Scores to support WJEC AS Music Notes

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1 Scores to support WJEC AS Music Notes Alun Guy Published with the support of WJEC s Teaching and Learning Resources Scheme Sponsored by the Welsh Assembly Government 1 J. S. Bach: Brandenburg Concerto No. 2, 1st Movement

2 CONTENTS PAGE Introduction 2 J. S. Bach: Brandenburg No. 2, 1st Movement Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor, 1st Movement 6 Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto, 1st Movement 9 Handel: Zadok the Priest 12 Haydn: Nelson Mass (Gloria; Quoniam Tu Solus; Credo) 15 Schubert: from Die Schöne Müllerin (Am Feierabend; Der Neugierige; Ungeduld) 22 Corelli: Sonata da Camera Op.2, No. 7 in F (Preludio; Allemanda; Corrente; Giga) 29 Beethoven: String Quartet in Bb Op.18, No. 6, 1st Movement 7 Brahms: Clarinet Sonata in Eb Op.120, No. 2, rd Movement 40 Duke Ellington (Black and Tan Fantasy; Take the A-Train) 49 Queen (Bohemian Rhapsody; Killer Queen) 55 Loesser: Guys and Dolls (Runyonland; Fugue for Tinhorns) 61 Bernstein: West Side Story (Tonight; Maria) 66 Boublil and Schönberg: Les Miserables (On My Own; One Day More) 71 Mervyn Burtch: from Three Welsh Folk Songs (Cysga di, fy mhlentyn tlws; Wrth fynd efo Deio i Dywyn) 75 Dilys Elwyn-Edwards: from Caneuon y Tri Aderyn (Y Gylfinir; Mae Hiraeth yn y Môr) 79 Caryl Parry Jones (Pan ddaw yfory; Y Nos yng Nghaer Arianrhod) 8 The Beatles (Yesterday; Hey Jude) 88 2

3 Introduction This anthology is written for students currently studying for the WJEC AS level music course. You will probably have followed the GCSE music course during years 10 and 11 and are familiar with the vocabulary used in the examination and in A Student s Guide to GCSE Music (Rhinegold). I realise that many of you will have successfully completed the GCSE course without being au fait with scores in staff notation. You share a love of music with us all. Don t worry too much about reading scores and analysing. These notes however will hopefully concentrate your mind on the basic forms and structures of the music. They are not meant to be an academic treatise for musicologists! The simplified diagrams have been included in a bid to demystify the analytical process (which sometimes can be confusing and a big turn off for some). The template used in these notes acts only as a guide for you: it is not an in-depth detailed analysis bar by bar, and was never intended as such from the outset. These notes do not second guess examination questions. Don t be disappointed if some examination questions are not dealt with directly and in detail in these notes. The examples of chords, modulations, harmony, composition techniques and devices etc. should be a starting point for further research. You should look for more examples of the above in the set works and recorded extracts chosen for study. Remember that you are allowed to take a copy of the anthology into the examination with you, with pencilled-in bar numbers. Not every score in the anthology has bar numbers. Remember when numbering bars that an anacrusis at the beginning of a piece of music is not bar 1. Bar 1 is the first complete bar. The notes on the Haydn Nelson Mass deal with three sections: Gloria (pages ), Quoniam Tu Solus (pages ) and Credo (pages ). There are references to certain aspects of instrumentation in some extracts, which can be clearly heard on the CD, although the scores are only piano reductions in the anthology. You are encouraged to study the works by listening carefully to them on the CD, in addition to studying the score. Good luck with your listening and research. Alun Guy 2

4 Introduction J. S. Bach: Brandenburg Concerto No. 2, 1st Movement This set of 6 concertos were dedicated to the Duke of Brandenburg They are called concerti grossi because of the accompanying ripieno (mainly strings and continuo) combined with a select group of soloists, the concertino. Bach loved experimenting with new sound combinations in these three movement compositions. It is worth noting that numbers and 6, however, do not have any solo instruments. Musical elements Form Quasi ritornello, but no clear cut distinction between ripieno and concertino. Both sections seem to play most of the time (tutti). Ritornello is a series of short themes reappearing (rondo-like) in various keys, with soloists (the concertino) playing episodes in between. Structure (Rit = ritornello; Con = concertino) Rit 1 Con 1 Rit 2 Con 2 Rit Con Rit 4 Con 4 F major F major F major F major C major C major C major C major Rit 5 Con 5 Rit 6 Rit 7 Con 7 Rit 8 Con 8 Rit 9/10 C major F major D minor D minor C major F major Bb major G minor Eb major C minor G minor G minor D minor A minor A minor F major Texture - Mainly dense Bach was the master of polyphony and contrapuntal writing. - Many examples of various motifs interacting simultaneously. Tonality - Home key: F major - Occasionally minor, e.g. bar 68 C minor; bar 88 D minor J. S. Bach: Brandenburg Concerto No. 2, 1st Movement

5 Examples of modulations: C major (dominant) bars D minor (relative minor) bars Bb major (subdominant) bars Eb major (flattened leading note) bar 65 C minor (dominant minor) bars G minor (supertonic) bars 75-8 A minor (mediant minor) bars Harmony Chords: - Diatonic - Dominant 7 th (root position) bar 51 (C7) - Dominant 7 th 4 (third inversion) bar Major triad 6 (first inversion) bar 72 Examples of composition techniques and devices - Rising sequence bars (Oboe) - Sequence bars -4 (Flute) - Sequence bars (solo Trumpet) - Falling sequence bars (Viola) - Syncopation bars 50-55; (Violin I ripieno) - Cadences: Perfect bars 8; 28; 9; 8; 9 - Imitation bars (solo Violin and Flute) - Arpeggio based bars 1-2 (Trumpet) - Reduced instrumentation bars (concertino and continuo) Instrumentation Concertino Soloists - Tromba: Trumpet (no valves in Bach s day). Written a 4 th lower than the sound. - Flauto (Flûte à bec): Recorder - Oboe - Violino: Violin Ripieno - Violin I - Violin II - Viola - Cello - Double Bass - Harpsichord/Cembalo continuo 4 J. S. Bach: Brandenburg Concerto No. 2, 1st Movement

6 Score indications Tasto solo (bars ): Harpsichord, play the notes without filling in harmonies all unisono: Cello/Bass and Harpsichord play in unison piano: softly pianissimo: very soft forte: loudly Points of interest Scintillating and brilliant counterpoint. Three-part counterpoint between Flute, Viola and Continuo bars 1-2. Continuous semiquaver/quaver movement throughout the movement in one of the solo or ripieno instruments. Four very different high register solo instruments contrasted in the concertino, but each instrument s melodic line is audible. Opening semiquaver motif in Continuo (bars 1-2) appears in other parts, e.g. Trumpet bars 19-20; Oboe bars The solo Violin introduces a new exclusive figure in bars 9-10 and all other solo instruments play it ripieno don t play this motif at all. (Oboe bars 1-14; Flute bars 17-18; Trumpet bars ) Imitation (bars 60-67) for all 4 soloists, using this exclusive figure (Flute, Violin, Oboe and Trumpet). Bach used cadence points to draw attention to new musical ideas. Use of 8 motifs, sometimes in concertino and sometimes in ripieno, mostly with an anacrusis. This concerto is the only one of the Brandenburgs to feature a Trumpet. Fanfare style motif in Trumpet (bars 1-2), and Continuo (bars 5-6). Running bass line in Continuo a device often used by Bach. Continuo given original concertino theme (bars 1-2) in bars and bars 88-89, as a relief from continuous quaver and semiquaver support. No speed or dynamic indications given on the score, but generally played Allegro and forte. 5 J. S. Bach: Brandenburg Concerto No. 2, 1st Movement

7 Introduction Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor, 1st Movement A symphony is a large-scale work for an orchestra, usually in four movements. The opening bars of this first movement contain one of the most famous orchestral motifs of all times. Beethoven followed the classical tradition of Haydn and Mozart by composing this movement in sonata form. Musical elements Form Sonata Structure Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda Subject 1 (1-24) Subject 2 (59-9) Codetta (94-124) Variety of keys. Using mainly 1 st subject material. Subject 1 ( ) Subject 2 (0-45) Codetta (46-7) Material derived from 1 st and 2 nd subjects. Tutti and antiphonal passages. Texture - Ranging from dense homophonic (bars ) to sparse (bars 6-82). Tonality - Home key: C minor Examples of modulations: Eb major (relative major) 2 nd subject F minor (subdominant minor) bar 10 G minor (dominant minor) bar 154 C major (tonic major) bar 195 Harmony Chords: - C minor tonic chord 5 (root position) bar Db major 6 (first inversion) bar 82 - Dominant 7 th chords bars ; Diminished 7 th chords bars 56; 00 6 Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor, 1st Movement

8 Examples of composition techniques and devices - Pedal (tonic) bars -47 (Cello & Bass) - Repetition bars (Violin I & II and Flutes) - Sequence bars (Violin I) - Cadences: Perfect bars ; Imperfect bars Pizzicato accompaniment bars (Viola, Cello, Bass) - Antiphonal answers bars ; (Strings & Woodwind) Instrumentation zu 2: both players play the same part in unison 1.: first player (principal) to play the part Flauti: Flutes Oboi: Oboes Clarinetti (Bb): Clarinets. Transposing instrument (written a 2 nd higher than the sound) Fagotti: Bassoons. Written in bass clef normally, but sometimes in tenor clef when bass part goes high and uses many ledger lines (e.g. bar 102) Corni (Eb): Horns. Transposing instrument (written a major 6 th higher than the sound) Trombe (C): Trumpets Timpani (C. G): Timpani tuned to C and G (tonic and dominant) Violino I & II: Violin I & II Viola: Viola (written in alto clef) Violoncello: Cello. Written in bass clef but sometimes in tenor clef when part goes high and uses many ledger lines (e.g. bars 8-9) Contrabasso: String/Double Bass (sounding 8 ve lower than written) Score indications Allegro con brio: Fast and vigorous Adagio: Slow Minim: 108 beats per minute tempo indication by composer or editor dolce: sweetly sf (sforzando): strong accent ff (fortissimo): very loud p (piano): soft pp (pianissimo): very soft cresc. (crescendo): gradually getting louder più: more sempre più: always more dimin. (diminuendo): gradually getting softer pizz. (pizzicato): pluck a string instrument arco: resume playing with the bow Points of interest Beethoven always has strong contrasts between the 1 st and 2 nd subjects of his symphonies. This movement exists entirely on the opening four note rhythmic motif (descending major rd ) and is given many new melodic shapes, contrapuntal applications and structural groupings by Beethoven. The four sections of this movement exposition, development, recapitulation and coda are almost identical in size and perfectly balanced musically. 7 Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor, 1st Movement

9 The scoring is fuller in the recapitulation, and the 2 nd subject is eight bars longer. Mini cadenza bar 268 (Oboe). This is a plaintive bar in the recapitulation section which takes the tension out of the performance. Although the structure/architecture of the movement is conventional, it is the originality of ideas and the brightness of energy and inspiration that mark this work out as one of the outstanding symphonies of the classical era. In Beethoven s nine symphonies, the exposition in the first movement is nearly always repeated. (Mendelssohn rejected this idea in his Violin Concerto). Sonata form evolved in the 18 th century and deals with the organisation of themes/subjects, their development and key relationships. The form has lasted so long and produced great masterpieces because it is so flexible and capable of great variation. Unusually, there is no real transition passage in the exposition or the recapitulation sections of this movement. The presence of a tonic pedal (bars -56) ensures that the music stays in the tonic key, C minor. These bars are also identical harmonically in the recapitulation section (bars ). It is the same ambiguous diminished 7 th chord in bars 56 and 00 respectively (with necessary enharmonic alterations) which effect the abrupt transitions. 8 Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor, 1st Movement

10 Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto, 1st Movement Introduction This violin concerto was written for Ferdinand David, a close friend of the composer, and premiered in 1845 in Leipzig. Musical elements Form Sonata Structure Exposition Development Recapitulation (1-226) (226-5) (5-528) Subject 1 (1-72) Variety of keys Subject 1 (5-51) Transition (72-11) Transition (226) Transition (51-77) Subject 2 (11-210) Subject 1 (240) Subject 2 (77-459) Codetta ( ) Cadenza (299) Codetta (459-47) Coda (47 528) Cadenza (bars 299-5) This used to be the point (at the end of a movement) in the concerto when the soloist was given a free hand to show off amazing technique and a virtuoso unaccompanied bravura style. Mendelssohn broke the classical tradition and wrote out his own cadenza for the soloist, placing it before the recapitulation rather than at the end of the movement. He used the cadenza as a bridge passage in this concerto between the development and the recapitulation sections. Texture - Light when accompanying soloist, but thicker with orchestral tutti when soloist is tacet, e.g. bars Tonality - Home key: E minor Examples of modulations: Exposition A minor (subdominant minor) bars G major (relative major) bar 11 Development A minor bar 226 G major bar 241 E minor bar 245 C major bar 248 A minor bar 251 E major (tonic major) bar 255 B major bar 282 E major (2 nd subject) bar 77 9 Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto, 1st Movement

11 Harmony Chords: - Dominant 7 th chords, e.g. bar Diminished 7 th chords, e.g. bar 44 Examples of composition techniques and devices - Pedal (dominant) bar (Cellos and Basses) - Pedal (tonic) bar 48 (Trumpets, Horns and Timpani) - Imitation bars (Flutes and Oboes) - Syncopated accompaniment bars (Violins II, Violas) - Decorated arpeggios bar 11 (solo Violin) - Reduced scoring bar 11 (Flutes, Clarinets and solo Violin) - Cadences: Perfect (in G major), e.g. bars (Strings) - Pizzicato accompaniment bars (Strings) - Rubato/Ad lib bars (solo Violin) - Sequence bars 59-60; (solo Violin) - Double stopping bars (Violins I) Instrumentation zu 2: both players play the same part in unison Flauti: Flutes Oboi: Oboes Clarinetti in A: Clarinets. Transposing instrument Fagotti: Bassoons Corni in E: Horns. Transposing instrument Trombe in E: Trumpets. Transposing instrument Timpani in E-H: Timpani tuned to E and B (tonic and dominant) Violino principale: solo Violin Violino: Violin Viola: Viola Violoncello: Cello Contrabasso: String/Double Bass. Transposing instrument (sounding 8 ve lower than written) Score indications Allegro molto appassionato: Fast tempo with much passion Points of interest Opening theme played by the Violin soloist is played wholly on E string, well above the stave. All movements are linked together, each one following on after the previous one. Combined classical structure with great romantic feeling. Soloist and orchestra begin almost together. No repeat of exposition as in classical concerti, where there was usually an orchestral exposition followed by a repeat of the section with the soloist, where the themes were shared. Effective musical balance between soloist and orchestra. Variety of emotions passion and tranquillity constantly changing. Dramatic writing contrasted with proportioned lyrical melodies. Florid, flowing melodic lines. Focus changes constantly between soloist and orchestra. Cadenza not wholly virtuosic, but part florid. 10 Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto, 1st Movement

12 Further information SONATA FORM A PLAN OF THE FIRST MOVEMENT EXPOSITION DEVELOPMENT RECAPITULATION SUBJECT I E minor Transition Codetta Transition Codetta SUBJECT II G major VARIETY OF KEYS SUBJECT I E minor SUBJECT II E major CADENZA A minor E minor CODA E minor CONCERTO FOR THE VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA E MINOR Opus 64 MENDELSSOHN 11 Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto, 1st Movement

13 Handel: Zadok the Priest Introduction In the Book of Chronicles (Old Testament), Solomon is anointed King upon the death of his father, King David, by Nathan the prophet and Zadok the Priest. Handel, Master of the King s Music since 1712, composed this anthem for the coronation of King George II in Westminster Abbey in It is symbolic of King Solomon s biblical coronation. This English Baroque anthem was originally composed for 7 parts and an orchestra, but is often found arranged for 4 voices (SATB). Musical elements Form It is in three linked sections: 1. Zadok the Priest 2. And all the People Rejoiced. God save the King Structure st section: Introduction (Instrumental) Zadok the Priest 2 nd section: And all the People Rejoiced rd section: God save the King Texture 1 st section: Mainly light/sparse in opening orchestral introduction. Short homophonic choral statement based on the opening harmonies of the orchestral introduction. 2 nd section: Homophonic, based on legato lines in the chorus with dotted rhythms in accompaniment. Addition of 4 part choir gives wider dimension. Brass and Timpani at cadence points thicken the texture. rd section: Ternary form (ABA) interweaving of 4 linked ideas. Contrapuntal writing gives a more dense texture. Tonality - Home key: D major Examples of modulations: G major (subdominant) bars 4-5; A major (dominant) bars 7-8; B minor (relative minor) bars 49-52; F# minor (mediant minor) bars Handel: Zadok the Priest

14 Harmony - Diatonic/Consonant - Chromatic harmonies - Mainly root position and first inversions - Tonic and dominant mainly in middle section Chords: - Tonic chord 5 (root position) bar 1 - A minor 6 (first inversion) bar - D major 6 (second inversion) bar Dominant 7th 4 (third inversion) bar 12 2 Examples of composition techniques and devices - Sequence bars (Vl II); (Sopranos); 92-9 (Altos and Tenors) - Repetition bars 4-8 (accompaniment); 6-65 (all parts) - Pedal bars 6-8; Ostinato bars 2-9; 41-45; (bass of accompaniment) - Cadences: Perfect bars 5-6; 4-44; 9-94 Imperfect bars 28-0 Plagal bars Instrumentation - 2 Oboes - Trumpets - Strings - Continuo (Organ/Harpsichord) Score indications Andante maestoso: Moderately slow and majestic Allegro: Quick and bright Adagio: Very slow A tempo ordinario: Ordinary or moderate time p (piano): quiet f (forte): loud ff (fortissimo): very loud cres. (crescendo): getting louder Points of interest Handel s use of block/homophonic harmony for clear enunciation of words, e.g. bars 2-29 and Types of accompaniment: (i) Semiquaver broken chords bars 1-29 (ii) Dotted quaver and semiquaver figures bars -59 (iii) Running semiquavers in rd section bars (iv) Secco (dry) quavers bars 92 and 9 1 Handel: Zadok the Priest

15 Descending bass line in introduction and bars Orchestral bridge bars Imitative style (modulating from tonic to dominant, I V). Melismatic vocal style (many notes on one syllable Amen), e.g. bars (bass choral part). Opening chordal sequence in instrumental introduction (bars 1-8) repeated in bars 2-0 with the voices. Repetition of words, e.g. bars 4-52 Rejoiced. Further information 14 Handel: Zadok the Priest

16 Haydn: Nelson Mass Introduction Haydn wrote at least 12 choral masses which were influenced by Neopolitan operatic styles and the Vienneses antiphonal choral tradition. This mass (number 9) was composed in 1798 and uses the Latin words of the Catholic service. It is joyful and probably Haydn s most popular mass. There are many compositional techniques, devices, harmonies and points of interest which naturally are common to all three choruses. Gloria Gloria in excelsis Deo, et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis. (Glory to God on the highest, and on earth, peace and good will to all men.) Musical elements Form Solo & Choir / Vocal trio / Chorus / Solos / Chorus / Solos / Vocal quartet / Chorus Structure Soprano soloist and choir (SATB) in repetition of motifs. Homophonic choral style. D major Solo trio: Bass, Tenor and Soprano. New solo motif sung in imitation. Less tension now in accompaniment of strings only. E minor (21) Choir sing in unison with orchestra stepwise chromatic progressions. E minor F# minor A major Alto soloist (first appearance) with opening theme, but no repetition from choir. Soprano soloist with theme. A major B minor Choir with opening theme (rhythm changed to dotted). No Soprano soloist this time. Tenor & Bass soli with motif (bar 16). Quartet of soloists using part of motif (bar 16). Choral Coda. Mainly tonic and dominant harmonies, using opening rhythmic pattern. D major Tonic major/minor D minor D major D major 15 Haydn: Nelson Mass

17 Texture - Sparse with soloists - Dense with choir - Homophonic - Fluid Tonality - Home key: D major Examples of modulations: E minor (supertonic) bar 21 A major (dominant) bar 42 B minor (relative minor) bar 62 D minor (tonic minor) bar 81 Harmony Chords: - Diatonic - Mainly root position and first inversions - Subdominant (root position) bar Tonic (root position) bar Dominant 7 th (root position) bar Dominant 7 th (first inversion) bars 11 1 ; 29,4 ; 41 - Diminished 7 th bars ; 4 ; 5 Examples of composition techniques and devices - Repetition bars 1-4 (opening Soprano soloist motif repeated by choir); bar 16 (Bass, repeated by the Tenor imitative) - Pedal bars 15-18; 21-24; Cadences: Perfect bars 2; 50; 62; Cadential: 6 5 cadence bars 2-; 14-15; Antiphonal answers between soloist and choir bars Sequence bars (Soprano soloist) - Appoggiatura in vocal part bars 81; 84 (Tenor soloist) Instrumentation - Trumpets - Timpani - Organ - Strings - Mixed Choir - Solo Quartet (SATB) Score indications Allegro: Quick fz (forzato): forced sound p (piano): softly 16 Haydn: Nelson Mass

18 Points of interest Common time. Nature of accompaniment changes (tutti) in intensity with chorus. Lighter orchestration (strings) when soloists sing. Use of soloists (quartet) and choir intertwining without distinct sections for soloists and choir (as with Mozart masses). Excellent examples of compositional symmetry, where thematic material from this section is also used in the Quoniam. Short orchestral bridges between soloists bars 50-51; 54-55; 60-61; Haydn s arpeggaic upper instrumental writing, e.g. bars 15-18; Upward scalic semiquavers with opening of choral phrases bars ; 71; 99; 100 Quoniam Tu Solus Quoniam tu solus, solus sanctus. (For Thou alone art holy.) Tu solus altissimus. (Only Thou art most high.) Musical elements Form Solo & Choir / Choral bridge / Choral fugue / Vocal quartet / Coda Structure Soprano soloist and choir (SATB) in repetition of motifs. Homophonic choral style. Repetition of bars 1-15 of the Gloria, but different words. Choral bridge passage Based mainly on tonic and dominant chords. Less tension now. Accompaniment of strings only. First fugal entry by choir (Bass). Choir sing a four-voice fugue, with each voice stating the subject in various keys. This choral fugue contains answers and counter subjects (see below) with orchestral support playing the vocal parts. Solo quartet returns with imitation of the stepwise motif previously used by Haydn in the Gloria (bars 16 and 78). Bass, Tenor and Alto enter in that order, whilst the Soprano has a more elaborate rococo/florid style solo passage. Tutti Coda Orchestral, soloists and choral flourish mixture of polyphonic and homophonic styles. Upward climax, ending with brass and timps using typical classical rhythmic motif of quavers and semiquavers (bars 80-82). D major D major D major D major D major 17 Haydn: Nelson Mass

19 Texture - Sparse with soloists - Dense with choir - Homophonic - Polyphonic - Fluid Tonality - Home key: D major Examples of modulations: B minor (relative minor) bar E minor (supertonic minor) bar 44 Harmony Chords: - Diatonic - Mainly root position bar First inversion bar Tonic (root position) bar Subdominant (root position) bar Dominant 7 th (root position) bar 9 - Dominant 7 th (first inversion) bars 5 1 ; 6 1 ; 11 1 ; Dominant 7 th (second inversion) bar 1 - Dominant 7 th (third inversion) bar 5 Examples of composition techniques and devices - Repetition opening Soprano soloist motif repeated by choir (bars 1-4), with minor rhythmic changes - Tonic pedal bars 15-20; ; (orchestra) - Cadences: Perfect bars 15; 81; 82 - Cadential: 6 5 cadence bar 2,4 4 - Antiphonal answers between soloist and choir bars Syncopated accompaniment (right hand) bars Sequence bars in Soprano, Alto and orchestral accompaniment - Chromatic harmonic progressions bars Countersubject continued by Basses in bars (Amen) against fugal entry of the Tenors Fugue: A contrapuntal composition based on a melody/subject/voice, heard in Bass, Tenor, Alto and Soprano at the beginning (bar 22). They all pass the melodic baton from one to the other. The Bass (bar 22) starts on the dominant (5 th ) and the Tenor (bar 24) on the tonic. The opening interval of a 2 nd with the Bass changing to an interval of a rd with the Tenor, similarly with the Alto (bar 26) and Soprano (bar 28). These answers by the Tenor and the Soprano are called tonal answers (because they are not exactly note for note). When they are exactly note for note, they are called real answers. The orchestra parts mainly double the choral parts in the fugue. 18 Haydn: Nelson Mass

20 Counter melody (subject): A new melody, not as important, played at the same time as the melody. Instrumentation - Trumpets - Timpani - Organ - Strings - Mixed Choir - Solo Quartet (SATB) Score indications Allegro: Quick and bright Tutti: Everyone viz soloists and choir Points of interest Rococo/florid style evident in Haydn s orchestral and choral writing. Melismatic writing for Soprano on Amen bars 64-71; Stretto (tight/narrow) fugal entries from bar 44-61, when other voices enter with the melody before the previous one has finished! Orchestral accompaniment in the fugue moves mainly in walking quavers. Credo Credo in unum Deum Patrem omnipotentum, factorem coeli et terrae. (I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth.) Musical elements Form Intro / Chorus / Orchestral bridge / Chorus / Orchestral bridge / Chorus / Coda Structure Orchestral unison introduction with much stepwise movement played staccato. Homophonic style. D major Canon 2 in 1 at the fifth. Using first six notes of orchestral introduction. Vocal lines are subsumed in the orchestral accompaniment, which is more polyphonic in style. Orchestral bridge passage/ interlude. Canon continues with choir, but starting now on the third beat of the bar. A major Orchestral bridge passage/ interlude. Canon 2 in 1 continues, using fragments of bars More chromatic now with much use of sequence. Orchestral accompaniment in upper parts with continuous quaver movement. Choral coda now in SATB harmony for the only time in the chorus. 19 Haydn: Nelson Mass

21 Texture - Homophonic, e.g. bars Polyphonic, e.g. bars 1-47 Tonality - Home key: D major Examples of modulations: A major (dominant) bar 28 B minor (relative minor) bar 49 Harmony - Many chromatic harmonies in the orchestral accompaniment Chords: - Diatonic - Mainly root position - First inversion bar 14 - Second inversion bar Tonic (root position) bar Subdominant (root position) bar Dominant 7 th (root position) bar Dominant 7 th (first inversion) bar 77 4 Examples of composition techniques and devices - Suspensions bar 29 (9-8) - Sequence bars 51-54; (choral parts) - Auxiliary notes, passing notes and arpeggi quavers in accompaniment, e.g. bars Canon: A compositional device in which a melody in one part is repeated note for note in another part, while the melody of the first part continues to unfold (an overlapping of melodies). Canon 2 in 1: Two voices sing what could be sung by one voice. Sopranos and Tenors begin on tonic, then Altos and Bass begin a bar later, 5 notes lower. Instrumentation - Trumpets - Timpani - Organ - Strings - Mixed Choir Score indications Allegro con spirito: Quick with much vigour 20 Haydn: Nelson Mass

22 Points of interest It begins with orchestral unison playing and ends with choral unison. Split common time, i.e. two beats to the bar. Haydn emphasises his belief in one God by utilising the one theme sung in unison. The appoggiatura bar 9 (accompaniment). The turn ~ bar 1 2 (accompaniment). The trill tr bar 18 1 (accompaniment). 21 Haydn: Nelson Mass

23 Schubert: Die Schöne Müllerin (The Beautiful Maid of the Mill) When poetry and music together came down to Earth they entered the soul of Franz Schubert. Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (famous German lieder singer) Introduction Lieder is the German name for a song. Schubert ( ) wrote over 600 songs, mainly romantic and happy. This song cycle, composed when Schubert was 26 years old, consists of 20 songs. A song cycle is a group of interconnected songs performed in sequence on a central theme, similar to Pink Floyd s The Wall. Normally, all the poetry and music are by the same poet and composer. This cycle is about a love triangle of a huntsman and a young happy wanderer s unrequited love for the Miller s daughter, tracing the young man s emotional journey from happiness to despair. Musical elements Form Ternary Structure Texture - Light - Chordal accompaniment Tonality - Home key: A minor Examples of modulations: E major (dominant) bars A major (tonic major) bars C major (relative major) bars D minor (subdominant minor) bars Harmony 5. Am Feierabend (After Work) Intro Piano Section A Voice and Piano Section B Voice and Piano Section A Voice and Piano Chords: - Diatonic arpeggaic/broken chords, e.g. bars 7-26 (right hand accompaniment) - Dominant 7 th (first inversion) bar 9 - Major & minor chords (root position and first inversion) bar 1 Coda Voice and Piano 22 Schubert: Die Schöne Müllerin

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