction to programming PIC chips using the free version of Flowcode (limited to 2k of compiled code), and shows you how to use it to create two simple programs for the PICkit 2 44-pin Demo Board. To start with we will examine a very simple LED flashing program so you can get to grips with the basic operation of Flowcode and your PICkit 2, after that we will look at a more complex program using a thermistor. First of all the flowchart Program design usually starts with a flowchart, planning the sequence of steps which the microprocessor will follow. With Flowcode, it is a very simple matter to convert the flowchart into a Flowcode program. This first example develops a system which outputs one of two lighting patterns, depending on whether or not a switch is pressed. You can see this in figure 1: Start Read switch status Is switch pressed? Yes No Switch on LEDs 0 to 3 Wait for 0.5 seconds Switch off LEDs 0 to 3 Switch on LEDs 0 and 7 Switch on LEDs 4 to 7 Wait for 0.5 seconds End Figure 1 Flowcode 1 step-by-step Let s now convert this into a Flowcode program.
2 A free demo version of Flowcode is available from: When you install it, make sure that the Microchip PICkit2 option is selected. Run the Flowcode application. Click on the OK button when the Reminder screen opens. Next you have the option of creating a new Flowcode flowchart, or opening an existing one. Select the option to create a new one. You now have to choose a target PIC chip. The 44-pin Demo Board is fitted with a PIC 16F887, so choose that from the list. A new workspace called Main opens. Click and drag icons from the Icons Toolbar running down the left-hand edge of the screen, to make the Flowcode flowchart shown below. For the moment, do not worry about configuring them we will do that next. Figure 2 Now add the hardware. Click on the LED icon in the Components Toolbar, running just inside the Icon Toolbar. Also click on the switch icon. You now have two more items on the workspace.
3 Select the LED component in the workspace, c lick on the drop down menu button and select the Component Connections option. In the Connect to Port drop down menu, select Port D, (because the LEDs on the 44-pin Demo Board are connected to Port D.) The Connections dialogue box should now look like the following: Figure 3 Next select the Switch component in the workspace. Click on the drop down menu button, select the Properties option, and set the number of switches to one. Figure 4
4 In the Connect to Port drop down menu, select Port B, (because the push switch on the 44-pin Demo Board is wired to bit 0 of Port B.) The Connections dialogue box should now resemble the following: Configuring the icons Figure 5 Now it is time to configure the icons that make up the Flowcode flowchart. To do this, double-click on each icon in turn and set up the configurations shown in the following diagrams. In the Display name boxes, type the text from the corresponding element of the flowchart. This makes it easier to check your progress. The Loop icon: Figure 6 The Input icon: First of all you need to create a variable to carry the switch information. Click on the Variables... button to open the Variable Manager window. Click on the Add New Variable button, and type Input as the name of the new variable, as shown in the next screenshot.
5 Figure 7 Then click OK. Back in the Variable Manager window, click on Use Variable. Back in the Input Properties window, select Port B, and Single Bit, so that the dialogue box now looks like: Figure 8 The Decision icon: In the Properties dialogue box, click on the Variables button and select the Input variable for use. Type Is switch pressed in the Display name box. You should now have: No Loop- The Output icon: Figure 9 LED 7 is the most significant bit of the display, and so has a place value of 128 (= 2 7 ). LED 0 has a place value of 1 (= 2 0 ). To make both light, you output a value of 129 to Port D, where the LEDs are connected. Figure 10
6 Yes Loop: First Output icon: The first four LEDs, 0 to 3, have place values of 1, 2, 4 and 8, (= 2 0, 2 1, 2 2 and 2 3 respectively). You can light all four by outputting a value of 15 ( = ) to Port D, as shown in the next screenshot. Figure 11 Both Delay icons: The duration of the delay can be specified either in milliseconds or seconds. To create a half second display, type 500 as the Delay value, with the milliseconds button selected, since 500ms = 0.5s. Figure 12 Second Output icon: The LEDs 4 to 7, have place values of 16, 32, 64 and 128, (= 2 4, 2 5, 2 6 and 2 7 respectively). To light all four, output a value of 240 ( = ) to Port D, as shown in the next screenshot. Figure 13
7 Now your Flowcode flowchart should look like: Simulate the program Figure 14 Flowcode allows you to check whether you program works by running an on-screen simulation. This can be done in two ways, simulating the full program, or stepping through the simulation, icon by icon. In both cases, two windows, the Variables window, and the Call Stack window, appear while the simulation runs. When you run the program simulation at full speed, the values in these windows are not updated as the program runs. If you slow down the full program simulation, or if you step through the program, then you will see the effect of each stage on the variables you created, shown in the Variables window. For now, look at the full simulation, running at full speed. Click on the Run command in the Menu toolbar. Choose the Go/Continue option. The Variables window, and the Call Stack window appear, and the LEDs 0 an 7 light. Click on the push switch icon, and the LEDs should flash on and off, with LEDs 0 to 3 alternating with LEDs 4 to 7. The program works! (If it does not, then go back and check the configuration details given above. You could simulate the program step-by-step, by clicking on the Step Into option in the Run menu, and then using the F8 key to move to the next step.)
8 Programming the PIC chip The groundwork is done you have a working Flowcode program. The rest is easy! Here are instructions for getting you program into the chip: Connect the PICkit 2 module to your computer using the USB cable. Plug the 44-pin Demo Board into PICkit 2. Click on the Chip command in the Menu toolbar, and select the Compile to Chip... option. (You may be asked to save the Flowcode program click on the Yes button.) A Complier Messages window opens to show progress, as various elements are launched. The Target and Busy LEDs on PICkit 2 light eventually, when the program is transferred. Finally, the Compiler Messages window shows the word FINISHED, at which point you can click on the Close button. Your program should now be running on the 44-pin Demo Board. LEDs 0 to 3 and 4 to 7 are alternately on then off. Press the push switch, and the LED pattern should change, with only LEDs 0 and 7 lit. That s what your Flowcode program said! Unseen by the user, the Flowcode programmer first compiled the graphical flowchart to a C file, and then compiled that to assembler. These can be viewed by C and assembler buffs either by using the View C and View ASM commands under the Chip command on the Menu toolbar, or by opening the files prog1name.c and prog1name.asm in the folder where you saved the Flowcode program (where prog1name is the name you gave to that program.)
9 Program 2 OK now you are up and running let s look at a more complex problem and show you how to solve it using Flowcode and PICkit 2. Our goal here is to build a digital temperature display for an incubator. It gives a visual warning if the temperature is too hot (LEDs 4and 5 flash alternately with 6 and 7,) or too cold (LEDs 0 and 1 flash alternately with 2 and 3.) In between these limits it lights either two LEDs (0 and 1) or, if a bit warmer, it lights four LEDs (0,1,2 and 3.) This is more ambitious, but the process is exactly the same as in the last program: Create the flowchart. Convert it into a Flowcode flowchart. Configure the component and command icons. Simulate the program. Compile it to the PIC chip and run it. Flowchart for program 2 Start Read temp sensor Is temp >18? No Switch on LEDs 0 and 1 only Wait for 0.5 s econds Switch on LEDs 2 and 3 only Yes Is temp >20? Yes No Switch on LEDs 0 and 1 only Is temp >22? Yes No Switch on LEDs 0,1,2and3 only Switch on LED s 4 and 5 only Wait for 0.5 seconds Wait for 0.5 seconds Switch on LEDs 6 and 7 only Wait for 0.5 seconds End Figure 15
10 Flowcode for Program 2 The Flowcode flowchart is shown in the next picture. Most of the icons have already been discussed in the previous program. Open a new workspace in Flowcode and then click and drag icons to create a copy of this flowchart. There are two new command icons, and one new component. The command icons are both known as Component Macros. You find them in the Icons Toolbar running down the left-hand edge of the screen. (Be careful to choose Component Macros, and not just Macros! Component macros have hatched outer bands on the icon.) The new component is an ADC, found in the Components toolbar. Figure 16
11 Most of the icons are configured in the same way as in the first program. Use the text descriptions and the text inside the icons as a guide, when configuring them. The values you use in the Decisions boxes may need to be adjusted in the light of experience. They depend on exactly which thermistor (and resistor) you use in your temperature sensor. Component macros are pre-defined macros supplied with the components and are available for use only with that particular component. Some component macros require parameters, and a return value. Parameters can be numerical values or existing variables. If the component macro has a return value, then you can assign that value to an existing variable for use later in the flowchart. Double-click on the first component macro, to open its Properties window. You will find that there are two components listed in the Component window, ADC(0) and LEDs(0). Click on the ADC(0) component to select it. The Component Macros available for it are then listed in the Macro window. Select the SampleADC macro. Notice that it requires no parameters and has no return value. This properties window is shown below. Figure 17 Next, open the properties window of the second Component Macro. Select the ADC(0) component, but this time select the ReadAsByte macro. This has a return value, and you should create and use a variable called temp, by clicking on the Variables button, and then on the Add New Variable button. This properties window is shown below.
12 Figure 18 The next step is to configure the ADC(0) component. The (0) in its title signifies that it the first ADC component added to the flowchart. If you add a second one, it will be called ADC(1). Click on the down arrow in the title bar of the ADC component, and select the Component Connections... option. The Specify Component Pin Connections window opens. The decision to make here is which analogue input on the PIC chip to use. The Demo Board already has an analogue component, the pot, connected to Port A bit 0, or as we should call it AN0, as we are dealing with an analogue input. There are fourteen such analogue inputs on the PIC16F887, spread across ports A, B and E. For our present purpose, we will use ADC channel 1, so select that from the pull-down menu next to the Connect to: ADC label. The Properties window for this component allows you to select either a linear or a rotary pot for the on-screen representation of the device, and to change its colour. We will stick to default values. The Specify Component Pin Connections window now looks like the following: Simulate program 2 Figure 19 Your Flowcode program is now complete. Test it by running the on-screen simulation. If it works: When the knob of the on-screen pot is set to a minimum, LEDs 0 and 1 flash on and off alternately with LEDs 2 and 3, as a low temperature alarm. As you rotate the knob, using the mouse cursor, this behaviour stops, and LEDs 0 and 1 switch on and stay on. A little further, and LEDs 2 and 3 come on as well. Turn the pot further, and LEDs 4 and 5 flash on and off alternately with LEDs 6 and 7, as a high temperature alarm.
13 It s soldering time! The project needs a temperature sensor. This consists of a thermistor (the prototype used one with a resistance of 15kΩ at 25 0 C) and a resistor (10kΩ in the prototype.) These values can be varied, in which case the thresholds in the Decision boxes in the Flowcode flowchart will have to be adjusted. Here is the circuit diagram for the temperature sensor: V dd thermistor 10kΩ Output to AN1 Gnd Figure 20 The sensor is constructed in the prototyping area at the bottom of the 44- pin Demo Board. To AN1 thermistor Vdd wire link 10k Ω resistor Figure 21 Gnd The prototype used leaded components, not surface mounted, and so the plated holes down the side of the board were used to make connections. A wire link was soldered to join the three pads connected to the thermistor, the connecting wire and the resistor. The connecting wire is then soldered to one of the plated holes on the input labelled RA1 (which is actually AN1 in this case.) Here is a photograph of the prototype.
14 Programming the PIC chip Figure 22 The procedure is the same as before. Connect the hardware to the USB port of your computer. Click on the Chip \ Compile to Chip... option. Close the Complier Messages window, when the transfer is complete. The system can be tested by warming the thermistor between thumb and finger, or by blowing gently on the thermistor to warm it up. By tuning the thresholds in the Decision boxes to match the temperature sensor, the system can be made extremely sensitive to temperature change, or can monitor a wide range of temperature. And Finally! Although this article has shown in some detail how to build and configure Flowcode flowcharts, much of the functionality of Flowcode has not been mentioned. The ability to perform calculations, manipulate string variables, create customised macros and inject sections of C programming has not been mentioned, along with a host of other powerful features of the program. Fortunately, the program comes equipped with a set of tutorials, accessed via the Help menu. Matrix Multimedia also offers a variety of supporting resources, available via their website
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