1 Communication Peeled and Cored... for the Classroom! Jennifer M. Ro, MA, CCC-SLP Amy Thomsen, MS, CCC-SLP Speech-Language Pathologists / AAC Specialists Forsyth County Schools Assistive Technology Team IDEAS 2014 Conference Wednesday, June 4, 2014 St. Simons Island, GA
2 Agenda: Define and Identify Core Vocabulary Discuss Benefits/Challenges and Strategies for Teaching Core Vocabulary Discuss Use of AAC Tools to Develop Language and Communication Skills for Life Highlight Activities and Ways to Target Communication Using Core Words throughout the School Day
3 Core Vocabulary or the Peel (Fringe) Everyday Questions Activity - 2 Manual Boards (GoTalk 20+ Overlay) -- Curriculum Words -- Core Vocabulary Words
4 What is Core Vocabulary? Core Vocabulary is a statistical concept related to overall word frequency. 350 most frequent words account for approximately 80% of words actually spoken. Not often the focus of AAC system design or the focus of communication goals for device users. The remaining 20% is made of fringe or extended vocabulary. It varies widely from person to person and is difficult to predict. Baker, Bruce. Picturing Language: A How-To Workshop, 2012.
5 Why is core vocabulary key? Based on research, they are common words found to be consistent across Clinical Populations Activities Places Topics Age Groups
6 Core Vocabulary The Core Vocabulary Lists Derived from language samples collected during research studies: - Banajee list of 26 toddler core words* - Marvin list of 333 alphabetized preschool core words - Balandin list of 347 core words used by adults - Stuart list of 174 core words used by seniors - Hill list of the top 100 core words used by fluent augmented communicators From the above research studies, words collected in the language samples accounted for approximately 75-80% of the words communicated. (* accounted for 96% )
8 Baker, Bruce, Picturing Language: A How-To Workshop, 2012.
9 Typical 3-year old Video
12 Questions: How do we currently teach core vocabulary? Why do we teach vocabulary?
13 Answer: Very few therapists and teachers target understanding and use of core vocabulary within the context of the classroom and for communication, in general. We typically/historically only focus on fringe not core vocabulary.
14 Why is there limited focus on core vocabulary with AAC device users? Often difficult to represent by pictures Example: put, get, like, want, have Easier to target nouns Example: dog, ball, house, bus Curriculum is highly focused on academics Example: yellow, June, hot Teachers are highly focused on having the student communicate to express their knowledge typically in a Q/A format With this focus, other aspects of receptive and expressive language skills for communication are typically not targeted and therefore are not practiced and learned by students with disabilities.
15 Example: ON How do you teach this word in class and in speech therapy?
16 Example: ON Primarily targeted as a sight-word for reading Or as a spatial concept ( show me the ball is on the chair or tell me where the ball is ) However its most common uses, it is not used as a spatial concept Turn on the TV. It goes on and on, and never stops. She has to leave on time. He is on medication. I am on my way. A very common core word, but often not targeted within expressive goals in all its multiple meanings.
17 Video: The Power of Core Vocabulary
18 Core Vocabulary And Literacy Early sight words are largely made up of core words - Dolch Word List
19 Dolch Words Lists List 1,2 and 3 know by the end of First grade., List 4 know by the end of Second grade, List 5 know by the end of Third grade 19 From: Baker, Bruce. Picturing Language: A How-To Workshop, E. W. Dolch Journal of Education Research Volume 16.1, Pages 16-26, 1927
21 Manual Core Word Board
22 Too Complicated? TRUE or FALSE The more buttons (vocabulary) you have, the harder it is to use with the emerging communicator. FALSE!! This thought is counterintuitive. Fewer buttons are more difficult
23 What WE Need to do more of Teach meaning and use of core words in all its various uses and meanings. (Ex concept ON) Must be contextually-based and have meaning. (relevant for the situation) Taught throughout the day across various activities, various persons, various contexts. *** EVERYONE TOGETHER AS A TEAM *** To facilitate learning, student must be engaged and motivated. (see a connection and, hopefully, joy in the interaction!)
24 Class Reorganization Needed?
25 NO Just put it in every day!
26 2 Strategies for Teaching Core Vocabulary and Language Skills 1. Aided Language Input - Provide natural language models (input) to facilitate expressive output 2. Descriptive Teaching - Allow students to use the words already in the device to express meaning and understanding for teaching lessons. - Ask open-ended questions of your student - Model possible responses for your student - Ex: big thing outside with hot red stuff coming out from on top
27 Aided Language Input What is it? Aided Language Input (ALI) is a teaching strategy in which the facilitator highlights symbols on the user s communication display as he or she interacts and communicates verbally to the user. Premise of ALI: Goossens, Crane and Elder, 1999 That AAC Users will acquire language the same way that typical speakers learn language through natural interaction in a language rich environment. Language develops, AAC must be learned. (Smith, 2006) From Navrotski and Witkowski, Aided Language Stimulation 1/2013
29 A. Model, Model, Model Provide short but complete models consistently using the student s AAC system. Teachers, therapists, and families must know what is on the device or communication board and how to communicate those words. Familiarity! Shows how ideas and thoughts about what is happening can be communicated to others via AAC. ALI gives words to a child s thoughts and feelings. Can be general or focused. ALI using A. Modeling B. Conversational Recasting From Navrotski and Witkowski, Aided Language Stimulation 1/2013
30 B. Conversational Recasting Respond to everything the student communicates even if you think it is a mistake!! Expand on a student s message by modeling just beyond the language abilities of your student Ex: Student: I not go Teacher: Oh You said [on device] I will not go. Student: Dog water. ALI using Teacher: Yes [on device] dog drink [verbal] Dog drink water. The learning of target language structures was more rapid for conversational recasting than for imitative prompts. (Camarata and Nelson, 1994) Be aware of developmental norms of language. (Brown s Stages) From Navrotski and Witkowski, Aided Language Stimulation 1/2013
31 Number of Exposures to Learn a New Word (McDonald, 1999) LEVEL OF INTELLIGENCE IQ REQUIRED EXPOSURES Significantly Above Average Above Average Average Slow Learner Mild Cognitive Impairment Moderate Cognitive Impairment
32 So Essentially Aided language input is a strategy in which the teacher uses the words in the student s AAC system interactively with the student. Appropriate communication using the child s own AAC system then, in essence, is modeled for the child consistently. This not only models appropriate use but facilitates comprehension and expression of vocabulary and language use within appropriate contexts.
33 Video Aided Language Input (Pre K group)
34 Points to Remember The average 18 month old child has been exposed to 4,380 hours of oral language at a rate of 8 hours/day from birth. A child who has a communication system and receives speech/language therapy two times per week for minute sessions will reach this same amount of language exposure in 84 years. -- Jane Korsten
35 Additional points Need to have models times before independent spontaneous use noted. -- AAC Clinical Therapy Data, Van Tatenhove Typically developing children start combining words (2-word phrases) when they have acquired approximately 50 spontaneous expressive words.
36 Video Activity-Based Teaching with Core Vocabulary (Classroom Group, YouTube-VanTatenhove) Language Group (Self-Contained, Autism)
37 Bolster Swing
38 AAC System Vocabulary Key Features Needed: - Core Vocabulary (Single Words) - Frequently Expressed Phrases - Consistent access to Highly Motivating Extended / Fringe Vocabulary at a minimum Consistent Layout and Organization for Predictability - to develop efficient ability to locate desired words and possibility of developing motor-memory - to facilitate staff and family use for aided language stimulation and teaching
39 Color Coding Chart for AAC Materials Based on the Fitzgerald Key Color coding helps students find words by the category they are in and helps make the board easy to navigate by making breaks in the different areas of the board.
40 CHALLENGE A team must teach students who use AAC at the appropriate level for their current needs in a variety of contexts/activities 2. in a variety of ways and meanings 3. for a variety of functions (commenting, asking, directing, rejecting, etc.) 4. by frequent modeling vocabulary and language targets to teach vs. test 5. by using either general ALI or focused ALI This cannot be done by one staff member alone!
41 Strategy 1: Activity-Specific Targets 1. Activity Core words to be targeted: 2. Activity Core words to be targeted:
44 Strategy #2: Word-Specific Targets Examples: Pick 3-5 words to target during an entire week Pick 1-2 words to target during an entire day **make them visible on the wall as reminders**
45 Video The Language Stealers Heh heh heh Parent
46 Final Thoughts The road to great outcomes can be so much longer than the road to poor outcomes. Jane Farrall We need to lay a solid foundation and that takes time. We all love to get immediate results, but the more realistic scenario is slow and steady gains. Blog Post, PrAACtical AAC website
47 Thanks for listening and for your efforts in developing your students communication! Jennifer M. Ro, MA, CCC-SLP Amy Thomsen, MS, CCC-SLP Speech-Language Pathologists/ AAC Specialists Forsyth County Schools Assistive Technology Team /
48 References Baker, Bruce, Picturing Language: A How-To Workshop, Baker & Sementelli, Closing the Gap Goossens, Crane and Elder, Smith, Navrotski and Witkowski, Aided Language Stimulation, January Smith, Demarco, and Worley, M, Camarata and Nelson, PrAACtical AAC Website
49 References Balandin, S., Iacono, T. (1999). Adult Vocabulary Usage, English, Australia, AAC, Vol. 14. Banajee, M., Dicarlo, C., & Stricklin, S. B. (2003). Core Vocabulary Determination for Toddlers, AAC, 19, Beukelman, D., Jones, R., & Rowan, M. (1989). Frequency of word usage by nondisabled peers in integrated preschool classrooms. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 5, Hill, K. (2001). The Development of a Model for Automated Performance Measurements, Doctoral Dissertation, Speech-Language Pathology, University of Pittsburgh. Stuart, S. and Beukelman, D. (1997). Most Frequently Occurring Words of Older Adults, AAC, Vol. 13.
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