# Functional Testing. in contrast to structural or white-box testing, where the program is the base.

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1 From Pressman, Software Engineering a practitionerʼs approach, Chapter 14 and Pezze + Young, Software Testing and Analysis, Chapters Testing Today, weʼll talk about testing how to test software. The question is: How do we design tests? And weʼll start with functional testing. Software Engineering Andreas Zeller Saarland University 1 testing is also called blackbox testing, because we see the program as a black box that is, we ignore how it is being written 2 in contrast to structural or white-box testing, where the program is the base. 3

2 If the program is not the base, then what is? Simple: itʼs the specification. 4 Testing Tactics If the program is not the base, then what is? Simple: itʼs the specification. black box Structural white box Tests based on spec Test covers as much specified behavior as possible Tests based on code Test covers as much implemented behavior as possible 5 Why? black box Structural white box Program code not necessary Early functional test design has benefits reveals spec problems assesses testability gives additional explanation of spec may even serve as spec, as in XP 6

3 Structural testing can not detect that some required feature is missing in the code testing applies at all granularity levels (in contrast to structural testing, which only applies to unit and integration testing) Why? Structural black box white box Best for missing logic defects Common problem: Some program logic was simply forgotten Structural testing would not focus on code that is not there Applies at all granularity levels unit tests integration tests system tests regression tests 7 2,510,588,971 years, 32 days, and 20 hours to be precise. A Challenge class Roots { // Solve ax2 + bx + c = 0 public roots(double a, double b, double c) { } // Result: for x double root_one, root_two; } Which for a, b, c should we test? assuming a, b, c, were 32-bit integers, we d have (232) legal inputs with tests/s, we would still require 2.5 billion years 8 Note that in 900 million years, due to increase of the luminosity of the sun, CO2 levels will be toxic for plants; in 1.9 billion years, surface water will have evaporated (source: Wikipedia on Earth ) Life Cycle of the Sun 9

4 Life Cycle of the Sun Note that in 900 million years, due to increase of the luminosity of the sun, CO2 levels will be toxic for plants; in 1.9 billion years, surface water will have evaporated (source: Wikipedia on Earth ) 10 None of this is crucial for the computation, though

5 A Challenge class Roots { // Solve ax 2 + bx + c = 0 public roots(double a, double b, double c) { } // Result: for x double root_one, root_two; } Which for a, b, c should we test? assuming a, b, c, were 32-bit integers, we d have (2 32 ) legal inputs with tests/s, we would still require 2.5 billion years 13 Random Testing One might think that picking random samples might be a good idea. Pick possible inputs uniformly Avoids designer bias A real problem: The test designer can make the same logical mistakes and bad assumptions as the program designer (especially if they are the same person) But treats all inputs as equally valuable 14 Why not Random? Defects are not distributed uniformly Assume Roots applies quadratic equation However, it is not. For one, we donʼt care for bias we specifically want to search where it matters most. Second, random testing is unlikely to uncover specific defects. Therefore, we go for functional testing. and fails if b 2 4ac = 0 and a = 0 Random sampling is unlikely to choose a = 0 and b = 0 15

6 Systematic Testing specification Representative 16 Testable Features specification Decompose system into independently testable Representative features (ITF) An ITF need not correspond to units or subsystems of the software For Test system case testing, ITFs are exposed through user interfaces or APIs 17 Testable Fatures Just one roots is a unit and thus provides exactly one single testable feature. class Roots { // Solve ax 2 + bx + c = 0 public roots(double a, double b, double c) { } // Result: for x double root_one, root_two; Ask audience } What are the independently s? 18

7 Testable Fatures Consider a multi-function calculator What are the independently s? Ask audience Every single function becomes an independently. Some functions (like memory access, for instance) are dependent on each other, though: to retrieve a value, you must first store it. (Note how the calculator shows the #years required for the Roots calculation.) 19 Testable Features specification Representative 20 Representative Values specification Try to select inputs that are especially valuable Usually by choosing Representative representatives of equivalence classes that are apt to fail often or not at all 21

8 Needles in a Haystack To find needles, look systematically We need to find out what makes needles special 22 The space of possible input (the haystack) Systematic Partition Testing Failure (valuable test case) No failure If we systematically test some cases from each part, we will include the dense parts Failures are sparse in the space of possible inputs but dense in some parts of the space testing is one way of drawing orange lines to isolate regions with likely failures 23 We can think of all the possible input to a program as little boxes... white boxes that the program processes correctly, and colored boxes on which the program fails. Our problem is that there are a lot of boxes... a huge number, and the colored boxes are just an infinitesimal fraction of the whole set. If we reach in and pull out boxes at random, we are unlikely to find the colored ones. Systematic testing says: Letʼs not pull them out at random. Letʼs first subdivide the big bag of boxes into smaller groups (the pink lines), and do it in a way that tends to concentrate the colored boxes in a few of the groups. The number of groups needs to be much smaller than the number of boxes, so that we can systematically reach into each group to pick one or a few boxes. testing is one variety of partition testing, a way of drawing the orange lines so that, when one of the boxes within a orange group is a failure, many of the other boxes in that group may also be failures. testing means using the program specification to draw pink lines. and Analysis, Chapter 10) Equivalence Partitioning How do we choose equivalence classes? The key is to examine input conditions from the spec. Each input condition induces an equivalence class valid and invalid inputs. Input condition range specific value member of a set boolean Equivalence classes one valid, two invalid (larger and smaller) one valid, two invalid (larger and smaller) one valid, one invalid one valid, one invalid 24

9 Boundary Analysis Possible test case How do we choose representatives rom equivalence classes? A greater number of errors occurs at the boundaries of an equivalence class rather than at the center. Therefore, we specifically look for that are at the boundaries both of the input domain as well as at the output. Test at lower range (valid and invalid), at higher range(valid and invalid), and at center 25 Example: ZIP Code Input: 5-digit ZIP code Output: Ask list of cities audience What are representative to test? 26 Valid ZIP Codes 1. with 0 cities as output (0 is boundary value) 2. with 1 city as output 3. with many cities as output 27

10 Invalid ZIP Codes 4. empty input characters (4 is boundary value) 6. 6 characters (6 is boundary value) 7. very long input 8. no digits 9. non-character data 28 ZIP Codes How about a ZIP code that reads ; DROP TABLE orders; SELECT * FROM zipcodes WHERE zip = Or a ZIP code with characters This is security testing 29 Gutjahr s Hypothesis Generally, random inputs are easier to, but less likely to cover parts of the specification or the code. See Gutjahr (1999) in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 25, 5 (1999), Partition testing is more effective than random testing. 30

11 Representative Values specification Representative 31 -Based Testing specification Have a formal model that specifies software behavior s typically come as finite state machines and decision structures Representative As an example, consider these steps modeling a product maintenance process and Analysis, Chapter 14) Finite State Machine

12 based on these (informal) requirements and Analysis, Chapter 14) 34 Coverage Criteria Path coverage: Tests cover every path Not feasible in practice due to infinite number of paths State coverage: Every node is executed A minimum testing criterion Transition coverage: Every edge is executed Typically, a good coverage criterion to aim for With five test cases (one color each), we can achieve transition coverage and Analysis, Chapter 14) Transition Coverage

13 State-based Testing Finite state machines can be used to model for a large variety of behaviors and thus serve as a base for testing. Protocols (e.g., network communication) GUIs (sequences of interactions) Objects (methods and states) 37 open empty acct setup Accnt Account states set up acct deposit (initial) deposit Hereʼs an example of a finite state machine representing an Account class going through a number of states. Transition coverage means testing each Account method once. (From Pressman, Software Engineering a practitionerʼs approach, Chapter 14) balance credit accntinfo working acct withdraw withdrawal (final) dead acct close nonworking acct 38 Education account Current purchase > Threshold 1 Current purchase > Threshold 2 < scheduled < Tier 1 < Tier 2 Out Decision Tables Education Individual T T F F F F F F F F T T F F T T F T F T F T F T Edu No Tier 1 Tier 2 Price 39 A decision table describes under which conditions a specific outcome comes to be. This decision table, for instance, determines the for a purchase, depending on specific thresholds for the amount purchased. and Analysis, Chapter 14)

14 Condition Coverage Basic criterion: Test every column Don t care entries ( ) can take arbitrary Compound criterion: Test every combination Requires 2 n tests for n conditions and is unrealistic Modified condition decision criterion (MCDC): like basic criterion, but additionally, modify each T/F value at least once Again, a good coverage criterion to aim for Nicolas and I were going through the slides and found that in the testing lecture, on slide 39, the Basic criterion is swapped with the Compound criterion description, at least from what we know from the Structural testing chapter from the Pezze&Young book. Are we 40 Education account Current purchase > Threshold 1 Current purchase > Threshold 2 < scheduled < Tier 1 < Tier 2 Out MCDC Criterion Education Individual TF T F F F F F F F F T T F F T T F T F T F T F T Edu No Tier 1 Tier 2 Price 41 We modify the individual in column 1 and 2 to four additional test cases but these are already tested anyway. For instance, the modified in column 1 are already tested in column 3. and Analysis, Chapter 14) Education account Current purchase > Threshold 1 Current purchase > Threshold 2 < scheduled < Tier 1 < Tier 2 Out MCDC Criterion Education Individual T T F F F F F F F F T T F F T T TF T F T F T F T Edu No Tier 1 Tier 2 Price 42 This also applies to changing the other, so adding additional test cases is not necessary in this case. and Analysis, Chapter 14)

15 MCDC Criterion Education Individual Education account Current purchase > Threshold 1 Current purchase > Threshold 2 < scheduled < Tier 1 < Tier 2 Out T TF F F F F F F F F T T F F T T F T F T F T F T Edu No Tier 1 Tier 2 Price 43 MCDC Criterion Education Individual However, if we had not (yet) tested the individual accounts, the MC/DC criterion would have uncovered them. and Analysis, Chapter 14) Education account T T F F F F F F Current purchase > Threshold 1 Current purchase > Threshold 2 < scheduled < Tier 1 < Tier 2 Out F F T T F F T T F TF F T F T F T Edu No Tier 1 Tier 2 Price 44 Weyuker s Hypothesis Established by a number of studies done by E. Weyuker at AT&T. Any explicit relationship between coverage and error detection would mean that we have a fixed distribution of errors over all statements and paths, which is clearly not the case. The adequacy of a coverage criterion can only be intuitively defined. 45

16 Learning from the past To decide where to put most effort in testing, one can also examine the past i.e., where did most defects occur in the past. The above picture shows the distribution of security vulnerabilities in Firefox the redder a rectangle, the more vulnerabilities, and therefore a likely candidate for intensive testing. The group of Andreas Zeller at Saarland University researches how to mine such information automatically and how to predict future defects. 46 Pareto s Law Evidence: several studies, including Zellerʼs own evidence :-) Approximately 80% of defects come from 20% of modules 47 -Based Testing specification Representative 48

17 Deriving Test Case Specs specification Now: need to take care of combinations Typically, one Representative Input enumerated in previous step uses models and representative to test cases 49 Many domains come as a combination of individual inputs. We therefore need to cope with a combinatorial explosion. Combinatorial Testing IIS Server Windows OS Linux Apache MySQL Oracle Database 50 Combinatorial Testing Eliminate invalid combinations Cover all pairs of combinations Combinations typically d IIS only runs on Windows, for example such as MySQL on Windows and Linux automatically and hopefully tested automatically, too 51

18 Pairwise testing means to cover every single pair of configurations Pairwise Testing IIS Windows Apache IIS Linux Apache MySQL Oracle IIS Linux MySQL Oracle Windows Apache Windows IIS Linux Windows Apache MySQL Oracle Linux MySQL Oracle 52 In practice, such testing needs hundreds and hundreds of PCs in every possible configuration Microsoft, for instance, has entire buildings filled with every hardware imaginable Source: MIS/Network.htm Testing environment Millions of configurations Testing on dozens of different machines All needed to find & reproduce problems 53 Deriving Test Case Specs specification Representative 54

19 Deriving Test Cases specification Implement test cases in code Requires building scaffolding Representative i.e., drivers and stubs 55 Unit Tests Hereʼs an example for automated unit tests the well-known JUnit Directly access units (= classes, modules, components ) at their programming interfaces Encapsulate a set of tests as a single syntactical unit Available for all programming languages (JUNIT for Java, CPPUNIT for C++, etc.) 56 Deriving Test Cases specification Representative 57

20 Systematic Testing specification Representative 58 Summary 59

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