Polystyrene. Table of Contents.

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1 Polystyrene Table of Contents A Report by Nexant s CHEMSYSTEMS Process Evaluation/Research Planning (PERP) Program PERP Published May 2012 Section Page 1 Executive Summary TECHNOLOGY General Purpose Polystyrene High Impact Polystyrene Expandable Polystyrene TECHNOLOGY LICENSING STATUS PROCESS ECONOMICS General Purpose Polystyrene (GPPS) High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) Expandable Polystyrene (EPS) - Suspension Process Expandable Polystyrene (EPS) - Continuous (Mass) Process Comparison of Costs of Production of Polymerization Processes GPPS AND HIPS GLOBAL SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND TRADE OVERVIEW EPS GLOBAL SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND TRADE OVERVIEW Introduction TECHNOLOGY LICENSORS AND MAJOR PRODUCERS POLYSTYRENE TYPES AND GRADES General Purpose Polystyrene High Impact Polystyrene Expandable Polystyrene Syndiotactic Polystyrene Specialty Grades Styrene Copolymers

2 3 Chemistry OVERVIEW OF CHEMISTRY POLYMERIZATION MECHANISMS Free-Radical Polymerization Ionic Polymerization Ziegler-Natta and Metallocene Polymerization Copolymerization HIPS Generic Process Descriptions GENERAL PURPOSE POLYSTYRENE (GPPS) CONTINUOUS (BULK/MASS) PROCESS Polymerization Reactor Design Devolatilization Finishing HIGH IMPACT POLYSTYRENE CONTINUOUS (MASS) PROCESS Specific Designs EXPANDABLE POLYSTYRENE Suspension Process Continuous (Mass) Process SYNDIOTACTIC POLYSTYRENE (SPS) Commercial Licensed Technology Offerings INEOS General Purpose Polystyrene (GPPS) and High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) Expandable Polystyrene (EPS) POLYSTY, INC General Purpose Polystyrene (GPPS) High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) Swing GPPS/HIPS Expandable Polystyrene (EPS) VERSALIS SPA General Purpose Polystyrene (GPPS) High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) Expandable Polystyrene (EPS) Suspension Process EPS Continuous Mass Process

3 6 Patent Review CONTINUOUS STIRRED TANK REACTOR (CSTR) Example Example Example RESIDUAL STYRENE MONOMER CONCENTRATION Process Economics COSTING BASIS Investment Basis Pricing Basis Cost of Production Basis COST OF PRODUCTION ESTIMATES General Purpose Polystyrene (GPPS) High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) - Suspension Process Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Continuous Mass Process COMPARISON OF COSTS OF PRODUCTION OF POLYMERIZATION PROCESSES SENSITIVITY OF HIPS PRODUCTION COST WITH POLYBUTADIENE PRICE General Purpose and High Impact Polystyrene Market Review POLYSTYRENE (GPPS AND HIPS) Global Consumption Global Supply Supply, Demand, and Trade NORTH AMERICA Consumption Supply Supply, Demand, and Trade WESTERN EUROPE Consumption Supply Supply, Demand, and Trade ASIA PACIFIC

4 8.4.1 Consumption Supply Supply, Demand, and Trade Expandable Polystyrene Market Review EXPANDABLE POLYSTYRENE Global Consumption Supply Supply, Demand, and Trade NORTH AMERICA Consumption Supply Supply, Demand, and Trade WESTERN EUROPE Consumption Supply Supply, Demand, and Trade ASIA PACIFIC Consumption Supply Supply, Demand, and Trade Glossary References Appendix Page A Definitions of Capital Cost Terms Used in Process Economics... A-1 B Definitions of Operating Cost Terms Used in Process Economics... B-1 C PERP Program Title Index (2001/ )... C-1 4

5 Figure Page 1.1 Comparison of GPPS Costs of Production + ROCE Comparison of HIPS Costs of Production + ROCE Comparison of EPS (Suspension Process) Costs of Production + ROCE Comparison of EPS (Mass Process) Costs of Production + ROCE Polystyrene Structures Styrene Polymerization Free Radical Polymerization Mechanism Metallocene Catalyst Used for Syndiotactic Polystyrene (SPS) Production Catalysts used for Syndiotactic Polystyrene Production Phenyl-Phenyl Interaction and Chain Propagation Metallocene Catalyst Used for Styrene-Ethylene Copolymerization HIPS Copolymerization Mechanism High Impact Polystyrene Bulk Horizontal Reactor Production Process High Impact Polystyrene Bulk SDS Process High Impact Polystyrene Tower-Type Reactor System (Bulk Polymerization) HIPS CSTR And PFR Combination Bulk Process Process Flow Diagram of a Typical EPS Plant INEOS HIPS Continuous Polymerization Process INEOS EPS Suspension Polymerization POLYSTY GPPS Continuous Mass Polymer DV-Plus Devolatilizer VERSALIS GPPS VERSALIS HIPS Block Flow Scheme VERSALIS EPS Suspension Block Flow Scheme VERSALIS EPS Continuous Mass Process Scheme CSTR used in Patent Example Comparison of GPPS Costs of Production + ROCE Comparison of HIPS Costs of Production + ROCE Comparison of EPS (Suspension Process) Costs of Production + ROCE Comparison of EPS (Mass Process) Costs of Production + ROCE Variation of HIPS Cost of Production with Polybutadiene Rubber Prices

6 Table Page 1.1 Licensors and Major Producers Global Polystyrene Supply and Demand Global EPS Supply and Demand Licensors and Major Producers Typical GPPS Resin Properties Typical HIPS Resin Properties Reactor Types and Degree of Mixing INEOS GPPS Continuous Process Raw Material Consumptions INEOS HIPS Continuous Process Raw Material Consumptions INEOS Continuous Process Utility Parameters VERSALIS GPPS Typical Process Parameters VERSALIS HIPS Typical Process Parameters VERSALIS EPS Suspension Process Parameters VERSALIS EPS Continuous Process Parameters GPPS Process Economics Cost of Production Estimate for: GPPS Process: Mass Polymerization, U.S. Gulf Coast Cost of Production Estimate for: GPPS Process: Mass Polymerization, China Cost of Production Estimate for: GPPS Process: Mass Polymerization, South-East Asia HIPS Process Economics Cost of Production Estimate for: HIPS Process: Mass Polymerization, U.S. Gulf Coast Cost of Production Estimate for: HIPS Process: Mass Polymerization, China Cost of Production Estimate for: HIPS Process: Mass Polymerization, South-East Asia EPS Suspension Process Economics Cost of Production Estimate for: EPS Process: Suspension Polymerization, U.S. Gulf Coast Cost of Production Estimate for: EPS Process: Suspension Polymerization, China Cost of Production Estimate for: EPS Process: Suspension Polymerization, South-East Asia EPS Mass Process Economics Cost of Production Estimate for: EPS Process: Mass Polymerization, U.S. Gulf Coast Cost of Production Estimate for: EPS Process: Mass Polymerization, China

7 7.16 Cost of Production Estimate for: EPS Process: Mass Polymerization, South-East Asia Global Polystyrene Supply and Demand North American Polystyrene (GPPS/HIPS) Consumption Capacities of Polystyrene (GPPS/HIPS) in North America North American Polystyrene (GPPS/HIPS) Supply, Demand, and Trade Capacities for Polystyrene in Western Europe West European Polystyrene Supply, Demand, and Trade Asia Pacific Polystyrene Consumption Capacities for Polystyrene in Asia Pacific Asia Pacific Polystyrene Supply, Demand, and Trade Global EPS Supply and Demand North American EPS Consumption Capacities of EPS North America North American EPS Supply, Demand, and Trade Capacities for EPS in Western Europe West European EPS Supply, Demand, and Trade Asia Pacific EPS Consumption Capacities for EPS in Asia Pacific Asia Pacific EPS Supply, Demand, and Trade

8 CHEMSYSTEMS PERP PROGRAM The ChemSystems Process Evaluation/Research Planning (PERP) program is recognized globally as the industry standard source for information relevant to the chemical process and refining industries. PERP reports are available as a subscription program or on a single report basis. Contact Details: London: Dr. Alexander Coker, Manager, PERP Program Phone: + 44-(20) , New York: Heidi Junker Coleman, Global Multi-Client Programs Support Manager Phone: , Shanghai: Dr. Y. Larry Song, General Manager, Nexant China Phone: , Nexant, Inc. (www.nexant.com) is a leading management consultancy to the global energy, chemical, and related industries. For over 38 years, ChemSystems has helped clients increase business value through assistance in all aspects of business strategy, including business intelligence, project feasibility and implementation, operational improvement, portfolio planning, and growth through M&A activities. Nexant has its main offices in San Francisco (California), White Plains (New York), and London (UK), and satellite offices worldwide. Copyright by Nexant Inc All Rights Reserved. 8

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