Fountas-Pinnell Level O Informational Text. by Phil Moschowitz

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1 LESSON 28 TEACHER S GUIDE by Phil Moschowitz Fountas-Pinnell Level O Informational Text Selection Summary People have been interested in and have been studying the planet Mars for hundreds of years. Mars has many of the same features as Earth, such as volcanoes and canyons. It once may have had surface water. Uncrewed spacecraft have learned much about the red planet. Number of Words: 765 Characteristics of the Text Genre Informational text Text Structure Five sections of text with easy-to-read headings Information presented in categories Content The planet Mars Exploration of Mars Future life on Mars Themes and Ideas Mars may once have had life on it. There is still much to discover about the planet Mars. Language and Clear language with conversational tone Literary Features Writer talks directly to the reader (second person): You ll see why Mars is called the red planet. Sentence Complexity A mix of short and more complex sentences Multiple items in series: Mars even has clouds, wind, and seasons! Ellipses, dashes, and exclamations Vocabulary Content-specifi c terms not defi ned in text: launching pad, liftoff, control room, telescope Words Proper nouns that may be diffi cult to decode: Olympus Mons, Valles Marineris, Arizona Compound words: liftoff, spacecraft, Pathfi nder, airbags, greenhouses Illustrations Photos, diagrams, and illustrations Two full-page illustrations Book and Print Features Table of Contents Sentence captions that support the text Callouts on one photo Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H. Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Permission is hereby granted to individual teachers using the corresponding (discipline) Leveled Readers to photocopy student worksheets from this publication in classroom quantities for instructional use and not for resale. Requests for information on other matters regarding duplication of this work should be addressed to Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, Attn: Contracts, Copyrights, and Licensing, 9400 SouthPark Center Loop, Orlando, Florida Printed in the U.S.A If you have received these materials as examination copies free of charge, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company retains title to the materials and they may not be resold. Resale of examination copies is strictly prohibited. Possession of this publication in print format does not entitle users to convert this publication, or any portion of it, into electronic format.

2 by Phil Moschowitz Build Background Help children use their knowledge of the solar system and planets to visualize the book. Read the title and author and talk about the cover illustration. Ask: Do you know which planet is the red planet? What does the surface of the planet look like on the cover? Tell children that this book gives factual information about one of our neighbors in space, the planet Mars. Introduce the Text Guide children through the text, noting important ideas, and helping with unfamiliar language and vocabulary. Here are some suggestions: Page 2: Remind children that a table of contents provides a preview of a book by listing its different sections and the pages on which they start. Suggested language: Turn to page 2 of this book. What is the fi rst section listed in the Table of Contents? What is a liftoff? What kinds of vehicles lift off? Page 3: Read aloud the fi rst sentence: The rocket waits on the launching pad as scientists check and recheck the instruments. Why do you think scientists have to recheck the instruments? What kinds of information might the instruments tell the scientists? Page 5: Point out that the diagram shows the planets in our solar system. Earth is the third planet from the sun. Which is the fourth planet? Pages 8 9: Explain that the diagram on page 9 shows how a parachute helped a spacecraft land safely on Mars. Some people jump from planes wearing parachutes, to help them land safely. This parachute held up the Mars rover, a vehicle that explored Mars. The vehicle rolled around the red planet and sent back information to scientists on Earth. Now turn back to the beginning of the book and read to fi nd out how scientists have explored the planet Mars and what they have learned about it. Expand Your Vocabulary evidence something that gives proof of the truth, p. 10 inflated swelled or filled with air or gas, p. 8 instruments tools designed especially for precision work, p. 3 mission a task or job that is assigned, p. 10 parachute a folding, umbrellashaped device of light fabric used especially for making a safe jump from an aircraft, p. 8 vehicle something used to transport people or goods, p. 8 2 Lesson 28:

3 Read Have children read silently while you listen to individual children read. Support their problem solving and fluency as needed. Remind children to use the Analyze/Evaluate Strategy they feel about the text and why., and to tell how Discuss and Revisit the Text Personal Response Invite children to share their personal responses to the book. Suggested language: Have you ever wanted to explore another planet, like Mars? Why or why not? Ways of Thinking As you discuss the text, help children understand these points: Thinking Within the Text Thinking Beyond the Text Thinking About the Text Like Earth, the planet Mars has ice caps, clouds, winds, and seasons. Spacecraft sent to Mars have sent back much information on the red planet. No signs of life have been found on Mars, but life might have existed there long ago. Because Mars may once have had surface water, life may have existed there. Spacecraft have provided a great deal of information about Mars, but there is still much to be learned about the planet Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H. The section headings give information about what each section will contain. The photos and illustrations add to the information in the text. The author includes lots of details about the exploration of Mars. The author s attitude towards space exploration is very positive. Choices for Further Support Fluency Invite children to choose a passage from the text and demonstrate phrased fl uent reading. Remind them to group words in a meaningful way to show that they understand what they are reading. Comprehension Based on your observations of the children s reading and discussion, revisit parts of the text to clarify or extend comprehension. Remind children to go back to the text to support their ideas. Phonics/Word Work Provide practice as needed with words and word parts, using examples from the text. Remind children that a prefi x at the beginning of a word can change the meaning of a word they know. Point out the words check and recheck in the fi rst sentence on page 3. Explain that the prefi x re- adds the meaning again to a word. To recheck something is to check it again. Have children fi nd another word with re- in the book (research on page 10). 3 Lesson 28:

4 Writing about Reading Critical Thinking Have children complete the Critical Thinking questions on BLM Responding Have children complete the activities at the back of the book. Use the instruction below as needed to reinforce or extend understanding of the comprehension skill. Target Comprehension on Skill Text and Graphic Features Remind children that photos and diagrams can help them understand the book. Model the skill, using a Think Aloud like the one below: Think Aloud On page 7, the text tells about the Viking spacecraft. The caption with the photo on the page tells you how many pictures Viking spacecraft sent back. The photo shows just what the Viking spacecraft looked like when it was on Mars. The photo, caption, and the text work together to give you information and help you understand what you are reading. Practice the Skill Have children find another example in the book where the photo and text work together to give readers information. Writing Prompt: Thinking Beyond the Text Have children write a response to the prompt on page 6. Remind them that when they think beyond the text, they use what they know and their own experience to think about what happens in the story. Assessment Prompts What does the word mission mean in this sentence: These two rovers had the same mission to fi nd proof that there was once water on Mars? What helped Pathfi nder land safely on Mars? 4 Lesson 28:

5 Read directions to children. English Language Development Reading Support In Introduce the Text, use pictures, concrete objects, or demonstrations that will help children understand the concepts and ideas in the text. Don t ask children to read any text they will not understand. Vocabulary Offer children support with unfamiliar technology words and terms such as launching pad, spacecraft, control room, computers, telescope, volcano, and television. Oral Language Development Check children s comprehension, using a dialogue that best matches their English proficiency level. Speaker 1 is the teacher, Speaker 2 is the child. Beginning/Early Intermediate Intermediate Early Advanced/ Advanced Speaker 1: What is the name of the red planet? Speaker 2: Mars Speaker 1: Why is Mars called the red planet? Speaker 2: It looks red in space. Speaker 1: What did the spacecraft Pathfinder study on Mars? Speaker 2: It studied dirt and rocks. Speaker 1: What did the two rovers try to prove about Mars? Speaker 2: They tried to prove that there was once water on Mars. Speaker 1: Why would scientists want to build giant greenhouses on Mars? Speaker 2: Humans can t breathe on Mars. The plants in the greenhouses would provide fresh air for humans to breathe. Name Read and answer the questions. 1. Why is Mars called the red planet? Date Lesson 28 BLACKLINE MASTER How are Mars and Earth alike? 3. How does the drawing on page 5 help you understand what you are reading? Making Connections Imagine you wanted to learn more about Mars. Where would you go to get information? Why? Write your answer in your Reader s Notebook., Unit 6: What a Surprise! 5 Lesson 28:

6 Name Date Thinking Beyond the Text Think about the questions below. Then write your answer in one or two paragraphs. Someday there might be sightseeing trips to Mars. Would you buy a ticket on a rocket ship to Mars? Why or why not? 6 Lesson 28:

7 Name Read and answer the questions. 1. Why is Mars called the red planet? Date Lesson 28 BLACKLINE MASTER How are Mars and Earth alike? 3. How does the drawing on page 5 help you understand what you are reading? Making Connections Imagine you wanted to learn more about Mars. Where would you go to get information? Why? Write your answer in your Reader s Notebook. 7 Lesson 28:

8 Student Date Lesson 28 BLACKLINE MASTER LEVEL O Running Record Form page Selection Text Errors Self-Corrections 5 Scientists have been studying Mars for a long time. They know Mars is like Earth in many ways. Scientists know Mars orbits, or travels around, the sun, like Earth and the other planets do. Mars also has ice caps just like Earth. Mars even has clouds, wind, and seasons! 6 Mars has volcanoes, too. The tallest volcano on Mars is called Olympus Mons. Olympus Mons is 13 miles high! The tallest volcano on Earth isn t even 6 miles high. Mars has deep canyons, too. They are much deeper than the canyons on Earth. The Grand Canyon in Arizona is a little more than a mile deep. Comments: Accuracy Rate (# words read correctly/ ) % Total Self- Corrections Behavior Code Error Read word correctly cat 0 Repeated word, sentence, or phrase Omission cat 0 cat 1 Behavior Code Error Substitution cut cat 1 Self-corrects cut sc cat Insertion the ˆcat 1 Word told T 1 cat Lesson 28:

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