How much does word sense disambiguation help in sentiment analysis of micropost data?

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1 How much does word sense disambiguation help in sentiment analysis of micropost data? Chiraag Sumanth PES Institute of Technology India Diana Inkpen University of Ottawa Canada 6th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment & Social Media Analysis

2 OUTLINE Introduction What is Word Sense Disambiguation Word Sense Disambiguation and Sentiment Analysis Dataset System Description Results Error Analysis Conclusion

3 INTRODUCTION This short paper describes a sentiment analysis system for micro-post data that includes analysis of tweets from Twitter and Short Messaging Service (SMS) text messages. Use Word Sense Disambiguation techniques in sentiment analysis at the message level, where the entire tweet or SMS text was analysed to determine its dominant sentiment. Use of Word Sense Disambiguation alone has resulted in an improved sentiment analysis system that outperforms systems built without incorporating Word Sense Disambiguation.

4 What is Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD)? Any natural language processing system encounters the problem of lexical ambiguity, be it syntactic or semantic. The resolution of a word s syntactic ambiguity has largely been by part-of-speech taggers which with high levels of accuracy. The problem is that words often have more than one meaning, sometimes fairly similar and sometimes completely different. The meaning of a word in a particular usage can only be determined by examining its context. Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is the process of identifying the sense of such words, called polysemic words.

5 Word Sense Disambiguation and Sentiment Analysis Akkaya et al. (2009) showed that Subjectivity Word Sense Disambiguation (SWSD) improves contextual opinion analysis. By applying SWSD to contextual polarity classification, an accuracy improvement of 3 percentage points was observed over the original classifier (Wilson et al., 2005a) calculated on the SenMPQA dataset. Rentoumi et al. (2009) showed that WSD is valuable in polarity classification of sentences containing figurative expressions. The primary focus of our work was to throw light on the influence of WSD in the sentiment analysis of micropost or social-media text.

6 Dataset Dataset from Conference on Semantic Evaluation Exercises (SemEval-2013) for Task 2: Sentiment Analysis in Twitter The training dataset contained only annotated tweets and no training data for SMS text. No additional training data was used by our system. The test dataset contained both tweets and SMS texts.

7 System Description Single lexical Resource used: SentiWordNet (Baccianella et al., 2010) is a lexical resource for opinion mining. SentiWordNet assigns to each synset of WordNet three sentiment scores: positivity, negativity, and objectivity, totally adding up to 1.0. Babelfy is a unified, multilingual, graph-based approach to Entity Linking and Word Sense Disambiguation, based on the BabelNet 3.0 multilingual semantic network. Babelfy was used for WSD in our system as experiments on six gold-standard datasets show its state-of-the-art performance, as well as its robustness across languages. Preprocessing tweets: Tokenization: Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Twitter NLP tokenizer tool Stop-word removal & word stemming: Tools provided by the NLTK. Word-segmentation for hashtags (starting with #) and user-ids (starting reinserted them after segmentation.

8 System Description For each term in the pre-processed text, retrieve the SentiWordNet scores for the matching sense of that term word, after disambiguating the sense using Babelfy. Each tweet or SMS text was represented as a vector made up of three features: The total positive score for the entire text: Aggregate the SentiWordNet Positive (P) scores for every term and divide by the total length of the text. The total negative score for the entire text: Aggregate the SentiWordNet Negative (N) scores for every term and divide by the total length of the text. The total Neutral/Objective score for the entire text: Aggregate the SentiWordNet Objective (O) scores for every term and divide by the total length of the text. This phase of the system is unsupervised where the unlabeled tweets and SMS text messages are processed and the three-featured vector representation is formed.

9 System Description The subsequent phase uses supervised learning to make the system learn how to combine these three numeric features, representing each text, and reach a decision on the sentiment of that text. We used the Random Forest classifier of Weka for this purpose. It corrects the decision trees habit of overfitting to their training set. Advantages of this approach: Large amounts of unlabelled data can be processed and the three-featured vector representation for that dataset can be constructed without any supervision or training required (in the unsupervised phase). We use only three features (P, N and O scores) in the supervised training, and also do not use datasetspecific features such as bag of words, and therefore the system is not prone to the so-called concept drift phenomenon

10 RESULTS The Precision, Recall and F-score metrics for the Twitter test data are shown. Class Precision Recall F-Score Positive Negative Neutral The Precision, Recall and F-score metrics for the SMS test data are shown. Class Precision Recall F-Score Positive Negative Neutral The official metric used for evaluating system performance was average F-score for the positive and negative class.

11 RESULTS Comparison of Average F-scores for positive/negative classes [All scores reported are for the test datasets] Dataset Tweets SMS Baseline Baseline NRC-Canada Our System Baseline 1: A majority classifier that always predicts the most frequent class as output. The second most frequent class, the positive class was chosen since the neutral class is not considered for F-score evaluation. Baseline 2: We do not disambiguate word senses, and instead the reported SentiWordNet scores of first sense of the word for the correct part-of-speech. NRC-Canada: All unigram-features only results of the system developed by NRC-Canada that was ranked first in the same task in the SemEval 2013 competition. Features included punctuation, upper-case words, POS tags, hashtags, unigram-only emotion and sentiment lexicons, emoticon detection, elongated words, and negation detection.

12 RESULTS Report an improvement over the all-unigram features score of NRC Canada: percentage points for tweets percentage points for SMS text messages Report a considerable improvement over the Baseline 2 (First sense for correct POS used): percentage points for tweets percentage points for SMS text messages We chose SemEval 2013 data and not data from the more recent editions of SemEval, because unigram-features-only score of the best scoring system (NRC-Canada) was reported in their SemEval 2013 submission. There has been no reported changes or improvements for the allunigram-features only model in the recent editions.

13 Error Analysis In both the cases of tweets and SMS text messages, the Precision and Recall for the Negative class is relatively lower. Considerably lesser samples of negative tweets in training data comprises only 15% of the training dataset. Therefore, the trained model maybe biased towards the more frequent classes, that is Positive and Neutral classes. No polarity or sentiment lexicons were used. Removal of such lexicons was reported to have the highest negative pact on performance, as observed in the NRC-Canada system Not used word n-grams or character n-grams in our system as features and this may have had a detrimental impact on performance. Our system does not feature any negation detection or encoding-detection, such as emoticons, punctuations, or upper-case letters. However, using such few features has also helped determine that the considerable improvement in performance reported can be primarily attributed only to WSD. There are no other features used in our system that can claim to have contributed to the improved performance.

14 CONCLUSION Our system that throws light on the positive influence that WSD can have when it comes to analyzing social-media and micropost data. Used only three numeric-feature vectors to represent the data for training our system and no additional features. Therefore, the considerable improvement in performance reported over NRC-Canada and the other baselines without WSD can be primarily attributed only to Word Sense Disambiguation and the P, N and O scores that are determined from the SentiWordNet lexicon as a result of disambiguating the text. The system can also work well for future data, since we are not using bag of words features, and our system is not prone to performance degradation due to concept drift. Our future work will explore the addition of several other features to the current system, in addition to the existing WSD-aided features to further improve system performance.

15 THANK YOU

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