Characteristics of the Text Genre Narrative nonfi ction Text Structure

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1 LESSON 13 TEACHER S GUIDE Amazing Birds of Antarctica by Joanne Mattern Fountas-Pinnell Level O Narrative Nonfiction Selection Summary Antarctica is home to many types of birds. Penguins, snow petrels, blue-eyed shags, the albatross, and the skua make the frozen area of the Antarctic their home. Characteristics of the Text Genre Narrative nonfi ction Text Structure Content Themes and Ideas Language and Literary Features Sentence Complexity Vocabulary Words Illustrations Book and Print Features Number of Words: 759 Second-person narrative organized in eight chapters Each chapter describes a different type of bird that can be found in Antarctica. Descriptions and photographs help reader visualize the type of bird being discussed. Factual information about birds of Antarctica Climate and terrain of Antarctica The birds found in Antarctica are fascinating creatures. Different types of birds can have very similar characteristics. Birds in Antarctica must adapt to their surroundings in order to survive. Upbeat, conversational language (Welcome to Antartica!, Look at the bright blue eyes on this bird!, Don t worry.) Chapter titles and content distinguish singular features and behaviors of the various birds (penguins, power and nesting habits; the blue-eyed shag, fi shing frenzies; the albatross, the years it spends in the air; etc.) A mix of short and complex sentences Exclamations Some common words not defi ned in text, such as fl ippers, seaweed, and nesting Some contractions, such as don t and doesn t Multisyllable words: continent, Emperor penguin, stranded Primarily one-syllable words Photographs with captions Map to show location Twelve pages of text with illustrations on most pages Chapter headings on most pages Table of contents, glossary, captions Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H. Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Permission is hereby granted to individual teachers using the corresponding (discipline) Leveled Readers to photocopy student worksheets from this publication in classroom quantities for instructional use and not for resale. Requests for information on other matters regarding duplication of this work should be addressed to Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, Attn: Contracts, Copyrights, and Licensing, 9400 SouthPark Center Loop, Orlando, Florida Printed in the U.S.A If you have received these materials as examination copies free of charge, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company retains title to the materials and they may not be resold. Resale of examination copies is strictly prohibited. Possession of this publication in print format does not entitle users to convert this publication, or any portion of it, into electronic format. 4_305233_BL_LRTG_L13_AmazingBirds.indd 1 11/4/09 11:26:51 PM

2 Amazing Birds of Antarctica by Joanne Mattern Build Background Help students use their knowledge of birds to visualize the story. Build interest by asking a question such as the following: What do you think birds would need to live in a very cold place? Read the title and author and talk about the bird on the cover. Note the various graphic features in the story. Point out the table of contents and the glossary. Tell students that this story is narrative nonfiction, so the birds and places in the story are real. Introduce the Text Guide students through the text, noting important ideas, and helping with unfamiliar language and vocabulary so they can read the text successfully. Here are some suggestions: Page 4: Suggested language: Look at page 4. This page tells that penguins have wings, but they cannot fl y. Ask: Why do you think penguins have wings but cannot fl y? Page 5: Point out the word huddle in the second-to-last line. Explain that the cold conditions in Antarctica force the penguins to huddle together to stay warm. Ask: Why does it help to huddle together? What other animals huddle together? Pages 9: Explain that the blue-eyed shag displays a bright-colored growth on its beak that helps it fi nd a mate. What do you do when you display something? Pages 11: Explain that unlike the penguin, the albratross spends most of its life in the air. Ask: What can you tell about the albatross by looking at the picture? Now go back to the beginning to read about how these birds survive in such a cold climate. Target Vocabulary alert to be wide awake and paying attention concluded to have made a decision or formed an opinion display something shown publicly, p. 9 fractured broken into pieces graceful something that moves smoothly and with ease, p. 4 huddle when people or animals crowd together, p. 5 standards rules used for judging or measuring stranded to be unable to leave a place, p. 7 vision an idea of what something could be like in the future weariness to be very tired 2 Lesson 13: Amazing Birds of Antarctica 4_305233_BL_LRTG_L13_AmazingBirds.indd 2 7/28/09 4:43:44 PM

3 Read Have students read silently while you listen to individual students read aloud. Support their understanding of the text as needed. Remind students to use the Summarize Strategy most important parts of the text as they read. and to think of the Discuss and Revisit the Text Personal Response Invite students to share their personal responses to the book. Suggested language: What is the most fascinating thing you learned about the birds of Antarctica? Which bird was your favorite? Explain the reason for your choice. Ways of Thinking As you discuss the text, help students understand these points: Thinking Within the Text Thinking Beyond the Text Thinking About the Text The birds of Antarctica have to adapt to their surroundings. All of the birds found in the Antarctic eat fish as part of their diet. Antarctic birds are similar in many ways. Fascinating animals can be found all over the world. Learning about different types of animals can help people learn about the world around them Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H. The photographs give a clearer understanding of features of the birds. The author includes lots of descriptions to help the reader visualize the text. The similarities and differences help the reader make comparisons. Choices for Further Support Fluency Lead students in a choral reading of a section from the text, and demonstrate paying attention to punctuation while reading. Remind students to pay attention to phrasing and pausing. Comprehension Based on your observations of the students reading and discussion, revisit parts of the text to clarify or extend comprehension. Remind students to go back to the text to support their ideas. Phonics/Word Work Provide practice as needed with words and word parts, using examples from the text. Remind students that contractions are two words that are joined together to form a shortened version. Write we, are, and we re on the board. Point out that the apostrophe takes the place of letter a when we and are are joined together to form the word we re. 3 Lesson 13: Amazing Birds of Antarctica 4_305233_BL_LRTG_L13_AmazingBirds.indd 3 11/4/09 11:26:59 PM

4 Writing about Reading Have students complete the questions on BLM Responding Have students complete the activities at the back of the book, using their Reader s Notebook. Use the instruction below as needed to reinforce or extend understanding of the comprehension skill. Target Comprehension Skill Cause and Effect Remind students that the effect is the result of an action, or the cause. Model how to add details to the Graphic Organizer, using a Think Aloud like the one below: Think Aloud The conditions of the Antarctic are very harsh and cold. This causes the animals there to adapt. One example is the penguin. There are no twigs or branches in Antarctica. Most birds use these types of materials to make their nests. The penguins, however, use rocks to make their nests. So, the cause is that the necessary materials are not available and the effect is that the penguin must adapt. Practice the Skill Encourage students to share examples of other books that describe the causes and effects of animals adapting to their environment. Writing Prompt: Thinking About the Text Have students write a response to the prompt on page 6. Remind them that when they think about the text, they reflect back on the text. They should notice and evaluate language, genre, literary devices, and how the text is organized. Assessment Prompts In the last paragraph on page 7, what does the word stranded mean? One idea present in this selection is that. The main idea of this selection is that. 4 Lesson 13: Amazing Birds of Antarctica 4_305233_BL_LRTG_L13_AmazingBirds.indd 4 11/4/09 11:27:11 PM

5 English Language Development Reading Support Pair advanced and intermediate readers to read the story softly, or have students listen to the audio or online recordings. Remind students that birds in Antarctica are specially adapted to living in a cold, dry climate. Cognates The story includes some Spanish cognates, or similar words. Point out the English words and their Spanish equivalents: alert (alerta), vision (vision), and graceful (gracioso). Oral Language Development Check student comprehension, using a dialogue that best matches your students English proficiency level. Speaker 1 is the teacher, Speaker 2 is the student. Beginning/Early Intermediate Intermediate Early Advanced/ Advanced Speaker 1: Who is telling the story? Speaker 2: a narrator Speaker 1: What is one type of bird in the story? Speaker 2: an albatross Speaker 1: Where do the birds in the story live? Speaker 2: in Antarctica Speaker 1: What do most of the birds in the story eat? Speaker 2: They eat fish and krill. Speaker 1: Why do some of the birds use rocks to build their nests? Speaker 2: There aren t any plants or twigs in Antarctica. Speaker 1: How is the skua different from the other birds mentioned in the story? Speaker 2: It doesn t build a nest. It lays its eggs on the ground. Name Date Lesson 13 BLACKLINE MASTER 13.7 Read and answer the questions. Possible responses shown. Amazing Birds of Antarctica 1. Think within the text Which two birds mentioned in the book do not build nests? The emperor penguin and the skua do not build nests. 2. Think within the text How do penguins stay warm? A penguin s blubber and feathers help it stay warm. Penguins also huddle together. 3. Think beyond the text What causes albatrosses to eat other foods besides fish and krill? Albatrosses spend most of their lives in the air. They use a lot of energy flying and need a lot of food to stay alive. 4. Think about the text The author has divided the book into sections. Choose a section title from the table of contents. Do you think the title does a good job describing its section? Explain your answer. Strange Nest describes its section well. This section talks about how skuas do not build nests at all but fiercely defend the eggs they lay on the ground. Making Connections The birds of Antarctica are different from birds that live in warmer areas. They are also alike in some ways. Compare the birds in Antarctica to birds where you live. Write your answer in your Reader s Notebook.. All rights reserved. 9, Unit 3: Natural Encounters 5 Lesson 13: Amazing Birds of Antarctica 4_305233_BL_LRTG_L13_AmazingBirds.indd 5 1/5/10 7:19:13 PM

6 Name Date Amazing Birds of Antarctica Thinking About the Text Think about the questions below. Then write your answer in one or two paragraphs. Remember that when you think about the text, you reflect back on the text. You notice and evaluate language, genre, literary devices, and how the text is organized. How do the text features in this nonfiction book help you find and learn about birds? Choose three of the text features, such as the table of contents, the map, and the glossary. Explain how each feature helped you learn more about birds. 6 Lesson 13: Amazing Birds of Antarctica 4_305233_BL_LRTG_L13_AmazingBirds.indd 6 7/28/09 4:43:47 PM

7 Name Date Lesson 13 BLACKLINE MASTER 13.7 Read and answer the questions. Amazing Birds of Antarctica 1. Think within the text Which two birds mentioned in the book do not build nests? 2. Think within the text How do penguins stay warm? 3. Think beyond the text What causes albatrosses to eat other foods besides fish and krill? 4. Think about the text The author has divided the book into sections. Choose a section title from the table of contents. Do you think the title does a good job describing its section? Explain your answer. Making Connections The birds of Antarctica are different from birds that live in warmer areas. They are also alike in some ways. Compare the birds in Antarctica to birds where you live. Write your answer in your Reader s Notebook. 7 Lesson 13: Amazing Birds of Antarctica 4_305233_BL_LRTG_L13_AmazingBirds.indd 7 1/7/10 4:19:04 PM

8 Student Date Amazing Birds of Antarctica LEVEL O Lesson 13 BLACKLINE MASTER Amazing Birds of Antarctica Running Record Form page Selection Text Errors Self-Corrections 4 Penguins have wings, but they cannot fly. Instead, a penguin s wings act like flippers. This makes them great swimmers. Penguins eat fish and tiny animals called krill. 5 Penguins have a thick layer of fat under their feathers. This fat is called blubber, and it helps them stay warm. A penguin s feathers also help keep it warm. Soft down feathers, which keep out the cold, are next to a penguin s skin. Its outside feathers are waterproof. This means it can swim all day without getting cold. Penguins spend so much time in the water that early explorers thought they were fish! Comments: Accuracy Rate (# words read correctly/ ) % Total Self- Corrections Behavior Code Error Read word correctly cat 0 Repeated word, sentence, or phrase Omission cat 0 cat 1 Behavior Code Error Substitution cut cat 1 Self-corrects cut sc cat 0 Insertion the 1 Word told T 1 cat Lesson 13: Amazing Birds of Antarctica 4_305233_BL_LRTG_L13_AmazingBirds.indd 8 7/28/09 4:43:49 PM

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