# Homework 3. Ahmed Rezine. based on material by Klas Arvidsson, Sudipta Chattopadhyay. February 8, 2016

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3 Problem 1 A new model of a high end 24MP digital cameras will store still images on an attached 64GiB NAND flash card (145MB/s sequential transfer, 500us access time, 4KiB block size). Pictures are stored in raw format at 6048x4032 resolution with 4 bytes per pixel (for best quality), or as jpeg with a compression ratio of at least 10:1 (for space efficiency). The CCD, memory and CPU architecture, and jpeg compression allow for up to 25 full frame pictures per second. To allow photographers to easier capture the right moment it is important to be able to take high speed photo sequences. The typical user will take photos until the card is full, then transfer all images to a computer, and finally erase the card completely (or stove it away in a safe place never to use it again). (a) Assume overhead from finding free blocks and writing index blocks are negligible. If the file system use indexed allocation, how many pictures per second will be feasible if: (1) The free blocks to fill are contiguous on disk. (2) The free blocks to fill are fragmented in many small regions. Assume a new seek (access time) is required for 50% of all blocks. (b) Which allocation method would you use for the camera? Why? (c) Do your solution have any possible drawbacks? Problem 2 A hand held music player can play most standard audio file formats (mp3, wav, flac). Typical file sizes ranges from a few MiB (mp3) up to GiB for long play high definition lossless audio (24/192KHz flac). It has a 64GiB flash memory with 500us access time and 512 byte blocks. The typical user will transfer files, listen to them until bored, keep the best and replace the rest with new songs, over and over again. It is important to be able to search in a (possibly a GiB) song without delay, and all reported free capacity must be immediately usable (you should not have to use a defragmentation program). (a) Suggest and motivate a suitable file allocation method for the player. You are free to select any logic block size. (b) Assume each file is directly indexed via a single block. Give possible maximum file values. How many bits do you need to address all blocks in the drive? (c) If we fill the flash disk with 5000 music files, how much space do you expect to be wasted due to fragmentation? How could you change this amount? Page 3 of 6

6 Problem 7 A new 32TiB drive with 4KiB physical blocks will use indexed allocation of inodes. It has 10ms access time and will present 512 byte logic block size to the OS. (a) How much disk space and DRAM memory would be required to manage free blocks if a bitmap (or bitvector) was used with the logic block size? (b) How much time would it take to create a new 4GiB file (the legally bought movie The prestige for example) if free blocks was linked? (c) Can you propose a better solution to manage free blocks on this drive. (d) With your solution, assume the free block management system is lost. Suggest a way to recover the free blocks information. You can assume files are managed by a undamaged multilevel directory structure and linked allocation. Problem 8 The following operations all take place within the same directory on the same partition on the same disk. Assume removing a file automatically opens it, erases it from the directory immediately and marks it for later deallocartion in the system-wide open file table (in it s open FCB/inode). Assume this deallocation happens when all processes that have opened the file close it. This is the way the Pintos educational OS proceeds. The curios may take a look at the source code file src/filesys/inode.c, functions inode_remove, and inode_close, and file src/filesys/filesys.c, function filesys_remove. 1. process A open the file data_1 as fd A1 2. process B remove the file data_1 3. process B create the file data_1 4. process B open the file data_1 as fd B1 5. process B write "akerueh" to fd B1 6. process C write "hakuna matata" to fd B1 7. process B close fd B2 8. process A write "heureka" to fd A1 9. process A close fd A1 (a) Demonstrate how the directory and open file tables change i each step. (b) What data content will be in data_1 after the operations? (c) Will all operations succeed? If not, why? Page 6 of 6

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