GUIDED READING. An overview Presented by Anna Harris Metacomet Elementary Bloomfield Public Schools January 3, 2013

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1 GUIDED READING An overview Presented by Anna Harris Metacomet Elementary Bloomfield Public Schools January 3, 2013

2 WHERE ARE WE NOW? SOME good practices have been observed in ALL classrooms during guided reading. However, we need to refine and realign our instruction so that we are working smarter and our students are getting the most out of the literacy portion of our day.

3 AGENDA FOR THIS PD SESSION: Review what guided reading should look like in our classrooms Reflect on what we are doing now Review strategies that can be used as a focus for instruction during guided reading

4 WHAT IS GUIDED READING? Guided reading is a teaching approach designed to help individual students learn how to process a variety of increasingly challenging texts with understanding and fluency. Fountas and Pinnell

5 RATIONALE FOR GUIDED READING Guided reading enables the teacher to meet the varying instructional needs of all students and support and guide them to expand their reading abilities. Most students cannot expand their reading abilities on their own, even if they are given time to read. Guided reading can be used to meet a specific instructional need or introduce and expand on a reading comprehension strategy.

6 CHARACTERISTICS OF GUIDED READING A teacher works with a small group. Children in the group are similar in their development of a reading process and are able to read about the same level of text. Teachers introduce the stories and assist children s reading in a way that helps develop independent reading strategies. Each child reads the whole text. The goal is for children to read independently and silently. The emphasis is on reading increasingly challenging books over time. Children are grouped and regrouped in a dynamic process that involves ongoing observation and assessment.

7 ADDITIONAL THINGS TO THINK ABOUT DURING GUIDED READING Guided Reading should NOT involve any type of round robin or popcorn reading. Children should NOT be filling out graphic organizers or writing summaries while at the guided reading table, these things should be done after they leave the teacher. Guided reading IS an opportunity to increase rigor, especially through text selection and questioning (start using the DOK). Teachers should be listening to students read and writing down their observations during a guided reading group.

8 BEFORE READING Teacher Role Select appropriate text Prepares and introduction to the story Briefly introduces the story (or part of the story, keeping in mind the demands of the text and the knowledge, experience, and skills of the readers Leave some questions to be answered or some problem solving to be done for the students while reading Student Role Engage in a conversation about the story Understand the purpose for reading the text Raise questions about the text Build expectations about the text Notice information in the text May make connections between new text and previously read materials

9 DURING READING Teacher Role May listen to individuals read a segment aloud Interact with individuals to assist with problem solving if having difficulty Interact with individuals to reinforce ongoing construction of meaning Observe and make notes about strategies used by individual readers Student Role Read the whole text or unified section of text to themselves (preferably silently) Use background knowledge and strategies effectively to construct meaning Think about what they understand and form questions about the text Request help when needed May do a running record

10 AFTER READING Teacher Role Talk about the text and encourages student discussion Invite personal response Return to the text for one or two teaching opportunities, such as finding evidence Assess students comprehension Invite students to ask questions to expand their comprehension Sometimes engage in word work Sometimes engage in extending the text Student Role Talk about the text Think about what they understand and what questions they have Check predictions and react personally to the text Raise questions or make comments to clarify or expand comprehension Revisit the text to problem solve or find evidence May engage in word work May engage in extending the text

11 VIDEO CLIP zation/218403/ Think about the elements of Guided Reading that we have talked about. What do you notice? What do you recognize from your own teaching?

12 POSSIBLE LITERACY BLOCK SCHEDULE 9:00-9:30 Strategy focused mini lesson, using an interactive read aloud 9:30-10:30 Three Group Rotation 9:30-9:50 9:50-10:10 10:10-10:30 Guided Reading Written Extension Independent Reading Red Blue Green Green Red Blue Blue Green Red 10:30-10:40 Closure

13 POSSIBLE LITERACY BLOCK SCHEDULE 9:00-9:20 Strategy focused mini lesson, using an interactive read aloud 9:20-10:40 Four Groups 9:20-9:40 9:40-10:00 10:00-10:20 10:20-10:40 Guided Reading Written Extension Independent Reading Reading Counts Red Blue Green Yellow Yellow Red Blue Green Green Yellow Red Blue Blue Green Yellow Red 10:40-10:45 Closure

14 WHAT SHOULD MY GUIDED READING LESSON LOOK LIKE FOR TRANSITIONAL READERS (DRA 14 TO 28)? Select Text (before group time) Short Book Introduction/Review from the day before (3 mins) Introduction of Vocabulary (2 mins) Strategy Reminder/Purpose/Objective (2 mins) Silent Reading (10 mins) During this time the teacher should be taking anecdotal notes or could be administering a running record. Discuss/Respond (3 mins) Independent Follow Up (after group time)

15 WHAT SHOULD MY GUIDED READING LESSON LOOK LIKE FOR SELF-EXTENDING READERS (DRA 28 TO 40)? Select Text (before group time could be chapter book) Short Book Introduction/Review from the day before (3 mins) Introduction of Vocabulary (2 mins) Strategy Reminder/Purpose/Objective (2 mins) Silent Reading (10 mins) During this time the teacher should be taking anecdotal notes or could be administering a running record. Discuss/Respond (3 mins) Independent Follow Up (after group time)

16 WHAT SHOULD MY GUIDED READING LESSON LOOK LIKE FOR ADVANCED READERS (DRA 40 AND HIGHER)? Select Text (before group time students may help with this, should be a variety of texts) Short Book Introduction/Review from the day before - could be student directed (2 mins) Vocabulary students look for vocabulary (3 mins) Strategy Reminder/Purpose/Objective could be student directed(2 mins) Silent Reading (10 mins) During this time the teacher should be taking anecdotal notes or could be administering a running record. Discuss/Respond (3 mins) Independent Follow Up (after group time)

17 HOW DO I PLAN FOR GUIDED READING? Plans can either be by text or by week, each group should have their own plan. Let s review the different ways to plan.

18 WHAT SHOULD MY ANECDOTAL NOTES LOOK LIKE AND WHAT SHOULD I BE RECORDING? There are a variety of ways to take anecdotal notes. Let s review what we are taking notes on and few different ways to do it.

19 RAISING RIGOR THE DOK BLOOM S TAXONOMY WEBB S DOK KNOWLEDGE/REMEMBERING The recall of specifics and universals, involving little more than bringing to mind the appropriate material. COMPREHENSION/UNDERSTANDING Ability to process knowledge on a low level such that the knowledge can be reproduced or communicated without a verbatim repetition. APPLICATION/APPLYING Using information in another familiar situation. ANALYSIS/ANALYSING Breaking information into pats to explore understandings and relationships. SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION/ EVALUATING AND CREATING Putting together elements and parts to form a whole, then making value judgments about the method. RECALL Recall of a fact, information, or procedure (e.g., What are 3 facts you learned by reading this article?) SKILL/CONCEPT Use of information, conceptual knowledge, procedures, tow or more steps, etc. STRATEGIC THINKING Requires reasoning, developing a plan or sequence of steps; has some complexity; more than one possible answer EXTENDED THINKING Requires an investigation; time to think and process multiple conditions of the problem or task. Adapted from: Wyoming School Heath and Physical Education Network (2001).

20 WHY IS WEBB S DOK IMPORTANT? ALL of the items on the SBAC test will be aligned with Webb s Depth of Knowledge.

21 LEVEL 1 DOK FOR READING Students can recall or locate facts from the text Students show a shallow/literal comprehension, not any analysis or interpretation Students may be able to have verbatim recall, or may copy portions of the text Students show understanding of single words or phrases

22 LEVEL 2 DOK IN READING Students demonstrate literal comprehension and may show some inferential comprehension Student understands concept but without depth Students should be able to paraphrase, summarize, interpret, infer, classify, organize, collect, display and/or compare

23 LEVEL 3 DOK IN READING Students demonstrate deep knowledge Students show they can go beyond the text Students can explain, generalize, and/or connect Students can support their thinking, using the text and other sources Students may have to deal with an abstract theme, make inferences between or across passages, apply their prior knowledge or text support to demonstrate analytical judgment about a text

24 LEVEL 4 DOK IN READING Students must demonstrate complex reasoning, planning, developing, and thinking over an extended period of time. For example reading multiple texts by one author, or multiple texts about the same topic. Students can take information from at least one passage and apply this information to a new task. Students must be able to develop hypotheses and perform complex analyses of the connections among texts.

25 STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINING AND EXPANDING READING Monitoring and Correcting Predicting Retelling/Summarizing Wondering/Questioning Connecting Inferring Visualizing Using Text Features Determining Importance Interpretation/Author s Purpose

26 MONITORING AND CORRECTING Readers need to check on whether their reading sounds right, looks right, and makes sense. Teachers need to teach students to notice when they don t understand and use fix-up strategies when meaning has broken down.

27 MONITORING AND CORRECTING IN A GUIDED READING GROUP Think aloud Modeling the inner conversation Turn and talk I notice Fluency checks Sticky note important parts or comprehension checks Code where there is confusion and understanding Stop, think, and react

28 HOW DOES MONITORING AND CORRECTING CONNECT TO THE CMTS AND CCSS? Basis for understanding CMTs Strand A Forming a General Understanding CCSS: RL 3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as basis for the answers. RI Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as basis for the answers. RI 3.4 Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area. RF 3.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. RF 3.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. RL 4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RI Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RI 4.4 Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area. RF 4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. RF 4.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

29 PREDICTING Readers need to anticipate what will happen next while reading continuous text. Teachers need to teach readers to work with words in a way that reduces the need for decoding and increases efficiency so that they can acquire knowledge of the story elements that will help them predict what will happen next in a text.

30 PREDICTING IN A GUIDED READING GROUP Think aloud Modeling the inner conversation Turn and talk Think about what may happen next Think about what kind of information may be available in a text Confirm and/or change predictions

31 HOW DOES PREDICTING CONNECT TO THE CMTS AND CCSS? CMTs Strand A Forming a General Understanding CCSS: RL 3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RI Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RL 4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RI Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

32 RETELLING/SUMMARIZING Readers need to retell text in detail and summarize the important parts. Teachers need to help readers relate the important details of text and deepen their understanding of text by integrating new knowledge into prior knowledge

33 RETELLING/SUMMARIZING IN A GUIDED READING GROUP Think Aloud Model the inner conversation Retelling: Identify the story elements Sort or match up story elements with specifics from text Model constructing a story map Summarizing: Review story elements Turn and talk about what has happened so far Chose the most important information

34 HOW DOES RETELLING AND SUMMARIZING CONNECT TO THE CMTS AND THE CCSS CMTs Strand A Forming a General Understanding CCSS: RL 3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RL 3.2 Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key events in the text. RL 3.3 Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. RI Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RL 4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RL 4.2 Determine the theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. RL 4.3 Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character s thoughts, words, or actions). RI Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

35 WONDERING (QUESTIONING) Readers need to ask questions to engage with their reading. Readers should ask questions before, during, and after they read. Teachers need to help readers understand the importance of questioning while reading as a way to monitor, engage, and deepen their understanding of their reading.

36 QUESTIONING IN A GUIDED READING GROUP Think aloud Modeling the inner conversation Turn and share a question Read with a question in mind I wonder Thick and Thin Questions Sticky note places where questions come up and where answers are found Stop, think, question, reflect on questions

37 HOW DOES QUESTIONING CONNECT TO THE CMTS AND CCSS? CMTs Strand A Forming a General Understanding CCSS: RL 3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RI 3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RL 4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RI Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

38 CONNECTING Readers need to search for and use connections from the knowledge they have and the knowledge they are acquiring in their reading to relate to themselves, the world and other texts. Teachers need to teach readers to understand the purpose for reading, connect current reading to the themselves, the world, and other texts.

39 CONNECTING IN A GUIDED READING GROUP Think aloud Modeling the inner conversation Turn and talk Focus on specific types of connections, such as character, plot, setting Sticky note connections Tally connections Focus students on connecting what they have read to other texts or what they know about the world

40 HOW DOES CONNECTING CONNECT TO THE CMTS AND CCSS CMTs Strand C Making Reader/Text Connections CCSS: RL 3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RL 3.6 Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters. RL 3.9 Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series) RI 3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RI 3.6 Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of the text. RI 3.9 Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic. RL 4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RL 4.6 Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. RL 4.7 Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text. RL 4.9 Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures. RI 4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RI 4.6 Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided. RI 4.9 Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

41 INFER Gary Larson The Far Side

42 INFERRING Readers need to go beyond the literal meaning of a text to discover what is implied. Teachers need to teach readers to understand what is not stated but implied in the text to deepen their understanding of what is happening in a text and why.

43 INFERRING IN A GUIDED READING GROUP Think aloud Modeling the inner conversation Turn and talk Use visuals Model and have students make specific inferences about characters, events, plot, and author s message Stop, think and reflect

44 HOW DOES INFERRING CONNECT TO THE CMTS AND CCSS CMTs Strand B Developing an Interpretation Strand D Examining Content and Structure CCSS: RL 3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RL 3.3 Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. RL 3.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language. RL 3.6 Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters. RI 3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RI 3.6 Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of the text. RL 4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RL 4.6 Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. RL 4.9 Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures. RI 4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RI 4.6 Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

45 VISUALIZING Readers need to create pictures or movies in their minds as they read as a way to engage and connect to what they read. Teachers need to teach readers to visualize before, during, and after reading as a way to infer, connect, comprehend, enjoy and remember their reading.

46 VISUALIZING IN A GUIDED READING GROUP Think aloud Modeling the inner conversation Turn and talk Sticky note parts of the text that create strong visualizations Tally visualizations Draw a comparison when reading non-fiction text Stop, think, and draw to remember Have students write about picture

47 HOW DOES VISUALIZING CONNECT TO THE CMTS AND CCSS CMTs Strand A Forming a General Understanding CCSS: RL 3.7 Explain how specific aspects of a text s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting). RL 4.7 Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.

48 USING TEXT FEATURES Readers need to understand and closely examine elements of a text to achieve greater understanding of how it is constructed. Teachers need to teach readers what the different text features are in relation to specific genres and how they contribute to the meaning of the text.

49 USING TEXT FEATURES IN A GUIDED READING GROUP Think aloud Modeling the inner conversation Turn and talk Sticky note specific text features Code text features and supporting text

50 HOW DOES USING TEXT FEATURES CONNECT TO THE CMTS AND CCSS CMTs Strand B Developing an Interpretation Strand D Examining the Content and Structure CCSS: RL 3.5 Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections. RL 3.7 Explain how specific aspects of a text s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting). RI 3.5 Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently. RI 3.7 Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur). RL 4.5 Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama ( e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text. RI 4.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text. RI 4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. RI 4.8 Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.

51 DETERMINING IMPORTANCE (MOSTLY NON-FICTION) Readers need to closely examine text to determine what to read and in what order, what can be ignored and what is the most important information in a text. Teachers need to teach readers to understand the characteristics of non-fiction text, determine the topic of a text and what information supports that topic for their specific reading purpose.

52 DETERMINING IMPORTANCE IN A GUIDED READING GROUP Think aloud Modeling the inner conversation Turn and talk Important vs. Interesting Fact/Question/Response Important to Me vs. Important to the Author Main Idea/Details Cornell Notes

53 HOW DOES DETERMINING IMPORTANCE CONNECT TO THE CMTS AND CCSS CMTs Strand B Developing an Interpretation Strand D Examining the Content and Structure CCSS: RL 3.2 Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text. RI 3.2 Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. RI 3.5 Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently. RI 3.7 Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur). RI 3.9 Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic. RI 4.2 Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. RI 4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. RI 4.8 Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. RI 4.9 Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

54 INTERPRETATION/AUTHOR S PURPOSE - CLOSELY RELATED TO INFERRING Readers need to make reasonable judgments about what they read and what the author is trying to tell them. Teachers need to teach readers to analyze and critique the text to determine if the story elements are consistent with their prior knowledge and evaluate the author s purpose and craft.

55 INTERPRETATION/AUTHOR S PURPOSE IN A GUIDED READING GROUP Think aloud Modeling the inner conversation Turn and talk Code clues/evidence for a specific purpose

56 HOW DOES INTERPRETATION/AUTHOR S PURPOSE CONNECT TO THE CMTS AND CCSS CMTs Strand B Developing an Interpretation Strand D Examining the Content and Structure RL 3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RL 3.3 Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. RL 3.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language. RL 3.6 Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters. RL 3.9 Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series) RI 3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RI 3.6 Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of the text. RL 4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RL 4.6 Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. RL 4.9 Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures. RI 4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RI 4.6 Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

57 RESOURCES fault.aspx ml m

58 REFERENCES Calkins, Lucy McCormick. The Art of Teaching Reading. New York: Addison-Wesley, Cunningham, Patricia M. and Richard L. Allington. Classrooms That Work, 5 th Edition. Pearson, Fountas, Irene C. and Gay Su Pinnell. Guiding Readers and Writers Grades 3-6. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, Fountas, Irene C. and Gay Sue Pinnell. Guided Reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, Fountas, Irene C. and Gay Su Pinnell. Teaching for Comprehension and Fluency. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, Harvey, Stephanie and Anne Goudvis. Strategies That Work, 2 nd Edition. Portland, ME: Stenhouse, Keene, Ellin Oliver and Susan Zimmerman. Mosaic of Thought, 2 nd Edition. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, Kelley, Michelle J. and Nicki Clausen-Grace. Comprehension Shouldn t Be Silent. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, 2007.

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