TECHNICAL ALPHACYPERMETHRIN

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "TECHNICAL ALPHACYPERMETHRIN"

Transcription

1 ALPHACYPERMETHRIN 1. Specification 1.1 Description Full specification: Adopted 10 December 1999 The material shall consist of a homogeneous mixture of technical alphacypermethrin together with related manufacturing impurities and shall be in the form of a white to cream crystalline powder, free from visible extraneous matter and added modifying agents. 1.2 Chemical and physical requirements The material sampled from any part of the consignment (see method WHO/M/1.R1), shall comply with the requirements of section 1.1 and with the following requirements Identity test Where the identity of the active ingredient is in doubt, then it shall comply with at least one additional test. (CIPAC method 454/TC/(M)/2, CIPAC Handbook H, p.15) Alphacypermethrin cis 2 ([IR cis] S and [IS cis] R isomers) content (g/kg basis) The alphacypermethrin cis 2 ([IR cis] S and [IS cis] R isomers) content shall be declared (not less than 910 g/kg), and when determined by the method described in section 2.1 the mean measured content obtained shall not be lower than the declared content Total pyrethroid content. The combined content of the cis and trans isomers of alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl- 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl-)cyclopropanecarboxylate, when determined by the method described in section 2.2, shall not be less than 975 g/kg Volatile hydrocarbon solvent content The maximum volatile hydrocarbon solvent content of the material, when determined by the method described in section 2.3 shall not be higher than 1g/kg. 1

2 1.2.5 Triethylamine content The maximum triethylamine content of the material, when determined by the method described in section 2.4 shall not be higher than 1 g/kg. 1.3 Packing and marking of packages The technical alphacypermethrin shall be packed in suitable clean containers, as specified in the order: All packages shall bear, durably and legibly marked on the container, the following: Manufacturer s name Technical alphacypermethrin Batch or reference number, and date of test Net weight of contents Date of manufacture and the following cautionary notice: Alphacypermethrin is a pyrethroid that acts predominantly on the central nervous system; high dosages have been found to cause tonic seizures in experimental animals. A high concentration in air may be an irritant and contact with the concentrated product may induce a temporary tingling sensation, particularly on the face. It may be hazardous if swallowed. Do not inhale spray mist. Avoid skin contact; wear protective gloves, clean protective clothing, and a face mask (surgical type) when handling the product. Wash hands and exposed skin thoroughly after using. Keep containers out of reach of children and well away from foodstuffs and animal feed and their containers. Alphacypermethrin is toxic to aquatic wildlife. Avoid accidental contamination of water. If poisoning occurs, call a physician. Treatment is symptomatic. 2. Methods of determining chemical and physical properties 2.1 Alphacypermethrin content Outline of method The sample is dissolved in tetrahydrofuran with di-octyl phthalate used as the internal standard. Separation is carried out in the split injection mode using a dimethyl polysiloxane WCOT fused silica capillary column with automatic injection and flame ionisation detector. The alphacypermethrin is determined by comparison with calibration solutions Apparatus Gas chromatograph. Capable of operating over the range 100 to 300 C with a flame ionisation detector, split/splitless injector and autosampler. 2

3 Column. 30 m WCOT fused silica 0.25 mm id and 0.25 µm film thickness coated with dimethyl polysiloxane (chemically bonded), or equivalent. Injector system. Injector split/splitless with fused silica liner containing a 1 cm plug of glass wool. An automatic injector is strongly recommended to ensure the best analytical results. It is important to ensure that the split liner is acid treated, thoroughly deactivated and conditioned before use, to ensure that alphacypermethrin does not epimerise during analysis. Split ratio :1 (split vent at 75 ml/min) Injection Volume 1.0 µl using a autosampler Detector system. Type FID, with no special requirements. Automatic digital integrator or chromatography data system. Compatible with the gas chromatograph. 100 ml volumetric flasks Reagents Tetrahydrofuran, analytical grade. Citric acid. 5% citric acid solution. Dissolve citric acid (25 g) in water (500 ml). Di-octyl phthalate, di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, Internal standard. Select for use a batch which, when chromatographed under the conditions below for the determination of alphacypermethrin gives no peak with a similar retention time to the alphacypermethrin isomers. Cypermethrin analytical standard of known purity (containing a mixture of trans 3, trans 4, cis 1 and cis 2 cypermethrin). Alphacypermethrin working standard, of known alphacypermethrin content Preparation of standard solutions Internal standard solution Dissolve di-octyl phthalate (5.0 g) in tetrahydrofuran (500 ml) (solution I). Ensure sufficient quantity of this solution is prepared for all samples and calibration standards being analysed. The same internal standard solution must be used for standards and samples in the same analytical run. Citric acid. 5% citric acid solution. 3

4 Dissolve citric acid (25 g) in water (500 ml). Alphacypermethrin calibration solution Weigh in duplicate (to the nearest 0.1 mg) about 0.1 g of alphacypermethrin (C A and C B, g) into 100 ml volumetric flasks. Add to each, 70 ml of tetrahydrofuran and agitate the flask gently to dissolve. Add by pipette 10.0 ml of internal standard solution (solution I) and 10 ml of 5% citric acid solution from a measuring cylinder. Make to volume with tetrahydrofuran and mix well. (Solutions C A and C B ). Note: Citric acid is added to stop epimerisation of alphacypermethrin in solution. Prepare a solution without internal standard, by dissolving about 0.1 g of alphacypermethrin standard into a 100 ml volumetric flask. Add approximately 70 ml of tetrahydrofuran and swirl to dissolve. Add by pipette 10 ml of 5% citric acid solution from a measuring cylinder. Make to volume with tetrahydrofuran and mix well. (Solution C O ). Cypermethrin calibration check solution Prepare a solution of cypermethrin, by dissolving about 0.1 g of cypermethrin standard into a 100 ml volumetric flask. Add approximately 70 ml of tetrahydrofuran and swirl to dissolve. Add by pipette 10mL of the internal standard solution to volume with tetrahydrofuran and mix well (Solution C C ) Operating conditions The conditions given below are typical values and may have to be adjusted to obtain optimum results from a given apparatus. Temperatures Column oven 230 C Injector 260 C Detector 300 C Adjust the column oven temperature if required to obtain retention time windows for di-octyl (approximately 13.5 minutes), alphacypermethrin cis 2 isomer (approximately 27.0 minutes) and alphacypermethrin cis 1 isomer (approximately 25.2 minutes). The trans 3 and trans 4 isomers elute at approximately 26.1 and 27.5 minutes respectively. Gas flow rates Helium carrier approximately 0.8 ml min -1 Helium make up gas 60 ml min -1 or optimum for instrument 4

5 Septum purge 2 ml min -1 Hydrogen as recommended for the instrument Air as recommended for the instrument All gases should be purified through molecular sieves. The carrier gas should be further purified through an oxygen trap Sample preparation Sampling Homogenize the bulk material before taking the sample. Take at least 25 g. Rehomogenize the bulk before taking a sub-sample for analysis. Preparation of the sample solutions. Weigh in duplicate (to the nearest 0.1 mg) into 100 ml volumetric flasks sufficient sample (w, g) to contain 0.1 g of alphacypermethrin. Add approximately 70 ml of tetrahydrofuran and agitate the flask gently to dissolve. Add by pipette to each flask 10 ml of di-octyl phthalate solution I and by measuring cylinder, 10 ml of 5% citric acid solution. Make to volume with tetrahydrofuran and mix well (Solutions S A and S B ). Prepare a solution without internal standard, by dissolving about 0.1 g of alphacypermethrin standard into a 100 ml volumetric flask. Add approximately 70 ml of tetrahydrofuran and swirl to dissolve. Add by pipette 10 ml of 5% citric acid solution from a measuring cylinder. Make to volume with tetrahydrofuran and mix well. (Solution S O ) Equilibration of the system. Carry out alternate 1.0 µl injections of solutions I, C o and S o and check whether there are any interfering peaks from impurities. If there are make any necessary corrections but do not use external calibration. Inject calibration solutions C A and C B to equilibrate the system and use the data from these chromatograms to set the integration parameters. Calculate the response factors for these injections to check the stability of the instrument. Response factors should not differ by more than ± 1% of the mean. Inject the solution of cypermethrin in tetrahydrofuran to ensure complete separation of the alphacypermethrin isomers Analysis of sample 5

6 Carry out 1.0 µl injections of calibration solutions C A and C B and sample solutions S A and S B in the following sequence and record the integrated areas of the peaks. Injection sequence C A1, S A1, S A2, C B1, C A2, S B1, S B2, C B Calculation Calculate the relative response factors (f 1, f 2 etc) for the pair of calibration injections which bracket the sample injections eg use C A1 and C B1 for sample injections S A1, S A2 etc and obtain the mean response factor, f. Sample analysis should be repeated if calibration response factors f 1 and f 2 differ by more than ± 2% of the mean f. Relative response factor = H s I r x s x P Where: H s = area of alphacypermethrin cis 2 peak in the calibration solution. I r = area of di-octyl phthalate peak in the calibration solution. s = mass of alphacypermethrin analytical standard in calibration solution (g). P = purity of the alphacypermethrin standard (g/kg). For each sample injection eg S A1, calculate the alphacypermethrin cis 2 content. Alphacypermethrin content = Hw f x Iq x w Where: f = mean relative response factor Hw = mean area of alphacypermethrin cis 2 peak in the sample solution Iq = area of di-octyl phthalate peak in the sample solution w = mass of sample (g) Calculate the alphacypermethrin cis 2 content of the sample as the mean of the four determinations as follows: Sample injection Use relative response factor from Alphacypermethrin cis 2 (g/kg) S A1 C A1 and C B1 Q ) ) X S A2 C A1 and C B1 R ) S B1 C A2 and C B2 S ) ) Y S B2 C A2 and C B2 T ) 6

7 Q and R, S and T should agree to within ± 0.5% of their mean values (X and Y). X and Y should agree within ± 1% of their mean values. Take the mean of the two values x and y as the alphacypermethrin content. 2.2 Total pyrethroid content Outline of method The sample is dissolved in a chloroform/heptane mixture containing 0.2% tetrahydrofuran. Separation is carried out by normal phase high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet detection. The total pyrethroid content is determined by comparison with calibration solutions Apparatus Liquid chromatograph equipped with a 10 µl loop injector. UV detector capable of operating at 278 nm. Column stainless steel, 250 x 4.6 mm (i.d.) Zorbax SIL normal phase column, or equivalent. Guard column 15 x 3.2 mm (i.d.) 7 µm silica cartridge or equivalent. Injector system capable of reproducible 10 µl injections. Detector system UV, with no special requirements. Automatic digital integrator or chromatography data system compatible with the liquid chromatograph 50 ml, 100 ml volumetric flasks Reagents Cis and trans cypermethrin Analytical standard of known purity Heptane HPLC grade Chloroform HPLC grade (containing 1% ethanol as a preservative) Tetrahydrofuran (THF) ACS reagent (contains butylated hydroxytoluene, BHT, as a preservative) Mobile phase Heptane and chloroform (9 to 1 volume ratio) with 0.2% (v/v) tetrahydrofuran. Measure heptane (2250 ml) and chloroform (250 ml) using a graduated cylinder and add by pipette THF (5 ml) Preparation of standard solutions Cis and trans cypermethrin calibration solution 7

8 Weigh in duplicate (to the nearest 0.1 mg) about 0.05 g each of cis and trans cypermethrin (C C and C D, g) into 100 ml volumetric flasks. Add to each, 5 ml of chloroform to dissolve and dilute to volume with heptane and mix well. (Solutions C C and C D ) Operating Conditions The conditions given below are typical values and may have to be adjusted to obtain optimum results from a given apparatus. Eluting solvent flow rate 2 ml/min Temperature 35 C Injection volume 10 µl Wavelength 278 nm Retention times Cis 1 cypermethrin minutes Cis 2 cypermethrin minutes Trans 3 cypermethrin minutes Trans 4 cypermethrin minutes Sample preparation Sampling Homogenise the bulk material before taking the sample. Take at least 25 g. Rehomogenise the bulk before taking a sub-sample for analysis. Preparation of the sample solutions. Weigh in duplicate (to the nearest 0.1 mg) into 50 ml volumetric flasks sufficient sample (w, g) to contain 0.1 g of technical grade cypermethrin. Add approximately 5 ml of chloroform to dissolve the sample and dilute with heptane. (Solutions S C and S D ) Equilibration of the system Inject calibration solutions C C and C D to equilibrate the system and use the data from these chromatograms to set the integration parameters. Calculate the response factors for these injections to check the stability of the instrument. Response factors should not differ by more than ± 1% of the mean Analysis of sample Carry out 10 µl injections of calibration solutions C C and C D and sample solutions S C and S D in the following sequence and record the integrated areas of the peaks. Injection sequence C C1, S C1, S C2, C D1, C C2, S D1, S D2, C D2 8

9 2.2.9 Calculation Calculate the relative response factors (f 1, f 2 etc.) for the pair of calibration injections which bracket the sample injections e.g. use C C1 and C D1 for sample injections S C1, S C2 etc. and obtain the mean response factor, f. Sample analysis should be repeated if calibration response factors f 3 and f 4 differ by more than ± 2% of the mean f. Relative response factor f = H s s x P Where: H s = area of the four cypermethrin peaks in the calibration solution s = mass of the cypermethrin analytical standard in calibration solution (g) P = purity of the cypermethrin standard (g/kg) For each sample injection eg S C1, calculate the cypermethrin isomer content Cypermethrin isomer content= Hw f x w Where: f = mean relative response factor Hw = mean area of the four cypermethrin isomer peaks in the sample solution w = mass of sample (g) 2.3 Volatile hydrocarbon solvent content Outline of method The volatile hydrocarbon solvent content is determined by measuring the difference in the weight of the sample before and after drying in a vacuum oven Apparatus Vacuum oven capable of maintaining a temperature of C with a vacuum of about 2430" Hg. Desiccator: Note it is recommended to allow the sample to reach room temperature in a desiccator, after removal from the drying oven, to minimise adsorption of atmospheric moisture. Petri Dishes Pyrex, 100 x 15 mm 9

10 2.3.3 Reagents Desiccant e.g. Indicating Drierite Absorbent, or equivalent Procedure In duplicate, accurately weigh Petri dishes (x g). Accurately weigh 5-10 g of the technical material into the Petri dish. (y g). Place the sample in the oven set at a temperature of about 40 C and adjust the vacuum to about 2430" Hg. Dry the sample for about 2.5 hours. Remove the sample from the oven and allow it cool in the desiccator and reweigh (z g). Dry the sample for an additional 30 minutes and redetermine the weight. If the weight is constant, i.e., the relative change between two weighings is less than 0.5%, calculate the percentage volatile hydrocarbon content. Otherwise, continue drying the sample to constant weight. Percentage ( w/w ) volatile hydrocarbon content = 100 (y-z) y-x 2.4 Triethylamine content Outline of method This method is used to determine the content of triethylamine ( TEA ) in alphacypermethrin technical material. The sample is dissolved in a mixture of glacial acetic acid and chlorobenzene and potentiometrically titrated with standard acetous perchloric acid. The amount of TEA is calculated from the equivalence point of the titration curve Apparatus Potentiometric Titrator e.g. Mettler DL25 titrator equipped with a combination glass electrode ( Mettler DG 112), or equivalent. An Epson FX-85 or other printer to record the results. Titrator cups 100 ml to fit the titrator. 5 ml, 100 ml Volumetric pipettes (Class A) 1L and 100 ml Volumetric flasks (Class A) Reagents Acetous perchloric acid. 1 M solution of standard perchloric acid in glacial acetic acid Glacial acetic acid. Reagent grade Potassium hydrogen phthalate A.C.S. Primary standard ( %) Chlorobenzene HPLC Grade 10

11 Acetous perchloric acid 0.01 M. Pipette 100 ml of the 0.1M acetous perchloric acid into a 1L volumetric flask. Dilute to mark with glacial acetic acid. Solution Accurately weigh 204 mg of potassium hydrogen phthalate into a 100 ml volumetric flask. Record the weight to the nearest 0.01 mg. Dissolve in glacial acetic acid Procedure Blank determination (Repeat in triplicate) Add 10mL of chlorobenzene to a titrator and fill to 100 ml with glacial acetic acid. Determine the equivalence point and record the volume at this point. Average the recorded volumes together and use this as the blank value. Standardization of 0.01M Perchloric (Repeat in triplicate) Pipette 5 ml of the potassium hydrogen phthalate solution into a titrator cup. Add 10 ml of chlorobenzene and fill to 100 ml with glacial acetic acid. Attach vessel to titrator, and determine the equivalence point and record the volume at this point. Determine the concentration of the perchloric solution using the calculation found in section Average the results. Analysis of samples All weighings should be accurate to within 0.1 mg. Accurately weigh 3 to 4 g of technical material into the titrator vessel. Record the weight to the nearest 0.1 mg. Add 10 ml of chlorobenzene and fill to 100 ml with glacial acetic acid. Attach the vessel to titrator, and turn on stirrer to dissolve sample. Determine the equivalence point and record the volume at this point Calculation The concentration of the potassium hydrogen phthalate standard solution is calculated by the following equation: where: C 1 = m x V 1 C 1 = concentration of potassium hydrogen phthalate (mmoles/ml) m 1 = mass of potassium hydrogen phthalate (mg) V 1 = volume of potassium hydrogen phthalate solution (ml) 11

12 The concentration of the perchloric solution is determined with the following equation: C2 = C 1 V 1 V 3 - V 4 where: C 2 = concentration of standard perchloric solution (mmoles/ml) C 1 = concentration of potassium hydrogen phthalate solution (mmoles/ml) V 2 = volume of standard potassium hydrogen phthalate solution (ml) V 3 = volume of perchloric to reach equivalence point (ml) V 4 = volume average blank value (ml) The weight percent of triethylamine is determined with the following equation: weight % triethylamine = where: (V 5 -V 4 ) x C 2 x x 100 m 2 V 5 = volume of perchloric used to reach equivalence point (ml) V 4 = volume of average blank value (ml) C 2 = concentration of perchloric solution (mmol/ml) m 2 = mass of alphacypermethrin in sample (mg) 12

13 AQUEOUS SUSPENSION CONCENTRATE WHO/SIF/61 ALPHACYPERMETHRIN AQUEOUS SUSPENSION CONCENTRATE 1. Specification 1.1 Description Full specification: WHO/SIF/61 Adopted 10 December 1999 The material consists of a suspension of fine particles of technical alphacypermethrin, complying with the requirements of the WHO specification, in an aqueous phase together with suitable formulants; After gentle agitation the material shall be homogeneous and suitable for further dilution in water. 1.2 Chemical and physical requirements The material sampled from any part of the consignment (see method WHO/M/1.R1), shall comply with the requirements of section 1.1 and with the following requirements Alphacypermethrin cis 2 ([IR cis] S and [IS cis] R isomers) content (g/kg basis) The content of alphacypermethrin cis 2 ([IR cis] S and [IS cis] R isomers) content (g/kg basis), determined by the method described in section 2.1 shall not differ from the declared content by more than the following amount: Declared content Up to 25 g/kg Above 25 up to 100 g/kg Tolerance permitted ± 15% of the declared content ± 10% of the declared content Higher declared contents are not currently available. The average content of all samples taken shall not be lower than the declared content Alphacypermethrin cis 1 ([IR cis] R and [IS cis] S isomer) content The alphacypermethrin cis 1:cis 2 isomer ratio determined by the method described in section , shall not be higher than 5: ph range The ph of the concentrate, determined by the CIPAC method MT 75 (CIPAC Handbook F, p.205), shall be between 7.0 and

14 AQUEOUS SUSPENSION CONCENTRATE WHO/SIF/ Rinsability The maximum non volatile rinsed residue as determined by CIPAC MT (in press) 1 shall not exceed 0.05% Spontaneity of dispersion at 30 C A minimum of 60% of the alphacypermethrin content found under shall be in suspension after 5 min in WHO standard hard water C at 30 ± 2 C as determined by CIPAC method MT 160 (CIPAC Handbook F, p.391) Suspensibility after heat stability treatment In WHO standard hard water. When tested by the method described in section 2.2, a minimum of 70% of the alphacypermethrin content (0.63 g/l) shall be in suspension 30 minutes after agitating a suspension containing (0.9 g/l) of alphacypermethrin prepared in standard hard water at 30 ± 2 C from the suspension concentrate subjected to the heat stability treatment described in section Wet sieve test Not less than 98% of the concentrate shall pass through a 75 µm sieve when tested by the CIPAC method MT 59 (CIPAC Handbook F, p.177) Persistent foam The persistent foam at the top of a 100 ml of suspension prepared in WHO standard soft water, shall not exceed 20 ml after 12 minutes when tested by the CIPAC method described MT 47.2 (CIPAC Handbook F, p.152) Heat stability The suspension after treatment as described in section 2.3 must comply with the requirements of sections 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.3, 1.2.4, 1.2.5, and of this specification Cold stability After storage testing at 0 ± 1 C for 7 days, according to the CIPAC method MT 39.1 (CIPAC Handbook F, p.128), the product shall continue to comply with 1.2.5, and Packing and marking of packages The alphacypermethrin suspension concentrate shall be packed in suitable clean drums as specified in the order. The shall be made of high density polyethylene or any suitable materials compatible with the product.. 1 Method can be obtained on request from CIPAC secretariat, t Gotink 7, 7261 VE Ruurlo, Netherlands. 14

15 AQUEOUS SUSPENSION CONCENTRATE WHO/SIF/61 All packages shall bear, durably and legibly marked on the container, the following: Manufacturer s name Alphacypermethrin suspension concentrate Alphacypermethrin...g/l Batch or reference number, and date of test Net weight of contents Date of manufacture Instruction for use and the following minimum cautionary notice: Alphacypermethrin is a pyrethroid that acts predominantly on the central nervous system; high dosages have been found to cause tonic seizures in experimental animals. A high concentration in air may be an irritant and contact with the concentrated product may induce a temporary tingling sensation, particularly on the face. It may be hazardous if swallowed. Do not inhale spray mist. Avoid skin contact; wear protective gloves, clean protective clothing, and a face mask (surgical type) when handling the product. Wash hands and exposed skin thoroughly after using. Keep containers out of reach of children and well away from foodstuffs and animal feed and their containers. Alphacypermethrin is toxic to aquatic wildlife. Avoid accidental contamination of water. If poisoning occurs, call a physician. Treatment is symptomatic. 2 Methods of determining chemical and physical properties 2.1 Alphacypermethrin content Outline of method The sample is extracted in tetrahydrofuran with di-octyl phthalate used as the internal standard. Separation is carried out in the split injection mode using a dimethyl polysiloxane WCOT fused silica capillary column with automatic injection and flame ionisation detector. The alphacypermethrin is determined by comparison with calibration solutions Apparatus Gas chromatograph. Capable of operating over the range 100 to 300 C with a flame ionisation detector, split/splitless injector and autosampler. Column. 30 m WCOT fused silica 0.25 mm id and 0.25 µm film thickness coated with dimethyl polysiloxane (chemically bonded), or equivalent. Injector system. Injector Split/splitless with fused silica liner containing a 1 cm plug of glass wool. An automatic injector is strongly recommended to ensure the best analytical results. 15

16 AQUEOUS SUSPENSION CONCENTRATE WHO/SIF/61 It is important to ensure that the split liner is acid treated, thoroughly deactivated and conditioned before use, to ensure that alphacypermethrin does not epimerise during analysis. Split ratio Injection Volume :1 (split vent at 75 ml/min) 1.0 µl using a autosampler. Detector system. Type FID, with no special requirements. Automatic digital integrator or chromatography data system. Compatible with the gas chromatograph 100 ml volumetric flasks Reagents Tetrahydrofuran. Citric acid. 5% citric acid solution. Di-octyl phthalate, di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, Internal standard. Select for use a batch which, when chromatographed under the conditions below for the determination of alphacypermethrin gives no peak with a similar retention time to the alphacypermethrin isomers. Cypermethrin analytical standard (containing a mixture of trans 3, trans 4, cis 1 and cis 2 cypermethrin) of known purity Alphacypermethrin working standard, of known alphacypermethrin content Preparation of standard solutions Internal standard solution. Dissolve di-octyl phthalate (5.0 g) in tetrahydrofuran (500 ml) (solution I). Ensure sufficient quantity of this solution is prepared for all samples and calibration standards being analysed. Citric acid. 5% citric acid solution. Dissolve citric acid (25 g) in water (500 ml). Alphacypermethrin calibration solution. Weigh in duplicate (to the nearest 0.1 mg) about 0.1 g of alphacypermethrin (C A and C B, g) into 100 ml volumetric flasks. Add to each, 70 ml of tetrahydrofuran and agitate the flask gently to dissolve. Add by pipette 10.0 ml of internal standard solution (solution I) and 10mL of 5% citric acid solution from a measuring cylinder. Make to volume with tetrahydrofuran and mix well. (Solutions C A and C B ). Note: Citric acid is added to stop epimerisation of alphacypermethrin in solution. 16

17 AQUEOUS SUSPENSION CONCENTRATE WHO/SIF/61 Prepare a solution without internal standard, by dissolving about 0.1 g of alphacypermethrin standard into a 100 ml volumetric flask. Add approximately 70 ml of tetrahydrofuran and swirl to dissolve. Add by pipette 10 ml of 5% citric acid solution from a measuring cylinder. Make to volume with tetrahydrofuran and mix well. (Solution C O ). Cypermethrin calibration check solution Prepare a solution of cypermethrin, by dissolving about 0.1 g of cypermethrin standard into a 100 ml volumetric flask. Add approximately 70 ml of tetrahydrofuran and swirl to dissolve. Add by pipette 10 ml of the internal standard solution to volume with tetrahydrofuran and mix well (Solution C C ) Operating conditions The conditions given below are typical values and may have to be adjusted to obtain optimum results from a given apparatus. Temperatures Column oven 230 C Injector 260 C Detector 300 C Adjust the column oven temperature if required to obtain retention time windows for di-octyl (approximately 13.5 minutes), alphacypermethrin cis 2 isomer (approximately 27.0 minutes) and alphacypermethrin cis 1 isomer (approximately 25.2 minutes). The trans 3 and trans 4 isomers elute at approximately 26.1 and 27.5 minutes respectively. Gas flow rates Helium carrier approximately 0.8mL min -1 Helium make up gas 60mL min -1 or optimum for instrument Septum purge 2mL min -1 Hydrogen as recommended for the instrument Air as recommended for the instrument All gases should be purified through molecular sieves. The carrier gas should be further purified through an oxygen trap Sample Preparation Sampling Homogenize the bulk material before taking the sample. Take at least 250 g. Rehomogenize the bulk before taking a sub-sample for analysis. Preparation of the sample solutions. 17

18 AQUEOUS SUSPENSION CONCENTRATE WHO/SIF/61 Weigh accurately in duplicate (to the nearest 0.1mg) into 100 ml volumetric flasks sufficient sample (w,g) to contain 0.1 g of alphacypermethrin. Add by measuring cylinder 10 ml of the 5% citric acid solution to each of the flasks and swirl to fully disperse the formulation. Add approximately 70 ml of tetrahydrofuran in approximately 10 to 15 ml portions, swirling in between each addition to fully disperse the sample. Place in an ultrasonic bath for 15 minutes with occasional swirling. Add by pipette 10 ml of the di-octyl phthalate, internal standard solution I and make to volume with tetrahydrofuran and mix well. Filter through a suitable paper eg GF/A or filter unit eg PTFE 0.45 µm to give clear solutions. (Solutions S A and S B ). Prepare a solution without internal standard, by dissolving sufficient sample to contain 0.1 g of alphacypermethrin into a 100 ml volumetric flask. Add by measuring cylinder 10 ml of the 5% citric acid solution to each of the flasks and swirl to fully disperse the formulation. Add approximately 70 ml of tetrahydrofuran in approximately 10 to 15 ml portions, swirling in between each addition to fully disperse the sample. Place in an ultrasonic bath for 15 minutes with occasional swirling. Make to volume with tetrahydrofuran and mix well. Filter through a suitable paper eg GF/A or filter unit eg PTFE 0.45 µm to give a clear solution. (Solution S O ) Equilibration of the system. Carry out alternate 1.0 µl injections of solutions I, C o and S o and check whether there are any interfering peaks from impurities. If there are make any necessary corrections but do not use external calibration. Inject calibration solutions C A and C B to equilibrate the system and use the data from these chromatograms to set the integration parameters. Calculate the response factors for these injections to check the stability of the instrument. Response factors should not differ by more than ± 1% of the mean. Inject the solution of cypermethrin in tetrahydrofuran (C c ) to ensure complete separation of the alphacypermethrin isomers Analysis of sample Carry out 1.0 µl injections of calibration solutions C A and C B and sample solutions S A and S B in the following sequence and record the integrated areas of the peaks. Injection sequence C A1, S A1, S A2, C B1, C A2, S B1, S B2, C B Calculation. Calculate the relative response factors (f 1, f 2 etc) for the pair of calibration injections which bracket the sample injections eg use C A1 and C B1 for sample injections S A1, S A2 etc and obtain the mean response factor, f. Sample analysis should be repeated if calibration response factors f 1 and f 2 differ by more than ± 2% of the mean f. Relative response factor = H s I r x s x P 18

19 AQUEOUS SUSPENSION CONCENTRATE WHO/SIF/61 where: H s = area of alphacypermethrin cis 2 peak in the calibration solution. I r = area of di-octyl phthalate peak in the calibration solution. s = mass of alphacypermethrin analytical standard in calibration solution (g). P = purity of the alphacypermethrin standard (g/kg). For each sample injection eg S A1, calculate the alphacypermethrin cis 2 content. Alphacypermethrin content = Hw f x Iq x w where: f = mean relative response factor Hw = mean area of alphacypermethrin cis 2 peak in the sample solution Iq = area of di-octyl phthalate peak in the sample solution w = mass of sample (g) Calculate the alphacypermethrin cis 2 content of the sample as the mean of the four determinations as follows: Sample injection Use relative response factor from Alphacypermethrin cis 2 (g/kg) S A1 C A1 and C B1 Q ) ) X S A2 C A1 and C B1 R ) S B1 C A2 and C B2 S ) ) Y S B2 C A2 and C B2 T ) Q and R, S and T should agree to within ± 0.5% of their mean values (X and Y). X and Y should agree within ± 1% of their mean values. Take the mean of the two values x and y as the alphacypermethrin content Determination of the Cis 1 to Cis 2 ratio. To determine the cis 1 to cis 2 percentage ratio in a sample Peak area cis 1 x 100 cis 1 % = Total peak area of cis 1 and cis 2 19

20 AQUEOUS SUSPENSION CONCENTRATE WHO/SIF/61 Peak area cis 2 x 100 cis 2 % = Total peak area of cis 1 and cis Suspensibility Outline of method A suspension of known concentration of alphacypermethrin in standard hard water is prepared, poured into a 250 ml graduated cylinder, maintained at constant temperature and allowed to remain undisturbed for 30 minutes. The top 9/10ths are drawn off and the content of alphacypermethrin in the bottom 1/10th is determined, so allowing to evaluate the active ingredient mass still in suspension after 30 minutes Apparatus A 250 m1 graduated cylinder with a ground-glass stopper and a distance of cm between the bottom and the 250 ml calibration mark. A glass tube, about 40 cm long and about 5 mm in internal diameter, pointed at one end to an opening of 2-3 mm, the other end being connected to a suitable source of suction Reagents WHO standard hard water. See method WHO/M/ Procedure Weigh (to the nearest 1 mg) into 100 ml beaker an amount of the sample to form 250 m1 of a suspension containing 0.9 g/l of alphacypermethrin. Add a volume of water at 30 ± 2 C equal to at least twice the mass of the sample taken. Allow to stand for 30 seconds and then stir by hand for 30 seconds with a glass rod 4-6 mm in diameter, at not more than four revolutions per second, making no deliberate attempt to break up any lumps. The immediately transfer the mixture quantitatively to the 250 ml graduated cylinder, using water at 30 ± 2 C for rinsing, and again avoiding mechanical disintegration of lumps. Immediately add sufficient water at 30 ± 2 C to bring the volume up to the 250 ml mark. Insert the stopper and invert the cylinder end over end 30 times at the rate of one complete cycle every 2 seconds. This operation should be carried out as smoothly as possible, keeping the axis of rotation fixed. Allow the graduated cylinder to stand for 30 minutes in a water-bath at 30 ± 2 C taking care that the bath is free from vibrations. Should excessive flocculation occur during the test, the material is unsatisfactory. At the end of the 30 minutes settling period, insert the glass tube into the cylinder and, with a minimum of disturbance, withdraw nine-tenths, of the suspension (i.e. 225 ml) 20

21 AQUEOUS SUSPENSION CONCENTRATE WHO/SIF/61 by means of the suction tube in a period of seconds. This is achieved by maintaining the tip of the glass tube just below the sinking surface of the suspension. Discard the suspension withdrawn Determination of alphacypermethrin in the retained one-tenth of the suspension Quantitatively transfer the bottom one-tenth of suspension (25 ml) from the suspensibility test into a 100 ml volumetric flask with approximately 50 ml of tetrahydrofuran. Add 10 ml internal standard by pipette and 5 ml citric acid solution by measuring cylinder. Dilute to volume with tetrahydrofuran. Place in an ultrasonic bath for 10 minutes. Filter through a suitable disc filter. Determine the alphacypermethrin content of the filtered solution by gas chromatography as described in section injecting duplicate 1.0 µl aliquots of sample and calibration solutions Calculation Mass of alphacypermethrin (g) in the bottom one-tenth of suspension = f 2 x P x w f 1 x 2 x 103 where: f 1 = mean response ratio for the calibration solution f 2 = mean response ratio for the sample solution w = mass (g) of alphacypermethrin standard in the calibration solution P = purity (g/kg) of alphacypermethrin standard Suspensibility % = 10 (b-a) x 100 = 111(b-a) 9 b b where: a = mass (g) of alphacypermethrin in bottom one-tenth of suspension b = mass (g) of alphacypermethrin in the sample used in the suspensibility test (calculated from the mass of sample and its percentage alphacypermethrin content). 2.3 Heat stability treatment 54 C ± 2 C for 14 days (CIPAC method MT 46.1, CIPAC Handbook F, p.149), unless other temperatures and times are requested (FAO Manual on the development and use of FAO specifications for plant protection products, n 149, p.33). 21

22 AQUEOUS SUSPENSION CONCENTRATE WHO/SIF/61 After completion of the heat stability treatment, the samples should not be exposed to heat, bright sunshine, or atmospheric humidity. If required the test should be conducted in commercial type pack. 22

TECHNICAL CHLORPYRIFOS

TECHNICAL CHLORPYRIFOS TECHNICAL WHO/SIT/21.R3 TECHNICAL CHLORPYRIFOS Full specification WHO/SIT/21.R3 Revised 10 December 1999 1. Specification 1.1 Description The material shall consist of chlorpyrifos together with related

More information

Determination of Acrylamide in Food Simulants

Determination of Acrylamide in Food Simulants Determination of Acrylamide in Food Simulants WARNING: Acrylamide monomer is toxic and readily absorbed through the skin. The monomer should be handled in a fume cupboard using gloves. 1 SCOPE This method

More information

HYDROXYPROPYLCELLULOSE Stage 4, Revision 1, CP: USP BRIEFING NOTE. Compared to the Stage 4, document the following changes are proposed:

HYDROXYPROPYLCELLULOSE Stage 4, Revision 1, CP: USP BRIEFING NOTE. Compared to the Stage 4, document the following changes are proposed: 001-0901PDG.pdf HYDROXYPROPYLCELLULOSE Stage 4, Revision 1, CP: USP BRIEFING NOTE Compared to the Stage 4, document the following changes are proposed: 1. Assay: a determination of the molar substitution

More information

SUCRALOSE. White to off-white, practically odourless crystalline powder

SUCRALOSE. White to off-white, practically odourless crystalline powder SUCRALOSE Prepared at the 41st JECFA (1993), published in FNP 52 Add 2 (1993). Metals and arsenic specifications revised at the 63rd JECFA (2004). An ADI of 0-15 mg/kg bw was established at the 37th JECFA

More information

PROPYLENE GLYCOL ESTERS of FATTY ACIDS

PROPYLENE GLYCOL ESTERS of FATTY ACIDS PROPYLENE GLYCOL ESTERS of FATTY ACIDS Prepared at the 49th JECFA (1997), published in FNP 52 Add 5 (1997) superseding specifications prepared at the 46th JECFA (1996), published in FNP 52 Add 4 (1996).

More information

PAPRIKA EXTRACT (TENTATIVE)

PAPRIKA EXTRACT (TENTATIVE) PAPRIKA EXTRACT (TENTATIVE) New tentative specifications prepared at the 69 th JECFA (2008), published in FAO JECFA Monographs 5 (2008). No ADI was allocated at the 69 th JECFA (2008). Information required

More information

NATIONAL STANDARD FOR FOOD SAFETY OF THE PEOPLE S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

NATIONAL STANDARD FOR FOOD SAFETY OF THE PEOPLE S REPUBLIC OF CHINA NATIONAL STANDARD FOR FOOD SAFETY OF THE PEOPLE S REPUBLIC OF CHINA GB 5413.9 2010 National food safety standard Determination of vitamin A, D, E in foods for infants and young children, milk and milk

More information

1.1 This test method covers the qualitative and quantitative determination of the content of benzene and toluene in hydrocarbon wax.

1.1 This test method covers the qualitative and quantitative determination of the content of benzene and toluene in hydrocarbon wax. Standard Method for Analysis of Benzene and Toluene Content in Hydrocarbon Waxes by Headspace Gas Chromatography EWF METHOD 002/03 (Version 1 Reviewed 2015) 1 Scope 1.1 This test method covers the qualitative

More information

Standard Test Method for Analysis of Hydrocarbon Waxes by Gas Chromatography EWF METHOD 001/03

Standard Test Method for Analysis of Hydrocarbon Waxes by Gas Chromatography EWF METHOD 001/03 1. Scope Standard Test Method for Analysis of Hydrocarbon Waxes by Gas Chromatography EWF METHOD 001/03 (Version 1 Reviewed 2015) 1. 1 This test method provides for the determination of the carbon number

More information

ANALYSIS OF WATER FOR CHLORIDE AND SULFATE IONS

ANALYSIS OF WATER FOR CHLORIDE AND SULFATE IONS Test Procedure for ANALYSIS OF WATER FOR CHLORIDE AND SULFATE IONS TxDOT Designation: Tex-619-J Effective Date: August 2005 1. SCOPE 1.1 Use this method to analyze water for chloride and sulfate ions to

More information

LUMEFANTRINE Draft proposal for The International Pharmacopoeia (October 2006)

LUMEFANTRINE Draft proposal for The International Pharmacopoeia (October 2006) October 2006 RESTRICTED LUMEFANTRINE Draft proposal for The International Pharmacopoeia (October 2006) DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION World Health Organization 2006 All rights reserved. This draft is intended for

More information

TANNIC ACID. SYNONYMS Tannins (food grade), gallotannic acid, INS No. 181 DEFINITION DESCRIPTION

TANNIC ACID. SYNONYMS Tannins (food grade), gallotannic acid, INS No. 181 DEFINITION DESCRIPTION TANNIC ACID Prepared at the 71 st JECFA (2009) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 7 (2009), superseding specifications prepared at the 39 th JECFA (1992), published in the combined Compendium of Food

More information

POLYVINYL ALCOHOL. SYNONYMS Vinyl alcohol polymer, PVOH, INS No. 1203 DEFINITION DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONAL USES CHARACTERISTICS

POLYVINYL ALCOHOL. SYNONYMS Vinyl alcohol polymer, PVOH, INS No. 1203 DEFINITION DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONAL USES CHARACTERISTICS POLYVINYL ALCOHOL Prepared at the 68 th JECFA (2007) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 4 (2007), superseding specifications prepared at the 63 rd JECFA (2004) and published in the Combined Compendium

More information

FAO SPECIFICATIONS FAO PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS. THIRAM tetramethylthiuram disulphide

FAO SPECIFICATIONS FAO PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS. THIRAM tetramethylthiuram disulphide AGP: CP/82 FAO SPECIFICATIONS FAO PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS THIRAM tetramethylthiuram disulphide FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, 1979 DISCLAIMER 1 FAO specifications are developed

More information

FOR PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

FOR PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS FAO SPECIFICATIONS FOR PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS PROPICONAZOLE (AGP:CP/330) FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, 1995 2 CONTENTS DISCLAIMER... 3 INTRODUCTION TO FAO SPECIFICATIONS

More information

FederalDemocratic RepublicofEthiopia

FederalDemocratic RepublicofEthiopia FederalDemocratic RepublicofEthiopia EDICTOFGOVERNMENT± Inordertopromotepubliceducationandpublicsafety, equaljusticeforal,abeterinformedcitizenry,therule oflaw,worldtradeandworldpeace,thislegaldocumentis

More information

Na + O O - Cl SODIUM CHLORITE SYNONYMS DEFINITION DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONAL USES CHARACTERISTICS

Na + O O - Cl SODIUM CHLORITE SYNONYMS DEFINITION DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONAL USES CHARACTERISTICS SODIUM CHLORITE New specifications prepared at the 68 th JECFA (2007) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 4 (2007). An ADI of 0.03 mg/kg bw for chlorite was established at the 68 th JECFA (2007). SYNONYMS

More information

PROCEDURE. Analysis of Sulfonamides in Chicken Muscle and Porcine Kidney Using HPLC UV-VIS SULPHONAMIDES METHOD OF DETERMINATION

PROCEDURE. Analysis of Sulfonamides in Chicken Muscle and Porcine Kidney Using HPLC UV-VIS SULPHONAMIDES METHOD OF DETERMINATION SULPHONAMIDES METHOD OF DETERMINATION 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The sulphonamides are an important class of antibacterial drugs that are widely used in animal production as therapeutic agents and as growth

More information

AOAC Official Method 934.01. Moisture in Animal Feed

AOAC Official Method 934.01. Moisture in Animal Feed Loss on Drying at 95-100 C -Final Action AOAC Official Method 934.01 Moisture in Animal Feed Dry amount of sample containing 2 g dry material to constant weight at 95-100 C under pressure

More information

JIS K 8267 JIS K 8372 JIS K 2251 JIS Z

JIS K 8267 JIS K 8372 JIS K 2251 JIS Z Determination of Formic Acid, Acetic Acid and Propionic Acid Contents in FAME - Blended Diesel Fuels (Draft) Water Extraction Ion Chromatography Method (WARNING The use of this standard may involve hazardous

More information

Purification by Recrystallization

Purification by Recrystallization Experiment 2 Purification by Recrystallization Objectives 1) To be able to select an appropriate recrystallizing solvent. 2) To separate and purify acetanilide by recrystallization. 3) To compare the melting

More information

ANALYSIS OF FOOD AND NATURAL PRODUCTS LABORATORY EXERCISE

ANALYSIS OF FOOD AND NATURAL PRODUCTS LABORATORY EXERCISE ANALYSIS OF FOOD AND NATURAL PRODUCTS LABORATORY EXERCISE Determination of vitamins, caffeine and preservatives (method: liquid chromatography with UV detection) Exercise guarantor: Assoc.Prof. Ing.Věra

More information

9040 S. Rita Road, Suite 1100 Tucson, Arizona T: (520) F: (520)

9040 S. Rita Road, Suite 1100 Tucson, Arizona T: (520) F: (520) ANALYTICAL REPORT DETERMINATION OF CHOLECALCIFEROL (VITAMIN D 3 ) IN XXXXXXXXX 1. Samples: The samples were received on xxxxxxxx, 2009, for Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) determination. Sample ID XXXX XXXX

More information

Tamsulosin Hydrochloride Capsules

Tamsulosin Hydrochloride Capsules . nal Revision Bulletin Official October 1, 2011 Tamsulosin 1 standard solution, and shake well. Centrifuge at 1500 rpm for 10 min, and use the supernatant, passing it if Tamsulosin Hydrochloride Capsules

More information

WHO SPECIFICATIONS AND EVALUATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PESTICIDES DDT 1. 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethane

WHO SPECIFICATIONS AND EVALUATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PESTICIDES DDT 1. 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethane WHO SPECIFICATIONS AND EVALUATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PESTICIDES DDT 1 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethane 1 The main component of technical DDT is p,p'-ddt. The technical product contains 30% o,p'-ddt

More information

The Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Finished Gasolines Containing Ethanol Using the PerkinElmer Clarus 680 GC with Swafer Technology

The Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Finished Gasolines Containing Ethanol Using the PerkinElmer Clarus 680 GC with Swafer Technology application Note Gas Chromatography Author A. Tipler PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT 06484 USA The Determination of and in Finished Gasolines Containing Using the PerkinElmer Clarus 680 GC with Swafer Technology

More information

FAO SPECIFICATIONS FOR PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

FAO SPECIFICATIONS FOR PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS FAO SPECIFICATIONS FOR PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS AGP:CP/313 METAMITRON FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, 1994 Group on Pesticide Specifications FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide

More information

Ministry of Defence. Defence Standard /Issue 2 28 February 1997 CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE

Ministry of Defence. Defence Standard /Issue 2 28 February 1997 CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE Ministry of Defence Defence Standard 68-132/Issue 2 28 February 1997 CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE This Defence Standard supersedes INTERIM Def Stan 68-132/Issue 1 dated 1 December 1989 AMENDMENTS ISSUED SINCE

More information

Salt Concentration. ( Chloride expressed as. Sodium chloride ) August 1998. by Association of Swiss Soup and Sauce Manufacturers

Salt Concentration. ( Chloride expressed as. Sodium chloride ) August 1998. by Association of Swiss Soup and Sauce Manufacturers Salt Concentration ( Chloride expressed as Sodium chloride ) August 1998 TABLE OF CONTENT 1 PURPOSE OF DETERMINATION...3 2 SCOPE...3 3 PRINCIPLE...3 4 REFERENCE METHOD...3 5 VALIDATION...3 6 QUALITY ASSURANCE...3

More information

PECTINS. SYNONYMS INS No. 440 DEFINITION DESCRIPTION. FUNCTIONAL USES Gelling agent, thickener, stabilizer, emulsifier CHARACTERISTICS

PECTINS. SYNONYMS INS No. 440 DEFINITION DESCRIPTION. FUNCTIONAL USES Gelling agent, thickener, stabilizer, emulsifier CHARACTERISTICS PECTINS SYNONYMS INS No. 440 Prepared at the 71 st JECFA (2009) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 7 (2009), superseding specifications prepared at the 68 th JECFA (2007) and published in FAO JECFA

More information

Determination of Aflatoxins in NeemAzal and NeemAzal-T/S

Determination of Aflatoxins in NeemAzal and NeemAzal-T/S Determination of Aflatoxins in NeemAzal and NeemAzal-T/S PLC-Method compiled by: Trifolio-M Gmb Sonnenstraße 22 35633 Lahnau, Germany Page 1 of 9 General Information about Aflatoxins Neem seed kernels

More information

105 Adopted: 27.07.95

105 Adopted: 27.07.95 105 Adopted: 27.07.95 OECD GUIDELINE FOR THE TESTING OF CHEMICALS Adopted by the Council on 27 th July 1995 Water Solubility INTRODUCTION 1. This guideline is a revised version of the original Guideline

More information

Solids, Volatile Dissolved and Fixed Dissolved

Solids, Volatile Dissolved and Fixed Dissolved , 8277 Solids, Volatile Dissolved and Fixed Dissolved Gravimetric Method 1 Scope and Application: For wastewater. 1 Adapted from Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater DOC316.53.001206

More information

ß-CYCLODEXTRIN SYNONYMS

ß-CYCLODEXTRIN SYNONYMS ß-CYCLODEXTRIN Prepared at the 44th JECFA (1995), published in FNP 52 Add 3 (1995) superseding specifications prepared at the 41st JECFA (1993), published in FNP 52 Add 2 (1993). Metals and arsenic specifications

More information

MOISTURE (Karl Fischer, Buffered)

MOISTURE (Karl Fischer, Buffered) MOIST.03-1 MOISTURE (Karl Fischer, Buffered) PRINCIPLE SCOPE The sample is dissolved in a mixture of methanol and formamide (50:50 v/v) and then titrated with standardized Karl Fischer reagent. The titration

More information

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Chemistry 5.310 Laboratory Chemistry THE POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION OF AN ACID MIXTURE 1

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Chemistry 5.310 Laboratory Chemistry THE POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION OF AN ACID MIXTURE 1 MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Chemistry 5.310 Laboratory Chemistry EXPERIMENT #5 THE POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION OF AN ACID MIXTURE 1 I. PURPOSE OF THE EXPERIMENT In this experiment

More information

In this experiment, we will use three properties to identify a liquid substance: solubility, density and boiling point..

In this experiment, we will use three properties to identify a liquid substance: solubility, density and boiling point.. Identification of a Substance by Physical Properties 2009 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for academic use provided the original copyright is included Every substance has a unique set

More information

ACETALDEHYDE and ISOVALERALDEHYDE (Gas Chromatography)

ACETALDEHYDE and ISOVALERALDEHYDE (Gas Chromatography) ACETA.02-1 ACETALDEHYDE and ISOVALERALDEHYDE (Gas Chromatography) PRINCIPLE Isovaleraldehyde (IVA) and acetaldehyde are released from the syrup with the aid of dilute phosphoric acid and heat. The liberated

More information

Development of Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Residual Monomer in Polymer Latex

Development of Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Residual Monomer in Polymer Latex Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals, Vol.20 No.3 pp.145-149, 2010 Development of Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Residual Monomer in Polymer Latex Nopparat THAWEEWATTHANANON

More information

Chemistry 321, Experiment 8: Quantitation of caffeine from a beverage using gas chromatography

Chemistry 321, Experiment 8: Quantitation of caffeine from a beverage using gas chromatography Chemistry 321, Experiment 8: Quantitation of caffeine from a beverage using gas chromatography INTRODUCTION The analysis of soft drinks for caffeine was able to be performed using UV-Vis. The complex sample

More information

α-cyclodextrin SYNONYMS α-schardinger dextrin, α-dextrin, cyclohexaamylose, cyclomaltohexaose, α- cycloamylase

α-cyclodextrin SYNONYMS α-schardinger dextrin, α-dextrin, cyclohexaamylose, cyclomaltohexaose, α- cycloamylase α-cyclodextrin New specifications prepared at the 57th JECFA (2001) and published in FNP 52 Add 9 (2001). An ADI not specified was established at the 57th JECFA (2001). SYNONYMS α-schardinger dextrin,

More information

experiment5 Understanding and applying the concept of limiting reagents. Learning how to perform a vacuum filtration.

experiment5 Understanding and applying the concept of limiting reagents. Learning how to perform a vacuum filtration. 81 experiment5 LECTURE AND LAB SKILLS EMPHASIZED Synthesizing an organic substance. Understanding and applying the concept of limiting reagents. Determining percent yield. Learning how to perform a vacuum

More information

MOISTURE (Karl Fischer)

MOISTURE (Karl Fischer) MOIST.02-1 MOISTURE (Karl Fischer) PRINCIPLE SCOPE The sample is dissolved in a solvent and then titrated with standardized Karl Fischer reagent. The titration end point is detected electrically, and the

More information

HS 1003 Part 2 HS 1003 Heavy Metals Test

HS 1003 Part 2 HS 1003 Heavy Metals Test HS 1003 Heavy Metals Test 1. Purpose This test method is used to analyse the heavy metal content in an aliquot portion of stabilised hot acetic acid extract by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Note:

More information

Project 5: Scoville Heat Value of Foods HPLC Analysis of Capsaicinoids

Project 5: Scoville Heat Value of Foods HPLC Analysis of Capsaicinoids Willamette University Chemistry Department 2013 Project 5: HPLC Analysis of Capsaicinoids LABORATORY REPORT: Formal Writing Exercises PRE-LAB ASSIGNMENT Read the entire laboratory project and section 28C

More information

Purification of reaction mixtures using flash chromatography.

Purification of reaction mixtures using flash chromatography. Purification of reaction mixtures using flash chromatography. This technical note details the use of ISOLUTE Flash chromatography columns for the purification of reaction mixtures. What is flash chromatography?

More information

OXYTOCIN : ADOPTED TEXT FOR THE INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPOEIA Final text for addition to The International Pharmacopoeia (June 2010)

OXYTOCIN : ADOPTED TEXT FOR THE INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPOEIA Final text for addition to The International Pharmacopoeia (June 2010) June 2010 OXYTOCIN : ADOPTED TEXT FOR THE INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPOEIA Final text for addition to The International Pharmacopoeia (June 2010) This monograph was adopted at the Forty-fourth WHO Expert Committee

More information

FAO SPECIFICATIONS FOR PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS ATRAZINE. 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine

FAO SPECIFICATIONS FOR PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS ATRAZINE. 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine AGP : CP / 61 FAO SPECIFICATIONS FOR PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS ATRAZINE 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, 1975 2 TABLE

More information

OXIDATION HAIR DYES LIQUID

OXIDATION HAIR DYES LIQUID PS: 5250/2013 ICS NO:71.100.70 OXIDATION HAIR DYES LIQUID PAKISTAN STANDARDS AND QUALITY CONTROL AUTHORITY, STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT CENTRE, PSQCA Complex Plot # ST-7/A, Block-3, Scheme No: 36, Gulistan-e-

More information

Synthesis, Isolation, and Purification of an Ester

Synthesis, Isolation, and Purification of an Ester Synthesis, Isolation, and Purification of an Ester AP Chemistry Laboratory Introduction An ester is a chemical compound that is formed when an organic acid reacts with an alcohol. Esters frequently have

More information

INSTRUCTIONS 56-1190-98. Edition AC

INSTRUCTIONS 56-1190-98. Edition AC Sephacryl S-100 High Resolution Sephacryl S-200 High Resolution Sephacryl S-300 High Resolution Sephacryl S-400 High Resolution Sephacryl S-500 High Resolution INSTRUCTIONS Sephacryl High Resolution chromatography

More information

Gas Chromatography with FID

Gas Chromatography with FID Gas Chromatography with FID Introduction Gas chromatography is an instrumental method for the separation and identification of chemical compounds. Chromatography involves a sample (or sample extract) being

More information

HEXANES. Insoluble in water, soluble in ether, alcohol, and acetone. Neutral to methyl orange (ph indicator) Not more than 0.

HEXANES. Insoluble in water, soluble in ether, alcohol, and acetone. Neutral to methyl orange (ph indicator) Not more than 0. HEXANES Prepared at the 51st JECFA (1998), published in FNP 52 Add 6 (1998) superseding specifications prepared at the 14th JECFA (1970), published in NMRS 48B (1971) and in FNP 52 (1992). ADI "limited

More information

List several types of chromatography. How do the types of chromatography you have listed differ? How are they similar?

List several types of chromatography. How do the types of chromatography you have listed differ? How are they similar? CLASSIFICATION AND SEPARATION OF MATTER Pre-lab Questions: Define the following: (You will need to use your textbook and any other references, such as a dictionary, in addition to the text of this experiment.)

More information

A 21 a - Whey Protein Nitrogen Index

A 21 a - Whey Protein Nitrogen Index A 21 a - Whey Protein Nitrogen Index GEA Niro Method No. A 21 a Revised: November 2009 1. Principle The undenaturated Whey Protein Nitrogen Index (WPN) is a measure of the heat treatment applied to the

More information

How are drugs developed?

How are drugs developed? How are drugs developed? Take part in the research of a drug Experiment workshop Student guide 1 Introduction Many stages are involved in the discovery and development of medicines. One of the most important

More information

Determination of the total base number in petroleum products

Determination of the total base number in petroleum products Application Bulletin 405_1_EN Branch General analytical chemistry; petrochemical industry Keywords Titration; nonaqueous titration; potentiometric titration; photometric titration; thermometric titration;

More information

Blood Alcohol Content Analysis using Nitrogen Carrier Gas

Blood Alcohol Content Analysis using Nitrogen Carrier Gas Blood Alcohol Content Analysis using Nitrogen Carrier Gas Alcohol consumption can seriously affect the ability of a driver to operate a vehicle and blood alcohol content (BAC) directly correlates with

More information

CHEM 334 Quantitative Analysis Laboratory

CHEM 334 Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Calibration of Volumetric Glassware Introduction Volumetric glassware is a class of glass vessels that are calibrated to contain or deliver certain volumes of substances. Graduated cylinders, pipettes

More information

Aspirin Synthesis H 3 PO 4

Aspirin Synthesis H 3 PO 4 Aspirin Synthesis Experiment 5 Aspirin is the common name for the compound acetylsalicylic acid, widely used as a fever reducer and as a pain killer. Salicylic acid, whose name comes from Salix, the willow

More information

TANNIC ACID. SYNONYMS Tannins (food grade), gallotannic acid, INS No. 181 DEFINITION DESCRIPTION

TANNIC ACID. SYNONYMS Tannins (food grade), gallotannic acid, INS No. 181 DEFINITION DESCRIPTION TANNIC ACID Prepared at the 39th JECFA (1992), published in FNP Add 1 (1992) superseding specifications prepared at the 35th JECFA (1989), published in FNP 49 (1990) and in FNP 52 (1992). Metals and arsenic

More information

SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE

SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE Prepared at the 28th JECFA (1984), published in FNP 31/2 (1984) and in FNP 52 (1992). Metals and arsenic specifications revised at the 55 th JECFA (2000). An ADI not specified

More information

WHO SPECIFICATIONS AND EVALUATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PESTICIDES DELTAMETHRIN

WHO SPECIFICATIONS AND EVALUATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PESTICIDES DELTAMETHRIN WHO SPECIFICATIONS AND EVALUATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PESTICIDES DELTAMETHRIN (S)-α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R,3R)-3-(2,2- dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate Page 1 of 72 TABLE OF CONTENTS

More information

ACID-BASE TITRATIONS: DETERMINATION OF CARBONATE BY TITRATION WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID BACKGROUND

ACID-BASE TITRATIONS: DETERMINATION OF CARBONATE BY TITRATION WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID BACKGROUND #3. Acid - Base Titrations 27 EXPERIMENT 3. ACID-BASE TITRATIONS: DETERMINATION OF CARBONATE BY TITRATION WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID BACKGROUND Carbonate Equilibria In this experiment a solution of hydrochloric

More information

POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE

POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE Prepared at the 69 th JECFA (2008), published in FAO JECFA Monographs 5 (2008), superseding specifications prepared at the 37th JECFA (1990), published in the Combined Compendium of

More information

HYDROXYPROPYLMETHYL CELLULOSE

HYDROXYPROPYLMETHYL CELLULOSE SYNONYMS INS No. 464 HYDROXYPROPYLMETHYL CELLULOSE Prepared at the 74 th JECFA (2011) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 11 (2011), superseding the specifications prepared at the 63 rd JECFA (2004),

More information

KARL FISCHER ELECTROMETRIC TITRATION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF WATER CONTENT

KARL FISCHER ELECTROMETRIC TITRATION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF WATER CONTENT KARL FISCHER ELECTROMETRIC TITRATION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF WATER CONTENT 1. Introduction Method Revised 10 December 1999 This method takes into consideration new types of Karl Fischer reagent, free

More information

هيي ة التقييس لدول مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية

هيي ة التقييس لدول مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية هيي ة التقييس لدول مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية STANDARDIZATION ORGANIZATION FOR G.C.C (GSO) GSO 78 / 997 البن سريع الذوبان INSTANT COFFEE ICS:67.0.0 INSTANT COFFEE Date of GSO Board of Directors'

More information

Determination of Cyanocobalamin in Multivitamin Tablets by Multimode High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Determination of Cyanocobalamin in Multivitamin Tablets by Multimode High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Original Article Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 2011; 38 1-2, 8-12 Determination of Cyanocobalamin in Multivitamin Tablets by Multimode High-Performance Liquid Chromatography N. Kitprapiumpo

More information

POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (PVA)-POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL (PEG) GRAFT CO-POLYMER

POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (PVA)-POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL (PEG) GRAFT CO-POLYMER POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (PVA)-POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL (PEG) GRAFT CO-POLYMER New specifications prepared at the 80th JECFA, and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 17 (2015). The 80 th JECFA (2015) considered the

More information

POLYETHYLENE GLYCOLS

POLYETHYLENE GLYCOLS POLYETHYLENE GLYCOLS Prepared at the 31st JECFA (1987), published in FNP 38 (1988) and in FNP 52 (1992). Metals and arsenic specifications revised at the 61st JECFA (2003). An ADI of 0-10 mg/kg bw was

More information

With proper calibration, the upper limit may be extended as needed.

With proper calibration, the upper limit may be extended as needed. While we have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this Internet version of the document, it is not the official version. Please refer to the official version in the FR publication, which appears on the

More information

Paper Chromatography: Separation and Identification of Five Metal Cations

Paper Chromatography: Separation and Identification of Five Metal Cations Paper Chromatography: Separation and Identification of Five Metal Cations Objectives Known and unknown solutions of the metal ions Ag +, Fe 3+, Co 2+, Cu 2+ and Hg 2+ will be analyzed using paper chromatography.

More information

NWTPH-HCID. Hydrocarbon Identification Method for Soil and Water

NWTPH-HCID. Hydrocarbon Identification Method for Soil and Water NWTPH-HCID Hydrocarbon Identification Method for Soil and Water Summary This method is a qualitative and semi-quantitative procedure. It is used for groundwater or surface water, and soil/sediment from

More information

PART I SIEVE ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL RETAINED ON THE 425 M (NO. 40) SIEVE

PART I SIEVE ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL RETAINED ON THE 425 M (NO. 40) SIEVE Test Procedure for PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF SOILS TxDOT Designation: Tex-110-E Effective Date: August 1999 1. SCOPE 1.1 This method covers the quantitative determination of the distribution of particle

More information

Sample Pretreatment by Digestion

Sample Pretreatment by Digestion Section 4 Sample Pretreatment by Digestion Several procedures require sample digestion before determining total metal content. Digestion uses acid and heat to break organo-metallic bonds and free ions

More information

CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY

CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CHULALONGKORN UNIVERSITY Tested by... ID. No.... Date... Graded by... TEST No. C-2 PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATE Part A Specific Gravity and Absorption

More information

Detection of preservatives and fermentation inhibitors

Detection of preservatives and fermentation inhibitors Method OIV-MA-AS4-02F Type IV method 6. Sodium Azide Method A 35 modified by resolution Oeno 6/2006 1.1 Method by high performance liquid chromatography 1.1.1 Principle Hydrazoic acid isolated in wine

More information

SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TELMISARTAN AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM USING REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TELMISARTAN AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM USING REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY CHAPTER 5 SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TELMISARTAN AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM USING REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY CHAPTER 5 Simultaneous determination of Telmisartan

More information

Acid Base Titrations

Acid Base Titrations Acid Base Titrations Introduction A common question chemists have to answer is how much of something is present in a sample or a product. If the product contains an acid or base, this question is usually

More information

Organic Lab 1 Make-up Experiment. Extraction of Caffeine from Beverages. Introduction

Organic Lab 1 Make-up Experiment. Extraction of Caffeine from Beverages. Introduction Organic Lab 1 Make-up Experiment Extraction of Caffeine from Beverages Introduction Few compounds consumed by Americans are surrounded by as much controversy as caffeine. One article tells us that caffeine

More information

Laboratory procedures in polymer chemistry

Laboratory procedures in polymer chemistry Polymer Chemistry Course, KTE080, 2015 Patric Jannasch Laboratory procedures in polymer chemistry CAS - Polymer & Materials Chemistry 1. Free Radical Bulk Polymerization of Styrene This protocol describes

More information

To measure the solubility of a salt in water over a range of temperatures and to construct a graph representing the salt solubility.

To measure the solubility of a salt in water over a range of temperatures and to construct a graph representing the salt solubility. THE SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES 2007, 1995, 1991 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for academic use provided the original copyright is included. OBJECTIVE To measure

More information

Apparatus error for each piece of equipment = 100 x margin of error quantity measured

Apparatus error for each piece of equipment = 100 x margin of error quantity measured 1) Error Analysis Apparatus Errors (uncertainty) Every time you make a measurement with a piece of apparatus, there is a small margin of error (i.e. uncertainty) in that measurement due to the apparatus

More information

CORESTA RECOMMENDED METHOD Nº 80

CORESTA RECOMMENDED METHOD Nº 80 CORESTA RECOMMENDED METHOD Nº 80 USE OF THE PART-FILTER METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF SMOKERS EXPOSURE TO NICOTINE AND NICOTINE-FREE DRY PARTICULATE MATTER (January 2016) 0. INTRODUCTION The CORESTA Smoking

More information

Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression AP Chemistry Laboratory #4

Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression AP Chemistry Laboratory #4 Catalog No. AP6356 Publication No. 6356A Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression AP Chemistry Laboratory #4 Introduction A procedure for determining the molar mass of a substance is very useful to chemists.

More information

Dispose of all materials in the proper waste containers which are provided in the laboratory.

Dispose of all materials in the proper waste containers which are provided in the laboratory. THE EXTRACTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLORS 2009, 2003, 2000, 1997, 1975 by David A. Katz. All Rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for education use provided original copyright is included.

More information

An HPLC Analysis of Sweeteners in Beverages

An HPLC Analysis of Sweeteners in Beverages CHEM 311L Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Version 1.1 An HPLC Analysis of Sweeteners in Beverages In this laboratory exercise we will perform a separation of the components of diet soft drinks using reversed-phase

More information

DRAFT OECD GUIDELINE FOR THE TESTING OF CHEMICALS DETERMINATION OF PH, ACIDITY AND ALKALINITY

DRAFT OECD GUIDELINE FOR THE TESTING OF CHEMICALS DETERMINATION OF PH, ACIDITY AND ALKALINITY DRAFT OECD GUIDELINE FOR THE TESTING OF CHEMICALS DETERMINATION OF PH, ACIDITY AND ALKALINITY INTRODUCTION 1. This guideline describes the procedure for the electrometric determination of ph of an undiluted

More information

Bureau of Indian Standards

Bureau of Indian Standards Bureau of Indian Standards Draft Indian Standard Not to be reproduced without the permission of BIS or used as a Standard Last date for receipt of comments is 06-08-2011 Food Additives Sectional Committee,

More information

Simultaneous determination of L-ascorbic acid and D-iso-ascorbic acid (erythorbic acid) in wine by HPLC and UV-detection (Resolution Oeno 11/2008)

Simultaneous determination of L-ascorbic acid and D-iso-ascorbic acid (erythorbic acid) in wine by HPLC and UV-detection (Resolution Oeno 11/2008) Method OIV-MA-AS313-22 Type II method Simultaneous determination of L-ascorbic acid and D-iso-ascorbic acid (erythorbic acid) in wine by HPLC and UV-detection (Resolution Oeno 11/2008) 1. Introduction

More information

ERDOSTEINE - MONOGRAPH.

ERDOSTEINE - MONOGRAPH. STRUCTURAL FORMULA (±1S-(2-[N-3-(2-oxotetrahydro thienyl)]acetamido)-thioglycolic acid) C 8 H 11 NO 4 S 2 M.W. = 249.307 DESCRIPTION Color : White to ivory white Appearance : Microcrystalline powder SOLUBILITY

More information

EUROPEAN COMMISSION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL TAXATION AND CUSTOMS UNION TAX POLICY Excise duties and transport, environment and energy taxes

EUROPEAN COMMISSION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL TAXATION AND CUSTOMS UNION TAX POLICY Excise duties and transport, environment and energy taxes EUROPEAN COMMISSION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL TAXATION AND CUSTOMS UNION TAX POLICY Excise duties and transport, environment and energy taxes Brussels, 18th May 2005 CED No 494 rev 2 Final TAXUD/3711/2004 POETRY:

More information

Safety Goggles must be worn. The materials are nontoxic, but are not to be eaten. Do not leave these materials in a carpet or on furniture.

Safety Goggles must be worn. The materials are nontoxic, but are not to be eaten. Do not leave these materials in a carpet or on furniture. Preparation of a Viscous Solution Quantitative wet lab; students work in pairs and individually. Objectives The student will become proficient in calculations involving units of concentration, and in the

More information

Product Bulletin INTEROX HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

Product Bulletin INTEROX HYDROGEN PEROXIDE Product Bulletin INTEROX HYDROGEN PEROXIDE UN 2014 35% - 59.5% SOLUTIONS TECHNICAL & SPECIALTY GRADES H 0 0 H Molecular weight: 34.02 FP 1.1.3 Version 03/13 Page 1 of 5 INTEROX Hydrogen Peroxide Description

More information

Dissolved and precipitated oxalate

Dissolved and precipitated oxalate Accepted 2005 Process liquors from bleach plants Dissolved and precipitated oxalate Using Ion Chromatography 0 Introduction In bleach plants of pulp mills with a high degree of system closure, there is

More information

Rev 2016-09-23. Experiment 3

Rev 2016-09-23. Experiment 3 Experiment 3 PREPARATION OF A STANDARD SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION, DETERMINATION OF PURITY OF IMPURE KHP AND STANDARDIZATION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID 2 lab periods Reading: Chapter 1 (pg 22-24), Chapter 8,

More information

Chemistry 112 Laboratory Experiment 6: The Reaction of Aluminum and Zinc with Hydrochloric Acid

Chemistry 112 Laboratory Experiment 6: The Reaction of Aluminum and Zinc with Hydrochloric Acid Chemistry 112 Laboratory Experiment 6: The Reaction of Aluminum and Zinc with Hydrochloric Acid Introduction Many metals react with acids to form hydrogen gas. In this experiment, you will use the reactions

More information

Acetic Acid Content of Vinegar: An Acid-Base Titration E10-1

Acetic Acid Content of Vinegar: An Acid-Base Titration E10-1 Experiment 10 Acetic Acid Content of Vinegar: An Acid-Base Titration E10-1 E10-2 The task The goal of this experiment is to determine accurately the concentration of acetic acid in vinegar via volumetric

More information