1 INFORMATION SHEET G050 v12 December 2014 Software & Apps This information sheet gives a brief overview of copyright as it applies to people who develop all kinds of software such as desktop software, mobile apps, games and web-based applications. It also contains some information relevant to people using software. We discuss these issues further in our publications Interactive Games & Copyright and Copyright & Online Technologies. Readers may also be interested in the information found in our information sheets Websites & Copyright and Websites: Social Networks, Blogs & User-generated Media. The purpose of this information sheet is to give general introductory information about copyright. If you need to know how the law applies in a particular situation, please get advice from a lawyer. Key points Software is protected by copyright as a literary work, in the same way as books or poems. What you can and can t do with software is set out in the terms and conditions of your licence. There is no general right to copy software for personal use. Developers should familiarise themselves with the licences under which they distribute their software. How is software protected by copyright? Software is protected by copyright as a type of literary work. This includes all types of software like desktop applications, mobile apps and web-based applications. The Copyright Act uses the term computer program to refer to software and defines it as: a set of statements or instructions to be used directly or indirectly in a computer in order to bring about a certain result. Other material associated with software may also be separately protected by copyright, for example, text, databases, visual art (including charts, maps and plans), video (such as instructional videos, commercials and computer video games), music and sound recordings. For further information see our information sheet An Introduction to Copyright in Australia.
2 Australian Copyright Council Information Sheet G050v12 Software & Apps 2 What rights do copyright owners have? The owners of copyright in software are granted a number of exclusive rights to control the manner in which their work is used. This include the exclusive right to: reproduce the software in a material form (such as copying the program to hard drive); publish the software (making copies available to the public for the first time); adapt the software (such as making a version of the software that works on a different operating system); and communicate the software to the public (such as making it available for download). perform the work to the public (such as demonstrating software in a public forum) enter into a commercial arrangement in respect of the program (such as renting the software or app) For information on renting or importing computer software, see our information sheets Renting Items Protected by Copyright and Importing Copyright Items. What is not protected by copyright? Copyright does not protect the name or title of a particular piece of software, however, this may be protected by other laws. For further information see our information sheet, Names, Titles & Slogans. Copyright does not protect underlying ideas or concepts. Rather, copyright protects the particular way in which an idea or concept is expressed in a material way. So whilst a particular app or piece of software is protected, copyright does not prevent an developer from independently coming up with their own app or software that does the same thing. For further information see our information sheet, Ideas: Legal Protection. Copyright does not protect the function of a piece of software. Copyright does not give a copyright owner a monopoly on what the software does. Rather it gives the owner the right to prevent someone else from duplicating the expression of the set of instructions that constitute the software. In one case, the court stated that the fact that two pieces of software perform the same function does not, by itself, mean that there is any similarity between the two sets of instructions. Copyright does not protect information. Rather it protects the way in which information is expressed. Nonetheless, if someone uses skill and effort to select and arrange information, the resulting compilation may be protected. For further information see our information sheet, Databases, Compilations, Tables & Forms. Copyright does not protect circuit layouts. Specific legislation the Circuit Layouts Act protects circuit layouts. For general information on circuit layouts see IP Australia s website at How do you get copyright protection? Copyright protection is free and automatic in Australia. There is no system of registration and no formal procedure that needs to be undertaken for your software to be protected. Your software will be protected as soon as you save it to a file, write it down or put it into some kind of material form. Because of international treaties such as the Berne Convention, most foreign copyright owners are protected in Australia.
3 Australian Copyright Council Information Sheet G050v12 Software & Apps 3 The copyright notice On some works you see the copyright notice : the symbol with the name of the copyright owner and the year of first publication (for example, Australian Copyright Council 2014). If the computer software is updated over time, the copyright notice may reflect that (for example, Australian Copyright Council ). The copyright notice is not required for protection in Australia; a work may be protected even though the copyright notice is not on it. This also means that just because software may not have the copyright notice on it doesn t mean it is not protected. It is a good idea to put the copyright notice on your software in the program itself and on packaging as it notifies others that the software is protected by copyright and lets others know whom to contact for copyright-related enquiries. In addition to the copyright notice, you may want to include a more detailed warning against unauthorised use. Who owns copyright? In most cases there will be an agreement about the creation of a piece of software (for example, someone is commissioned to do it) setting out who owns copyright in the material. If there is an agreement in place setting out who owns copyright this will apply. As such, you should first look at the agreement to work out who owns copyright and what rights each party has. If there is no agreement about ownership, the following rules apply: The default rule is that the creator of a work is the first owner of copyright in it. In the case of software, the first owner of copyright will generally be the developer/s who wrote the code. If the software has been developed by an employee (rather than a freelancer or volunteer contributor) in the course of employment and as part of the employee s usual duties, the first owner of copyright will be the employer; and a government will be the first owner of copyright in material created, or first published, under its direction or control. Purchasing a copy of an app or software is not the same as owning copyright in the item. In most cases, when you purchase software, what you are are actually purchasing a licence to use that software. Commissioned software If you are commissioned to develop software, it is preferable to have your agreements in writing, and to state clearly who will own copyright and what uses the other party may make of the software. It may not be necessary for a commissioning party to be the owner of copyright in a program. In most cases, if a commissioning party does not own copyright, it will nevertheless have a licence to use the software for the purposes for which it was commissioned, as agreed by the parties at the outset. In other cases it may be appropriate that the client owns some parts of commissioned software and the software creator owns others (for example, where a developer uses standard program elements in software which they would use for various clients). Joint authorship It is common for software to have more than one creator. A work of joint authorship is one produced by the collaboration of two or more creators in which the contribution of each creator cannot be distinguished from the contribution of the other creator or creators. In these circumstances, each creator will usually own an indivisible share of the copyright in the work. This means that no one creator may exercise the rights without the permission of the other creator or creators.
4 Australian Copyright Council Information Sheet G050v12 Software & Apps 4 It is common for some companies managing software projects involving multiple developers should always keep a record of individuals contributions to a project. This is because recent decisions by the courts have indicated that the presence of identifiable authors strengthens the argument that copyright subsists in materials created by those multiple authors. For more information, see our information sheet Databases, Compilations, Tables & Forms Some situations where you can use software without permission There are a number of situations where permission from the copyright owner is not required, even though the use would otherwise be an infringement. Making a back-up copy The owner of a legitimate copy of a piece of software may make a back-up copy of a program, either to use in place of the original copy, or to store as a backup for use if the original or an earlier back-up is lost, destroyed or rendered unusable. The provisions in the Copyright Act also allow copying of software as part of a normal process of backing up files for security purposes. The provisions do not allow copies to be made from an infringing copy of a piece of software, or if the owner of copyright in the program has blocked the making of copies (for example, by using 'locks' or other technological devices built into the program). Also, the provisions do not apply if the licence governing the use of the original has expired or been terminated. The back-up copy may be made whether or not the copyright owner makes an express direction to the contrary at or before the time of purchase, for example on the package. Note, however, that this exception applies only to the software itself, and not to other copyright material (such as music, words, artistic works and sound recordings) that may be accessed by means of the software. Therefore, you would be entitled to make a backup copy of a disk that only contained software, but not a disk that included other copyright material, such as a computer game with music, video or images. Making interoperable products Software may be reproduced or adapted in order to get information necessary to enable an interoperable product to be made. The relevant provision also allows the person making the interoperable product to reproduce or adapt the original software in the interoperable product, but only to the extent necessary to enable interoperability either with that or any other software. Security testing and error correction A non-infringing copy of software may be reproduced or adapted by or on behalf of the owner or licensee of the copy for various security testing purposes, and to correct errors and security flaws, if such reproduction or adaptation is reasonably necessary to achieve the relevant purpose, and only where the resulting information is not readily available from another source. For further information see our information sheet Exceptions to Copyright. When is copyright infringed? Copyright will be infringed where a person, other than the copyright owner, uses a substantial part of the material in any of the ways reserved for the copyright owner without their permission. For software, some situations which require permission include making copies, installing software on multiple devices, porting software across different platforms, and making software available for download. If the software has been made commercially available, the relevant licensing agreement
5 Australian Copyright Council Information Sheet G050v12 Software & Apps 5 may set out what permissions the copyright owner has given in relation to the way that software and any accompanying material (such as text or graphics, including typeface designs) is used. The courts have adopted a qualitative as well as a quantitative approach so that a small part may still be a substantial part if it is essential, important or vital in relation to the whole work from which it is taken. In one case a court held that a look-up table, which formed part of a piece of software, was a substantial part of that software. The fact that the look-up table was not software in itself did not mean it could not form a substantial part of a program. In another case, a court held that an error text table in a piece of software was not a substantial part, apparently on the basis that the error table was not the linchpin of the program, and that the software could function without an error text table. Copyright is infringed by someone who authorises someone else to infringe copyright. In one case, a court said that the word authorise has the meaning of endorse, sanction or countenance. A person may infringe copyright by importing, selling, or otherwise commercially dealing with an infringing copy of computer software. For more information, see our information sheet Importing Copyright Items. Finally, a person also infringes copyright by simply playing an infringing copy software. (See below under Is it ok for me to play an infringing application or game? ). Technological protection measures (TPMs) These refer to various technologies that you can use to protect your software and limit the way in which others can use your material. TPMs can include features like copy protection, password access and other types of technically based restrictions. Broadly, there are two main types of TPM: those that restrict access to the material, and those that limit or prevent copying of the material. The Copyright Act supports the use of TPMs because these give practical protection to copyright owners. There are also provisions in the Copyright Act that give copyright owners the right to take legal action against people who make, supply, distribute or import devices to circumvent TPMs. In some cases, distribution of devices or services to circumvent TPMs is a criminal offence. In particular, there were sanctions against: circumventing an access-control TPM; manufacturing or supplying a device to circumvent an access-control TPM; and providing a service to circumvent an access-control TPM. Electronic Rights Management Information (ERMI) ERMI is information that has been embedded or attached to copyright-protected material and can include details about the material, the copyright owner and related data. For example, details embedded in the metadata of an MP3 file or the watermarking and other data embedded into an image or video file. A copyright owner can take action against someone that alters or removes such data with the aim of enabling, concealing or facilitating infringement of that material. For more information, see our publication Technology, Contracts & Paracopyright. Using third party material in your software A large amount of software developed today uses third party material such as images, photographs, music or video clips each of these may be protected by copyright.
6 Australian Copyright Council Information Sheet G050v12 Software & Apps 6 A developer wanting to use such material in his or her software should make sure that permission to use that material in the software has been obtained from the copyright owner of the material (be it music, video, images, and the like). A TV production company took legal action against the operators of an online mobile app store that sold an app containing audio samples of a TV show that were recorded and used in the app without permission. The app was selling well on the app store and allowed people to play back humorous audio samples recorded from episodes of a comedy program. In this particular case, the production company decided not to take action against the developer (only the app store), but had the production company wanted to, it could have initiated a copyright infringement action against the developer. Software licenses Nearly all developers release their software with some sort of licence for the end user. These can range from more restrictive licenses often found on proprietary software to the open licences that allow a flexible range of uses often found with open source software. If you are a copyright owner of software, then it us up to you to decide what type of licence you will give your users. The type of license you decide on will ultimately come down to a number of factors such as whether its creation is a commercial venture or whether you are happy for the software to be freely distributed without requiring your further permission. Digital Sales, App Stores & Agreements If you are distributing your software through different app stores, it is important to be aware that each may have its own terms and conditions that you will have to agree to before your software can be sold on its platform. Familiarising yourself with the licences of the various platforms on which you wish to distribute your software is important, as these determine what purchasers/users of your software will be able to do with it. These licences will cover a variety of aspects such as sharing of revenue and acceptable software content and function, but in a copyright sense, these agreements will often contain licences that can determine how many copies of your app can be installed at a particular time, how many devices an app can be installed on and similar restrictions. Keep an eye out for any clauses that determine what rights purchasers or app store operators are given. It would be prudent to have any agreements legally reviewed before signing them. Being familiar with terms and conditions is also important for people using software, as they indicate in what ways you are allowed to use the software as well as what your rights are in relation to factors such as making backup copies, re-downloading and installing the software on multiple devices. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) How do I protect software I have created? Copyright protection is free and automatic; there is no requirement to register or to go through any other formal procedure. A computer program is protected from the moment it is fixed in a material form for example, on disk. It is a good idea to put the copyright notice (see above under the heading The copyright notice ) on your software to warn others that it is protected and that you own the rights in it. In addition to copyright protection, also consider technological measures such as copy protection or encoded information to inhibit or discourage unauthorised copying.
7 Australian Copyright Council Information Sheet G050v12 Software & Apps 7 For further information see our information sheet Protecting Your Copyright. Is it a criminal offence to make unauthorised copies of software? The Copyright Act sets out certain circumstances where an infringement of copyright will be a criminal offence. It is, for example, an offence to make an infringing copy of software to sell. It is also an offence to advertise the supply of infringing software. The penalties vary according to the nature of the infringement, and whether the offender is an individual or a company. A court also has the power to jail offenders for a first time conviction for an infringement of copyright in a cinematograph film, or in relation to second or further convictions. Also, a court has the power to order that equipment used to make infringing copies (such as a computer used to copy software) be confiscated. For more information, see our information sheet Infringement: Actions, Remedies, Offences, Penalties. Is there an exception that allows copying of software for personal use? The Copyright Act does not contain any provisions which allow personal use of copyright material without permission. In any event, you are likely to have separate obligations under the terms and conditions of the licence. Can I sell second-hand copies of software? While the Copyright Act does not give copyright owners the exclusive right to control the sale or resale of copyright material. However, special considerations apply to software and where material is made available in digital form. To work out whether you can sell a second-hand copy of a piece of software, you will need to look at the licensing agreement accompanying that item. Generally, you will not be able to re-sell software if the licence states, for example, that the item may not be re-sold, or states that the item may only be used by the purchaser. In each of these cases, the person purchasing the item from you is likely to be infringing copyright if they use it and you are likely also to be liable on the basis that you have authorised that infringement. In other cases, re-sale may be allowed, but only if certain terms or conditions are followed (for example, that all material, including any disks and printed material, be given to the purchaser, and that the purchaser accept all the terms and conditions of the original licence). What should I look out for if I want to buy second hand software? As noted above, commercial dealings with second hand software may be prohibited by the licensing agreement into which the purchaser entered when the software was first bought. Some licences may allow transfer of ownership of the software from one person to another but usually on condition that the terms of the licensing agreement are also accepted by the new owner. Other licences expressly prohibit the transfer of ownership of the software. If you do purchase second-hand software make sure you are given all the relevant paperwork including the original licence and proof of purchase. Check that the sale of the software is allowed under the licence. Proof of purchase may help to ensure that you are dealing with the person who is able to transfer ownership of the software and on-license the use of that software. Is it ok for me to play an infringing app or game? Copyright may be infringed by: running an infringing copy of a piece of software (like an app or a game); or
8 Australian Copyright Council Information Sheet G050v12 Software & Apps 8 running software that was imported without the copyright owner s permission, even where importing the item did not infringe copyright (for example, because it was a legitimate copy made in another country, and imported for personal use). Therefore, it may be an infringement even if you do not make further copies of the software. If a company that developed software goes out of business, does the software go into the public domain? No. Copyright protection for software generally lasts for the life of the individual author of the software plus 70 years. If the company that published the software owns copyright in the software and goes out of business, ownership of the copyright may be transferred to whoever buys the assets of the company. I have created an app that makes calculations. Do I own copyright in my app? Your app is likely to be protected by copyright in its own right. In the absence of an agreement stating otherwise (such as a commissioning agreement that sets outs who owns copyright) you will generally own any copyright you create, unless you create it in the course of your employment in which case it is likely that your employment owns copyright. I have created an enhanced version of existing software. Do I own copyright in the improved version? Software derived from another existing piece of software is likely to be separately protected by copyright. The owner of copyright in the new version is likely to be the person who created it. However, the copyright in the improved version will be subject to the copyright in the underlying software, and you will not be able to use or exploit the enhanced version without permission from the owner of copyright in the underlying software. Further information For further information about copyright, see our website or contact us. If you meet our eligibility guidelines, a Copyright Council lawyer may be able to give you free preliminary legal advice about an issue that is not addressed in an information sheet. This service is primarily for professional creators and arts organisations but is also available to staff of educational institutions and libraries. For information about the service, see Reproducing this information sheet Our information sheets are regularly updated - please check our website to ensure you are accessing the most current version. Should you wish to use this information sheet for any purpose other than your reference, please contact us for assistance. About Us The Australian Copyright Council is an independent, non-profit organisation. Founded in 1968, we represent the peak bodies for professional artists and content creators working in Australia s creative industries and Australia s major copyright collecting societies. We are advocates for the contribution of creators to Australia s culture and economy; the importance of copyright for the common good. We work to promote understanding of copyright law and its application, lobby for appropriate law reform and foster collaboration between content creators and consumers.
9 Australian Copyright Council Information Sheet G050v12 Software & Apps 9 We provide easily accessible and affordable practical, user-friendly information, legal advice, education and forums on Australian copyright law for content creators and consumers. The Australian Copyright Council has been assisted by the Australian Government through the Australia Council, its arts funding and advisory body. Australian Copyright Council 2014
INFORMATION SHEET G037v11 December 2014 Training Materials: Legal Protection In this information sheet, we give a brief overview of copyright law as it applies to the creation and use of training materials.
INFORMATION SHEET G057v12 April 2014 Websites & Copyright This information sheet is for web developers, bloggers, website designers, startups, businesses and anyone interested in copyright issues relevant
INFORM ATION SHEET G056v 09 May 2015 Internet: Copying & Downloading This information sheet is for people who want to copy or download material from the Internet or swap and share files online. The purpose
INFORMATION SHEET G070v07 December 2014 Music: Copying CDs, MP3s, Cassettes & Records In this information sheet we outline the legal issues most relevant to copying sound recordings, including music that
INFORMATION SHEET G035v12 December 2014 Photographs Copying Photos Youʼve Paid For In this information sheet, we give a brief overview of the law of copyright as it relates to photographs. It is for people
INFORMATION SHEET G097v0 3 November 2014 Copying & Converting Formats for Private Use In this information sheet, we give an overview of copyright law as it applies to people who want to reproduce copies
INFORMATION SHEET G017v10 November 2014 House Plans & Copyright This information sheet provides a brief introduction to copyright issues for builders, draftspeople and architects, as well as for people
INFORMATION SHEET G127v02 July 2015 Geo-blocking, VPNs & Copyright In this information sheet we give a brief overview of the law as it relates to geo-blocking, virtual private networks (VPNs) and copyright.
INFORMATION SHEET G024v11 November 2014 Assigning & Licensing Rights In this information sheet, we give a brief overview of the ways in which copyright may be transferred from person to person and licensed
INFORMATION SHEET G120v03 August 2016 Educational Institutions & Libraries: Using Book Covers In this information sheet we discuss the legal issues relating to the use of book covers by educational institutions
INFORMATION SHEET G108v04 December 2014 Websites: Social Networks, Blogs & Usergenerated Media In this information sheet we give an overview of copyright issues that apply when people operating websites,
INFORMATION SHEET G118v04 December 2014 Mashups, Memes, Remixes & Copyright This information sheet gives a brief overview of the relevant copyright issues for people using other people s audio, images,
INFORMATION SHEET G010v18 March 2014 An Introduction to Copyright in Australia In this information sheet, we give general introductory information about copyright. The Copyright Council produces a large
Intellectual Property Policy Policy - CP029 Prepared Reviewed Approved Date Council Minute No. Manager Corporate Administration Corporate Management Team Council June 2014 2014/0126 Trim File: 18/02/01
INFORMATION SHEET G128v01 October 2015 3D Printing & Copyright In this information sheet we give a brief overview of copyright law as it relates to 3D printing. 3D printing may involve other areas of law,
INFORMATION SHEET G044v11 December 2014 Newsletters & Copyright In this information sheet, we give a brief overview of copyright law as it relates to the use and creation of newsletters. If you work for
A07n08 August 2007 Print Disability Copyright Guidelines These guidelines are current as of August 2007. If you are reading these guidelines in printed or downloaded form, please check that they are the
INFORMATION SHEET G083v05 December 2014 Parodies, Satire & Jokes In this information sheet, we discuss how Australian copyright law applies to humorous material such as parodies, satires, jokes and caricatures.
INFORMATION SHEET G027v08 April 2014 Designs for Functional Articles In this information sheet we give a brief overview of the law as it relates to the protection of designs for functional articles such
INFORMATION SHEET G034v11 August 2014 Quotes & Extracts In this information sheet we give a brief overview of copyright law as it relates to using quotations and extracts from other people s writing. The
How Copyright applies to you as a University researcher or student Staying on the right side of Copyright About Me Geraldine Yam Associate Director, Legal Services & Copyright Officer Legal and Risk The
Copyright Notice: digital images, photographs and the internet Copyright Notice Number: 1/2014 Updated: March 2014 What is a Copyright Notice?... 1 Copyright in images and photographs... 1 The basics...
Print unit Is it all my own work? Quiz NothingBeatsTheRealThing.info 1 of 13 Quiz 1A Whether you are at home or at school you will come across issues to do with copyright and film piracy. Even if you do
Legal & Risk Education & Awareness Copyright and e-learning June 2013 Outline What is Copyright? University s licences Copyright issues in the e-learning environment Students and Copyright Developments
A Guide to Copyright for Canadian Hospitals 2013: An Instructional Resource By: Jan Figurski Mary McDiarmid Ontario Health Libraries Association (OHLA), 2013 CONTENTS PURPOSE AND USE OF THIS GUIDE 3 WHAT
HSC: All My Own Work Copyright Introduction This module explains copyright and its relevance to students. The Board of Studies NSW gratefully acknowledges permission to quote from and paraphrase information
UCO Copyright Compliance As members of the UCO community, all faculty and staff members are expected to comply with federal copyright law. Unauthorized use of copyrighted material is illegal and may result
Copyright Law An Introduction The following pages outline some basic facts about copyright law and answer various questions, such as 'how long does copyright last?' 'When does infringement occur?'... and
THE OTTAWA REGION CHARITY & NOT-FOR-PROFIT LAW SEMINAR Ottawa February 13, 2014 Copyright Issues for Charities and NPOs: What You Need to Know and Do By Colin J. Thurston, B.A. (Hons.), J.D., Trade-Mark
10. Frequently asked questions concerning copyright issues 10.1 What is protected under the Copyright Act? Literary (whether in written, printed or digital form), musical and artistic works, cinematograph
L 111/16 Official Journal of the European Union 5.5.2009 DIRECTIVES DIRECTIVE 2009/24/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 April 2009 on the legal protection of computer programs (Codified
1. If a work is in the Public Domain, it means: A You can find it at a public library. B You can get it for free online. C You can copy it without getting Permission from anyone. D The Term of copyright
A Limited Copyright Exception for Digital Media Shifting Annex B Media shifting 1 refers to the practice of copying genuine copyright material from one medium to another, such as copying legitimate musical
THE INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADVISERS LONDON BRANCH Creative Industries Workshop Key IPR Issues Dr Rosanna Cooper, Principal, RT Coopers Telfords Yard, 6/8 The Highway London, E1W 2BS Tel: +44 207 488 2985
Martin Steiger Steiger Legal 1. Copyright, database rights and design rights 1.1 Overview Internet content can be protected by copyright law in Switzerland; however, there are almost no specific provisions
by KELLY L. MOFFATT The Canadian intellectual property regime comprises six federal statutes that have evolved in response to issues such as global technological developments, international treaties and
Photographs: copyright guidelines If you would like this document in an alternative format please ask staff for help. On request we can provide documents with a different size and style of font on a variety
Terms & Conditions Supply of Services In these Terms and Conditions we and our refers to Vanilla Active Limited, a limited liability company incorporated in England (registered number 06672476) with registered
License Agreement for Magento Extensions IMPORTANT-READ CAREFULLY: This End-User License Agreement ("EULA") is a legal agreement between you (either an individual or a single entity) and Codernia for the
CANADIAN ARTISTS REPRESENTATION / LE FRONT DES ARTISTES CANADIENS ADVISORY NOTE Copyright For Visual Artists By Sarah Yates, Garry Conway & Paul Sanderson, reprinted from Information for Artists: A Practical
Architects and Intellectual Property: Protecting Your Building Plans and Designs Michael Bampton, Partner 1 Introduction Architects are engaged to provide a wide range of services including preparing drawings,
intellectual property bulletin June 2012 copyright reform Bill C - 11 After several failed attempts, the federal government has finally passed copyright reform legislation, namely Bill C-11, the Copyright
European IPR Helpdesk Fact Sheet Intellectual Property considerations for business websites The European IPR Helpdesk is managed by the European Commission s Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized
UNIVERSITY COPYRIGHT OFFICE Do-It-Yourself & Online Course Material Readings Online is a service provided by the Library and the Copyright Office that makes copyright material readily available via the
Exceptions to copyright: Guidance for creators and copyright owners Intellectual Property Office is an operating name of the Patent Office October 2014 Guidance for creators and copyright owners 1 Copyright
Intellectual Property Rights in the USA Intellectual Property Office is an operating name of the Patent Office Contents Intellectual property rights in the USA What are intellectual property rights? International
SolarWinds Trademarks and Copyrights Guidelines The SolarWinds trademark and copyright guidelines are to assist SolarWinds partners and other SolarWinds authorized licensees, resellers, distributors, and
Home Support Network Terms and Conditions General 1.1 This Home Care site at www.homesupportnetwork.com.au ( Site ) is a shopping website where you can browse, select and order products advertised on the
Copyright Notice: Assignment of copyright Copyright Notice Number: 2/2014 Updated: November 2014 What is a Copyright Notice?... 1 Assignment of Copyright... 2 The basics... 2 Presumption of first ownership...
ASN Innovations in Kidney Education Contest 2015 Frequently Asked Questions 1. What is the ASN Innovations in Kidney Education Contest? ASN invites the kidney community to develop innovative teaching tools
Copyright Law : Its Academic Applicability and Implications by Fe Angela M. Verzosa Lecture presented at the Forum held at St. Thomas of Villanova Libraries of San Sebastian College-Recoletos de Cavite
COPYRIGHT POLICY 500 LEARNERS AND ACADEMIC PRACTICES Policy Statement Copyright is the right to reproduce in any form a work or parts of a work, to perform in public, or to publish an unpublished work.
GENERAL STATEMENT TONBRIDGE & MALLING BOROUGH COUNCIL INTERNET & EMAIL POLICY AND CODE 1.1 The Council recognises the increasing importance of the Internet and email, offering opportunities for improving
U.S. Intellectual Property Law: A Brief Introduction LeClairRyan Thomas M. Pitegoff 885 Third Avenue Sixteenth Floor New York, New York 10022 Phone: 212.634.5032 firstname.lastname@example.org WWW.LECLAIRRYAN.COM
BASIC NOTIONS ABOUT COPYRIGHT AND NEIGHBOURING RIGHTS 1) What is the object of copyright protection? 2) What kind of protection does copyright grant? 3) How can copyright be obtained? Are there any formalities?
The Creative Pathfinder Lesson 17 Worksheet: Intellectual Property 101 This Worksheet will help you understand the basics of intellectual property law, and give you some fundamental principles for protecting
Included: Overview Dos and Don ts Checklist Copyright Assignment Instructions Sample Copyright Assignment 1. Overview A company s ability to buy and sell property is essential to its long-term life and
Copyright Compliance for Electronic and Print Media Copyright is the right granted by law to an author or another creator to control use of the work created. The copyright law grants owners of copyright
The Australian College of Physical Education Policy Document ACPE Copyright Policy 1 Preamble The Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), and subsequent amendments, grants exclusive rights to copyright owners to use
MODULE 05 Copyright and Related Rights MODULE 05. Copyright and Related Rights OUTLINE LEARNING POINT 1: Basics of copyright 1. Definition of copyright 2. Requirements for copyright protection LEARNING
A Handbook on Copyright in India 2008 Nandita Saikia This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 India licence. You can: 1. print out as many copies of this
Ministry of Culture Training In cooperation with IP Key Monday 31 August 2015, Zhengzhou, Henan COPYRIGHT ENFORCEMENT TRENDS IN THE EU & INTERNATIONALLY Overview Part 1 Threats to the creative industries
- 1. Introduction...1-1.1. The scope of this briefing paper...1-1.2. "Software" defined...1-2. What is software copyright?...2-3. The Community Directive on software copyright...3-3.1. What does software
Your Choice Counselling. Website Legal Notice Important - this is a legal agreement between you and Your Choice Counselling. Registered office: 2 Seaford Close, Burseldon, Southampton, Hampshire SO31 8GL
ALERT: TRADE MARKS PROTECTING THE REPUTATION OF YOUR BUSINESS What is a Trade Mark? A trade mark is a sign used to distinguish your unique goods or services from those of other businesses. Sometimes called
CITRIX SYSTEMS, INC. SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT PLEASE READ THIS SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT CAREFULLY BEFORE DOWNLOADING, INSTALLING OR USING CITRIX OR CITRIX-SUPPLIED SOFTWARE. BY DOWNLOADING OR INSTALLING
Website - Terms and Conditions Welcome to our website. If you continue to browse and use this website you are agreeing to comply with and be bound by the following terms and conditions of use, which together
Exceptions to copyright: Research Intellectual Property Office is an operating name of the Patent Office October 2014 1 Research Copyright protects literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works as well
Copyright Lesson Plan by Laura Kaemming Topic: Copyright Laws Grade Level: Eighth Grade Objectives: 1. Students will be introduced to and develop a basic understanding of copyright laws. 2. Students will
EDUCATION ISSUES IN BILL C- 32 Submission to Canadian Parliament Canadian School Boards Association December 2010 2 Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION... 3 2. EDUCATION ISSUES IN BILL C- 32... 3 3. EDUCATIONAL
Terms and Conditions Terms and Conditions for Membership and Use, between Heritage Matrimonials and the Customer, and any Third Party. PLEASE READ THESE TERMS AND CONDITIONS CAREFULLY. BY USING THE HERITAGE
AVON MAITLAND DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE NO. 190 SUBJECT: COPYRIGHT Legal References: PPM - to be developed (PPM 16 - revoked); Canadian Copyright Act as updated by Copyright Modernization
COPYRIGHT GUIDELINES FOR RESEARCH STUDENTS Prepared for LCoNZ : Library Consortium of New Zealand by Tony Millett email@example.com September 2008 Available at http://www.lconz.ac.nz/ CONTENTS 1.
The goal of the New Mexico Highlands University (NMHU) Computer & Networking Services (CNS) Group is to support the University in the pursuit of its Mission Statement 1. These policies, guidelines, and
Hampstead Parochial CofE Primary School Data Protection Policy Spring 2015 1. Introduction and Scope 1.1 The Data Protection Act 1998 is the law that protects personal privacy and applies to any school
Information Systems Acceptable Use Policy for Learners 1. Introduction 1.1. Morley College is committed to providing learners with easy access to computing and photocopying facilities. However it needs
October 2014 iemasts Copyright, Data Protection and Complaints Policy iemasts abides by international copyright and data protection laws. Outlined below is a summary of our process including our complaints
Universal Terms of Service Agreement Moodle Clients The relationship between ELEARNING EXPERTS LLC and its clients is governed by this Universal Terms of Service Agreement. ELEARNING EXPERTS LLC BOX 1055
European IPR Helpdesk Fact Sheet Intellectual Property considerations for business websites July 2015 1 1. What elements of your website can be protected by intellectual property law?... 2 2. How to protect
Understanding copyright: the theory Andrew Braid Licensing and Copyright Compliance The British Library OUTLINE Brief introduction to copyright How copies can be made Recent changes How The British Library