Machinery Safety. Presented by Paul Laidler

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1 Machinery Safety Presented by Paul Laidler Slide 1

2 Machinery Division Assistance in meeting the requirements of machinery safety legislation Machinery, Low Voltage and Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directives Work Equipment Directive PUWER and LOLER Comprehensive risk assessments Guidance on technical file construction and declaration of conformity/incorporation Pre-purchasing CE Audits Safety Related Control System validation Slide 2

3 Formal Training 3 University Certificate Courses in Professional Development: European Machine Safety Requirements Electrical Machinery Safety Functional Safety Accredited by the University of Teesside Slide 3

4 Machinery Safety Engineering Services Engineering design Site survey and function design specification Factory acceptance test Installation and commissioning Machine guarding Design, manufacture and installation of machine guarding and Safety Related Control Systems Solutions include perimeter guarding, light curtains, scanners, interlocking etc. Slide 4

5 Risk assessment 1. Determine the limits of the machine 2. Hazard identification 3. Risk estimation Slide 5

6 Determine the limits of the machine Use limits Space limits Time limits Slide 6

7 Slide 7

8 Slide 8 Limits of machine Use limits Use limits Personnel operating the machine how competent/what age? any impairments visual/hearing/physical? male/female? Other personnel in the vicinity other operators non-operator employees non-employees

9 Limits of machine Space limits Space limits Physical limits of the machine to be assessed Range of movement Space requirements for operation and maintenance Slide 9

10 Limits of machine Time limits Time limits Life limit general wear and tear Maintenance intervals Housekeeping Slide 10

11 Hazard identification Mechanical Slide 11

12 Hierarchy Of Control Control Measures Design the hazard out. Remove the need for man machine interface. Design in safeguards. Reduce the possibility of occurrence. Reduce the degree of harm. Warn and inform (but only if you can achieve adequate safety). Slide 12

13 RISK Risk reduction HIGH INITIAL DESIGN DESIGN OUT HAZARDS RISK REDUCTION PROTECTIVE MEASURES RISK REDUCTION SAFETY CONTROLS RISK REDUCTION INFORMATION RISK REDUCTION TRAINING ORGANISATION SAFE SYSTEMS OF WORK RISK REDUCTION LOW Slide 13

14 RISK Risk reduction HIGH INITIAL DESIGN DESIGN OUT HAZARDS RISK REDUCTION PROTECTIVE MEASURES RISK REDUCTION SAFETY CONTROLS RISK REDUCTION INFORMATION RISK REDUCTION TRAINING ORGANISATION SAFE SYSTEMS OF WORK RISK REDUCTION LOW Slide 14

15 Design out the hazards Mechanical risk reduction involves removing or reducing to a minimum trap, nip or pinch points. Slide 15

16 RISK Risk reduction HIGH INITIAL DESIGN DESIGN OUT HAZARDS RISK REDUCTION PROTECTIVE MEASURES RISK REDUCTION SAFETY CONTROLS RISK REDUCTION INFORMATION RISK REDUCTION TRAINING ORGANISATION SAFE SYSTEMS OF WORK RISK REDUCTION LOW Slide 16

17 Protective measures (Guarding) To prevent access Slide 17

18 Protective measures (Guarding) To reduce risks from debris and ejected parts Slide 18

19 Protective measures (Guarding) To reduce risks of damage from outside (e.g. FLT s) Barriers Slide 19

20 RISK Risk reduction HIGH INITIAL DESIGN DESIGN OUT HAZARDS RISK REDUCTION PROTECTIVE MEASURES RISK REDUCTION SAFETY CONTROL S RISK REDUCTION INFORMATION RISK REDUCTION TRAINING ORGANISATION SAFE SYSTEMS OF WORK RISK REDUCTION LOW Slide 20

21 Safety circuits guards Slide 21

22 Safety circuits guards De-energise the machine Allows the gate lock to be unlocked Slide 22

23 Safety circuits guards Slide 23

24 Safety circuits guards Slide 24

25 RISK Risk reduction HIGH INITIAL DESIGN DESIGN OUT HAZARDS RISK REDUCTION PROTECTIVE MEASURES RISK REDUCTION SAFETY CONTROLS RISK REDUCTION INFORMATION RISK REDUCTION TRAINING ORGANISATION SAFE SYSTEMS OF WORK RISK REDUCTION LOW Slide 25

26 Information Information may take the form of: manuals for operation, maintenance and safety; drawings and parts lists; Slide 26

27 Information Notices, can be of several forms such as warning, mandatory and prohibition Service information Slide 27

28 RISK Risk reduction HIGH INITIAL DESIGN DESIGN OUT HAZARDS RISK REDUCTION PROTECTIV E MEASURES RISK REDUCTION SAFETY CONTROL S RISK REDUCTION INFORMATION RISK REDUCTION TRAINING ORGANISATION SAFE SYSTEMS OF WORK RISK REDUCTION LOW Slide 28

29 Training, Organisation and SOP Organisation includes: a coherent Health and Safety structure, a management structure with clearly defined responsibilities, an involved workforce, safe systems of work. Slide 29

30 Legislation Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC Slide 30

31 HSE Horse Slide 31

32 Machinery Directive EHSR s Risks related to moving parts The moving parts of machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way as to prevent risks of contact which could lead to accidents or must be fitted with guards or protective devices Choice of protection against risks arising from moving parts Guards or protective devices designed to protect against risks arising from moving parts must be selected on the basis of the type of risk. Slide 32

33 Machinery Directive EHSR s General requirements Guards and protective devices must: be of robust construction, be securely held in place, not give rise to any additional hazard, not be easy to by-pass or render non-operational, be located at an adequate distance from the danger zone, cause minimum obstruction to the view of the production process, Slide 33

34 Machinery Directive EHSR s General requirements cont In addition, guards must, where possible, protect against the ejection or falling of materials or objects and against emissions generated by the machinery. Slide 34

35 Machinery Directive EHSR s Fixed guards Fixed guards must be fixed by systems that can be opened or removed only with tools. Their fixing systems must remain attached to the guards or to the machinery when the guards are removed. Where possible, guards must be incapable of remaining in place without their fixings. Slide 35

36 Machinery Directive EHSR s Interlocking movable guards Interlocking movable guards must be designed in such a way that the absence or failure of one of their components prevents starting or stops the hazardous machinery functions. Slide 36

37 Protective measures (Guarding) To prevent access Slide 37

38 Machinery Directive EHSR s Operator intervention Machinery must be so designed, constructed and equipped that the need for operator intervention is limited. If operator intervention cannot be avoided, it must be possible to carry it out easily and safely. Slide 38

39 Legislation Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC Slide 39

40 Definition of a Safety Component Which serves to fulfil a safety function, which is independently placed on the market, the failure and/or malfunction of which endangers the safety of persons. Slide 40

41 Definition of a Safety Component Safety devices that fall under the scope of the Directive Annex V Indicative list: Extraction systems. Guards and protection devices. Control devices for calling lifting appliances and anti fall devices for hoists. Protective devices designed to detect the presence of a person. Safety belts and seat harnesses. Hydraulic non return valves where they are used to prevent falls. Slide 41

42 Slide 42

43 Legislation Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 Slide 43

44 PUWER 98 Regulations Regulation 5 Maintenance (1) Every employer shall ensure that work equipment is maintained in an efficient state, in efficient working order and in good repair. (2) Every employer shall ensure that where any machinery has a maintenance log, the log is kept up to date. Slide 44

45 PUWER 98 Regulations Regulation 11 Dangerous parts of machinery (1) Every employer shall ensure that measures are taken (a) to prevent access to any dangerous part of machinery or to any rotating part or (b) to stop the movement of any dangerous part of machinery or rotating part before any part of a person enters a danger zone. Slide 45

46 Dangerous parts of machinery Q Is there access to dangerous parts of machinery? Q Are all guards securely held in place? Q Can the guarding be bypassed or disabled? Q Are interlocks fitted, positive acting, correctly positioned and functional? Slide 46

47 R11 Dangerous parts of machinery Slide 47

48 R11 Dangerous parts of machinery Slide 48

49 R11 Dangerous parts of machinery TÜV SÜD Product Service 07/10/2013 Slide 49

50 Use of Standards Slide 50

51 The Role of EN Standards Machinery manufactured in conformity with specified published European Harmonised standards will be presumed to comply with the Essential Health and Safety Requirements covered by those standards Slide 51

52 The Role of EN Standards Globally Many of the Standards now utilised in Europe are now globally recognised standards ISO IEC Slide 52

53 Types of EN Standard A type apply to all machines B type are designed to promote safety and split into B1 and B2 C type apply to a specific type of machine Slide 53

54 Types of EN Standard BS EN Safety of machinery, general principles for design and risk assessment. BS EN 414 Safety of machinery Rules for drafting and Presentation of safety standards IEC Electrical Equipment BS EN ISO Upper and Lower limb access. BS PR ISO EN Emergency Stop SPECIFIC PROTECTIVE DEVICE STANDARDS 2 Hand Controls Light Curtains Safety Switches etc TYPE C STANDARDS for Machines Slide 54

55 Types of EN Standard Type A Standards Applies to all machinery and are essential reading for machinery builders and modifiers BS EN ISO 12100:2010 Safety of Machinery General principles for design Risk assessment and risk reduction (ISO 12100:2010) Slide 55

56 Types of EN Standard 'B1' Standards Apply to all machinery and are designed to promote the essential factors mentioned in the foreword. 'B2' Standards These are "apply when used" Standards, i.e. if a particular safety device is chosen for a machine, then it must, be manufactured to the relevant standard. E. g. Interlock switch, E stop switch. Slide 56

57 Types of EN Standard Type C Standards BS EN 415 Series Safety of Packaging Machines BS EN Industrial Robots Recommendations for Safety. Parts 1 & 2. BS EN Safety of Machine tools Machining Centres. BS EN 692 Mechanical Presses Slide 57

58 BS EN ISO Scope This International Standard establishes values for safety distances in both industrial and non-industrial environments to prevent machinery hazard zones being reached. The safety distances are appropriate for protective structures. It also gives information about distances to impede free access by the lower limbs. Slide 58

59 BS EN ISO Use of Tables Reaching over protective structures: Table 1 shall be used where there is a Low Risk Table 2 shall be used where there is a High Risk. Slide 59

60 BS EN ISO Slide 60

61 BS EN ISO Slide 61

62 BS EN ISO Slide 62

63 BS EN ISO Slide 63

64 BS EN 349 This standard enables users to avoid hazards from crushing zones. It specifies minimum gaps relative to parts the human body. Slide 64

65 BS EN 349 Slide 65

66 BS EN 953 SCOPE This standard specifies general requirements for the design and construction of guards provided to protect persons from mechanical hazards. Slide 66

67 BS EN 953 Risk assessment In order to select and design types of guards appropriate to particular machinery, it is important to assess the risk arising from the various hazards present at that machinery and the foreseeable categories of persons at risk! see EN ISO Slide 67

68 Enclosing Fixed Guard Slide 68

69 BS EN 953 Guards are used for numerous reasons including. Containment of ejected parts Containment of hazardous substances Noise reduction Radiation containment Explosion (blast panels designed to dissipate force) Viewing of process Slide 69

70 Distance Guarding - Fixed Slide 70

71 BS EN 953 Guards must be suitable for purpose. Guards shall be designed so far as is practicable to take into account foreseeable use and reasonably foreseeable misuse. Guards shall be designed so as not to cause hazardous crushing or trapping points, with parts of the machine or of other guards. Slide 71

72 Combination of Guards & Protective Devices Slide 72

73 Distance Tunnel Guard Slide 73

74 BS EN 953 Selection of guards Guards should be selected from the following in the order of priority given: a) Local guards enclosing individual danger zones if the number of danger zones to protect is low. This can provide an acceptable residual risk and permits access to non-hazardous machine parts for maintenance, setting, etc. b) A guard enclosing all the danger zones if the number or size of the danger zones is high. In this case setting and maintenance points should, as far as possible be located outside the guarded area. Slide 74

75 Suitability of guards Slide 75

76 Safety Related Control System A protection device or interlocking system should be designed so that it will only operate as intended. Furthermore, if a component deteriorates or fails, the device or system should as far as possible fail in a safe manner by inhibiting the dangerous action of the machine. Slide 76

77 EN Slide 77

78 END Tel. +44 (0) Fax +44 (0) Slide 78

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