1 THE INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADVISERS LONDON BRANCH Creative Industries Workshop Key IPR Issues Dr Rosanna Cooper, Principal, RT Coopers Telfords Yard, 6/8 The Highway London, E1W 2BS Tel: Fax: Website: or 17 October, 2006
2 Who We Are Introduction Overview of Intellectual Property Protection of Creative Arts Commercialisation of IPRs Our experience in Creative Arts Industry Conclusion
3 Who We Are
4 Who We Are Full Service Law Firm in the City of London Specialist areas: Media and Entertainment Law Intellectual Property Corporate Law Commercial Law Our Clients Include: Record Labels Publishers Production companies (TV, Film and Music) Authors, Musicians, Photographers and Designers Directors and Producers Web Developers WAP, Pod-casting and Phone-casting (Mobile Content) companies Agents
5 Who We Are Rapidly expanding in the UK Expanding into other jurisdictions Work with a number of organisations in the Media and Entertainment Industry Network of investors Our connections are perfectly suited for those in the Creative Arts
6 Overview of Intellectual Property
7 Overview of IPRs Intangible commercially valuable assets Getting the best value for your IPRs Registered and Unregistered rights IP protects an expression of an idea - not the actual idea Must be recorded in tangible form Various IPRs in one piece of work Territorial Protection
8 Overview of IPRs REGISTERED RIGHTS Patents = inventions, processes & products Trade marks = badge of business, logos, names, smells, sound Registered designs = functional designs including whole or parts of products e.g. graphic symbols or packaging + features of lines, contour, shape, materials or textures of the product itself or its ornamentation e.g. logos, packaging UNREGISTERED RIGHTS Know-how = trade secrets Copyright = literary works, including digital works, music, software, artistic works, logos, dance, mimes Sound recordings = sound Design rights =shape and configuration of a product Database rights = databases Brands - goodwill and reputation
9 IPR: COPYRIGHT What is copyright? Ownership Duration Test for Originality Copyright Infringement Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA) as amended
10 What is Copyright? Bundles of rights - to reproduce, rent, broadcast or to stop parties exploiting work Includes:- Original Literary works- books, articles, drawings, digital works, computer programs Original Musical works music Original Dramatic works- dance, mime Original Artistic works sculpture, photographs, logos Sound recordings sound, moving pictures Computer generated computer program No system of registration in UK- protected as soon as created and recorded
11 What is Copyright? Copyright and Regulated Rights Regulations 2003 New Copyright -Copyright works communicated to the public by electronic transmission or broadcasting A copyright owner can stop a substantial part of his work being communicated to the public by electronic transmission, distribution or broadcast without a licence or consent. This includes digital copying and contents of books, articles or graphics made available on websites.
12 What is Copyright? Fixation Recorded in Writing - for copyright to subsists in literary, dramatic or musical works they have to be recorded in writing Writing - Any form of notation or code, whether by hand or otherwise and regardless of the method by which or medium in or on which it is recorded E.g storing in a ROM, disk, other computer memory or machine readable medium Conventions reciprocal protection of works in convention countries Berne Convention no formalities required Universal Copyright Convention copyright notice [Name of Copyright Proprietor] [Year of Creation]
13 Ownership of Copyright Not a monopoly right Authorship and Ownership Cyprotex Discovery v University of Sheffield  Author - first owner of any copyright subsisting in a work Author - creator of the work is generally the author Author -individual, company or other incorporated body Employer First Owner of copyright - for literary or artistic works created by an employee in the course of employment Computer Generated Works author is the person by whom the arrangements necessary for the making of the computer generated work (films and sound recordings) Joint author work produced by the collaboration of two or more authors in which the contribution of each author is not distinct from the other authors
14 Originality Originality Test degree of skill and labour and judgement expended by the author or creator
15 Duration Copyright life of the author plus 70 years Printed Format of Publications - 25 years from the end of first year of publication e.g Magazine centre-spread layout Sound recordings 50 years from the end of first year of publication
16 Copyright Infringement Copyright Infringement under the CDPA right to stop a third party exploiting copyright work without permission copying, issuing copies of the work to the public Not infringement of earlier work Identical work created independently
17 IPR: COMPUTER PROGRAMS Copyright Infringement of Computer programreproduction in any form (require authorisation) right to stop a third party exploiting copyright work without permission copying, issuing copies of the work to the public Temporary or permanent reproduction by any means and in any form loading, displaying, transmission or storage Translation, adaptations or alteration Distribution in any form including rental
18 IPR: COMPUTER PROGRAMS Copyright Infringement - Computer program Exceptions if no contract no permission required to use the program for its intended use to make a back up copy (security) for observation and study decompilation conditions attached
19 Protection of Creative Arts
20 Why is IP relevant to Creative Arts? Must be able to protect works To stop infringement To realise commercial value i.e. commercialisation Brand recognition and maintenance Copyright in designs are protected - designs used for artistic purposes Costs of IP protection
21 Case Study M has written a script. He sent the entire script to W (a production company) for W to review. They agree to make a film. Film is made and shown in the cinema. Ready to distribute world-wide? What are the issues? Consider copyright issues Ownership of copyright? Footage? Music? Sound recordings Performance Rights? Mechanical Rights live recordings? Any trade mark issues? Distribution of rights? Clearance of Rights? Payment to M (see Commercialisation)
22 Music Copyright Mechanical Copyright Protection Society (MCPS) - Collection and distribution of royalties musical works professionally recorded Performing Rights Society (PRS) Established for composers, producers and authors of all music styles. Collects royalties and provides licences for broadcasting and cable performance Performing Arts Data Service Serves the theatre, film and TV industries and collects, documents, preserves and promotes the use of digital resources in theatre, dance, music, film and the broadcast arts MCPS-PRS Alliance
23 Commercialisation of IPRs
24 What can be done with IPR s? IPR s can be handled as any other asset: Sell (or Assignment) Purchase Mortgage Licence It is important to handle your IPR s correctly because they ensure that your work earns you money!
25 What is Meant by Licensing? Authorising a third party to license your Media Rights/Product: Market Sell Distribute Quality provisions in Licence e.g how product to be reproduced in a design Find Licensor/distributor or agent in the UK Royalties Negotiate levels of royalties No fixed royalties
26 What Can you License? In return for royalties - third party to license your product, IPR s (trade mark, copyright, design, patent, know how): Licence Agreement include all terms and conditions of licence Assignment sale or outright transfer of your intellectual property rights in return for a fee Valuation of IPRs Agreement
27 Legal Issues Confidentiality Agreements Head of Agreements non binding Exclusive or non-exclusive Agreements Registration of IPR s Scope of the Licence Terms Termination Warranties Indemnity Limitation of Liability Infringement of IPR s Improvements Competition Law Taxation Territory Jurisdiction
28 Commercial Issues Who is going to be appointed Finding a lawyer Royalty payment distribution or licensing agreement Distributor Payment Structure Quarterly payments Statements Audits Quality controls Performance Criteria Agent Performance Criteria
29 Ownership of IPR s Risk Management Packaging register as design, trade mark Names and logos register as trade marks Patents Obtain patents before going into territory Use Symbols -,, Websites Terms and Conditions drafted; notices; Assignment of IPR from designer to your business Insurance Insurance of IPRs
30 Our experience in this industry?
31 What experience do we have? Leading experts in IP Dedicated IP department which deals with all aspects of IP Handle many cases involving copyright infringement in the Media and Entertainment industry We have specialist knowledge in: Preparing agreements to License or Assign IPR s Advising on how to exploit IPR s for commercial gains Advising on how to prevent infringement of your IPR s Advising on how to avoid infringing IPRs
32 Film Production Extensive experience in advising and assisting on feature film production The following should be considered: Cast and crew agreements Who owns the IPR s in a particular constituent part of the film? Is the title protected by trade mark? Are all the IPR s in the film cleared before its release? What are the terms of the licence or assignment of the final cut? Potential problems with international release It is very important to obtain professional legal advice in the above areas it is easy to make a mistake! Problems with IPR s = Problems with the film!
33 Music Production Music videos production incorporate IPR s for both film and music Licences and assignments of IPR s are often complicated Clearance of IPRs
34 Music Video Production Expert advice by RT Coopers in the following: Drafting Agreements recording contracts remix agreements publishing agreements producer agreements actors agreement crew releases extras releases location agreement Dealing with clearance of IPRs Organising your receipt of royalties
35 Mobile Phones Creative Arts - Wallpapers, ringtones and video clips etc IPR s in mobile content have created a new area of law few firms specialise in this area The IPR s in mobile content are as important as any other IPR millions of people use phones everyday! The following should be considered: Have all the requisite licences or assignments been obtained prior to releasing the content on mobile networks? Do any agreements entered into cover your IPR s effectively? Does the use of a particular wallpaper/ringtones/video clip infringe the IPR s belonging to someone else? How can you protect yourself and your content?
37 Conclusion IPR s are a very serious consideration for those in the Media and Entertainment Industry Ensure you know what the consequences of your actions are! Protect your IPR s as you would any other business asset don t let yourself be caught out! Professional advice is crucial to staying on top of things
38 Further Information: RT Coopers Solicitors Telfords Yard, 6/8 The Highway London, E1W 2BS Tel: Fax: Website: or THANK YOU
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